Cooper, Susan Fenimore
Susan Fenimore Cooper 1813-1894
American essayist, novelist, and short story writer.
Credited as the first female nature writer in America, Cooper is best known for Rural Hours (1850), a journal based on her observations of nature and community life written over the course of two years in rural Cooperstown, New York. Cooper was a self-effacing woman who rejected notions of equality for women, and as the devoted daughter of James Fenimore Cooper, she was often overshadowed by her more famous father.
The second child of Susan De Lancey and James Fenimore Cooper, Susan Cooper was born in Scarsdale, New York, on April 17, 1813. Her older sister Elizabeth died soon after Cooper was born, and a few months later the family moved to Cooperstown, the village founded by Cooper's paternal grandfather. It was here that Cooper's two sisters, Caroline and Anne, were born and Cooper's father began his literary career. The family, which grew to include another daughter and two sons, one of whom died at the age of two, moved to New York City in 1822 and Cooper was enrolled in private school. From 1826 to 1833 the Coopers lived abroad, based in Paris, but traveling throughout Europe. During this period Cooper attended a boarding school in France and was privately tutored during the two years that the family spent in Italy. She was educated in both America and European literature, was skilled in languages and the arts, and gained a basic understanding of botany and zoology. The family again took up residence in New York City when they returned from Europe and then permanently settled in Cooperstown three years later.
Cooper and her father were very close; she served as his literary secretary and later as his editor. It is believed that the senior Cooper discouraged his daughter from marrying by finding every potential suitor—the inventor Samuel F. B. Morse among them—unworthy of Susan. Although Cooper wrote a novel and numerous stories, biographical sketches, and essays focused on nature, her own career always took second place to that of her father's. After his death, she took charge of his literary estate and reputation, editing his diaries and unpublished articles and writing introductions to the reprints of his many novels. Cooper also edited and annotated an American edition of nature writer John Leonard Knapp's Country Rambles in England, or Journal of a Naturalist (1853). In addition, she assembled and edited a biography of missionary William West Skiles and the volume of folklore The Rhyme and Reason of Country Life (1854). Despite her literary prowess, Cooper was never given to self-promotion, so she was not as rigorous in securing her own literary reputation as she was in sustaining her father's. As a result, most of her stories and essays were never collected and published beyond their initial appearance in popular magazines.
In addition to her literary pursuits, Cooper devoted herself to a variety of philanthropic causes. Using the skills and social contacts she had acquired while managing her father's literary affairs, Cooper became an effective fund-raiser for a wide variety of community projects. She was instrumental in founding a hospital, a school for under-privileged children, a charity home for poor families, and an orphanage that served as many as one hundred children. Cooper died December 31, 1894, in her sleep.
Cooper's first major publication is a domestic novel, Elinor Wyllys; or, The Young Folk of Longbridge (1846), which she published with some assistance from her father. In the tradition of nineteenth-century sentimental fiction, Cooper's story involves an unattractive but virtuous country girl as the title character. Elinor is an orphan whose betrothed travels to Europe, falls in love with her more attractive friend, and abandons Elinor, only to be abandoned himself by the friend. He eventually returns, however, and he and Elinor are reconciled. The novel was not as well received as other works of domestic fiction.
Cooper's most famous text is Rural Hours, a seasonal nature journal consisting of a year's worth of observations of the flora and fauna of upstate New York and the community life of the village of Cooperstown. Like Henry David Thoreau's Walden, to which it is frequently compared, Rural Hours was condensed from journal entries that actually covered two years of observations and notes. Although Cooper's book appeared four years earlier than Thoreau's, it has been overshadowed by the later work. The two nature journals differ in their approach to the relationship between humans and the natural world and the degree to which the authors tend to anthropomorphize natural phenomena. According to Rochelle Johnson (see Further Reading), “Thoreau's Walden tends toward exploring nature's symbolic meanings for humans. Nature as it is represented in Rural Hours, however, has more autonomy: its meaning exceeds its reflection of human needs and values.” Johnson cites as evidence of Thoreau's “more anthropocentric imagination” his famous passage on loons—wherein he attributes to the birds his own love of Walden Pond—and compares it to Cooper's passage on loons, which consists of a description of their behavior and patterns with no human-centered explanation offered. Vera Norwood, however, suggests that Cooper also tended to anthropomorphize wild creatures, particularly birds, with which she felt an especially strong affinity. According to Norwood, “she gave the birds' home a domestic arrangement similar to her own,” and often used the exemplary behavior of mother birds as models for human mothers.
Although her novel was poorly received, Cooper's Rural Hours was well known in its time and is still considered by many critics to be her masterpiece and only noteworthy work. Several scholars, among them Anna K. Cunningham, have lamented the fact that, despite her considerable talent and extensive literary background, Cooper was apparently unable to produce anything of equal merit throughout the remainder of her long career. Cunningham lists the other texts in Cooper's bibliography, but dismisses them all as “mere word-chopping, in no way comparable to the freshness, grace and originality of Rural Hours.” Lucy B. Maddox has also considered Cooper's failed potential, suggesting that the young author was fearful of competing with her father. Maddox notes that although Cooper published her own work anonymously or under a pseudonym, she signed her full name to the introductions she wrote for her father's works. Nonetheless, Rural Hours was enormously popular at the time of its publication, and had gone through six printings before the more famous Walden reached its second. It fell out of favor later in the nineteenth century and throughout most of the twentieth. However, interest in environmental writing in general and in Rural Hours in particular has increased dramatically in recent years. A new edition of the work appeared in 1998 along with a number of critical essays, most praising Cooper as one of the first American environmentalists and the first American woman to write essays on nature. Richard M. Magee credits Cooper with combining the sentimental elements of her domestic fiction with the environmental and community concerns of her nature writing to create a new subgenre he calls “sentimental ecology.” Magee suggests that the enduring value of Cooper's work may be found in the way “she uses her domestic voice to convince us of the intellectual and moral value of the landscape and the responsibility we have to perpetuate this value.”
Elinor Wyllys; or, The Young Folk of Longbridge. A Tale [as Amabel Penfeather] (novel) 1846
Rural Hours. By a Lady [anonymous] (journal) 1850; revised and enlarged 1887
The Rhyme and Reason of Country Life [editor] (folklore) 1854
Rural Rambles. By a Lady [editor] (essays) 1854
Mount Vernon, a Letter to the Children of America (essay) 1859
“Small Family Memories” (memoirs) 1922
Anna K. Cunningham (essay date July 1944)
SOURCE: Cunningham, Anna K. “Susan Fenimore Cooper—Child of Genius.” New York History 25 (July 1944): 339-50.
[In the following essay, Cunningham provides an overview of Cooper's writing career, attempting to explain her status as a minor figure in nineteenth-century American literature despite her considerable talent and early promise.]
In the summer of 1813 young James Cooper (the Fenimore was not formally added until an act of the New York State Legislature in 1826) drove with his wife and infant daughters, Elizabeth and Susan Augusta, from Mamaroneck up to Cooperstown, the settlement founded by his father, Judge William Cooper. James Cooper brought his little...
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Lucy B. Maddox (essay date June 1988)
SOURCE: Maddox, Lucy B. “Susan Fenimore Cooper and the Plain Daughters of America.” American Quarterly 40, no. 2 (June 1988): 131-46.
[In the following essay, Maddox examines Cooper's relationship with her famous father and the way it informed her writings, particularly her novel, Elinor Wyllys, and her nature journal, Rural Hours.]
The story of the way James Fenimore Cooper began his career as a novelist has by now entered the folklore of American literature. Readers who first encounter Cooper in an anthology are likely to learn from the introduction that his first novel was written in response to his wife's challenge: to write something better and more...
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Vera Norwood (essay date 1993)
SOURCE: Norwood, Vera. “Pleasures of the Country Life: Susan Fenimore Cooper and the Seasonal Tradition.” In Made from this Earth: American Women and Nature, pp. 25-53. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.
[In the following essay, Norwood discusses Cooper's entry into the male-dominated arena of nature writing, the specific gender issues she brought to the genre, and her continuing influence on women's nature writing well into the twentieth century.]
We are none of us very knowing about the birds in this country, unless it be those scientific gentlemen who have devoted their attention especially to such subjects. The same remark...
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Rochelle Johnson (essay date 1999)
SOURCE: Johnson, Rochelle. “James Fenimore Cooper, Susan Fenimore Cooper, and the Work of History.” In James Fenimore Cooper: His Country and His Art, Papers from the 1999 Cooper Seminar (no. 12), edited by Hugh C. MacDougall, pp. 41-5. Oneonta, N.Y.: The State University of New York College at Oneonta, 1999.
[In the following excerpt, Johnson asserts that Susan Fenimore Cooper's writing reflects a desire to preserve the natural environment for its cultural and historical significance, while her father's works suggest an acquiescence to the necessary loss of landscape in the name of progress.]
In the Introduction to her 1853 edition of John Leonard Knapp's...
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Rochelle Johnson (essay date 2000)
SOURCE: Johnson, Rochelle. “Walden, Rural Hours, and the Dilemma of Representation.” In Thoreau's Sense of Place: Essays in American Environmental Writing, edited by Richard J. Schneider, pp. 179-93. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2000.
[In the following essay, Johnson compares Cooper's nature journal with Thoreau's Walden, attempting to account for the very different response each received from American readers.]
Mere facts & names & dates communicate more than we suspect.
—Henry David Thoreau's Journal
When Barry Lopez, surely one of this century's...
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Nina Baym (essay date 2001)
SOURCE: Baym, Nina. “Susan Fenimore Cooper and Ladies' Science.” In American Women of Letters and the Nineteenth-Century Sciences, pp. 73-90. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2001.
[In the following essay, Baym depicts Cooper's nature writing as a means to present to women readers a rural life that reflects an educated, class-conscious, progressive society.]
Susan Fenimore Cooper's Rural Hours (1850) showed how scientific knowledge contributed to an ideal of gracious country living for women.1 The book's anonymous publication “by a Lady”—at a time when anonymous authorship had gone out of style—quaintly made the point that the...
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Richard M. Magee (essay date 2001)
SOURCE: Magee, Richard M. “Sentimental Ecology: Susan Fenimore Cooper's Rural Hours.” In Such News of the Land: U.S. Women Nature Writers, edited by Thomas S. Edwards and Elizabeth A. De Wolfe, pp. 27-36. Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 2001.
[In the following essay, Magee examines Cooper's role as one of the earliest American nature writers, claiming that she combined elements of domestic fiction and natural history to create a sub-genre that Magee calls “sentimental ecology.”]
Susan Fenimore Cooper, the daughter of the famous novelist, was an early voice in the tradition of American nature writing, publishing her nature journal Rural...
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Rochelle Johnson and Daniel Patterson (essay date 2001)
SOURCE: Johnson, Rochelle and Daniel Patterson. Introduction to Susan Fenimore Cooper: New Essays on Rural Hours and Other Works, edited by Rochelle Johnson and Daniel Patterson, pp. xi-xxvii. Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 2001.
[In the following excerpted introduction, Johnson and Patterson provide a detailed overview of Cooper's career, including a discussion of some of the author's more obscure works.]
It was the tremendous swell of interest in environmental writing that provided the conditions needed for a new edition of Susan Fenimore Cooper's Rural Hours in 1998.1 However, Cooper herself would not have missed the irony that our...
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Duncan Faherty (essay date 2001)
SOURCE: Faherty, Duncan. “The Borderers of Civilization: Susan Fenimore Cooper's View of American Development.” In Susan Fenimore Cooper: New Essays on Rural Hours and Other Works, edited by Rochelle Johnson and Daniel Patterson, pp. 109-26. Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 2001.
[In the following essay, Faherty illustrates Cooper's advocacy of landscape and emerging New World culture as primary influences upon American architectural development through a discussion of Rural Hours and “A Dissolving View.”]
Within her best-known work, Rural Hours (1850), and in an important but long-neglected essay “A Dissolving View” (1852),...
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Jessie Ravage (essay date 2001)
SOURCE: Ravage, Jessie. “In Response to the Women at Seneca Falls: Susan Fenimore Cooper and the Rightful Place of Woman in America.” In Susan Fenimore Cooper: New Essays on Rural Hours and Other Works, edited by Rochelle Johnson and Daniel Patterson, pp. 249-65. Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 2001.
[In the following essay, Ravage surveys Cooper's conservative response to the women's suffrage movement, detailing the subtle ways in which the author reinforces traditional female roles in Rural Hours.]
The July 14, 1848, number of the Seneca County Courier contained the following short announcement:
SENECA FALLS CONVENTION...
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Kimball, Sue Laslie. “Susan Augusta Fenimore Cooper.” In American National Biography, Vol. 5, edited by John A. Garraty and Mark C. Carnes, pp. 460-61. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Brief biographical sketch of Cooper's family life, education, and writing career.
Allibone, S. Austin. “Miss Susan Fenimore Cooper.” In A Critical Dictionary of English Literature and British and American Authors Living and Deceased, Vol. 1, p. 427. 1858. Reprint, Detroit: Gale Research, 1965.
Contains a brief entry on Cooper, including excerpts from contemporary reviews of...
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