Causes and Symptoms (Magill’s Medical Guide, Sixth Edition)
Strokes produce damage to portions of the brain as a result of decreased blood supply. Strokes are commonly known as cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). Symptoms of strokes will vary depending on the part of the brain that is affected. Resulting speech disorders may include aphasia (loss of the ability to speak) or dysarthria (difficulty in speaking). A sudden weakness or numbness of one side of the body is known as hemiparesis or hemiplegia. The eyes can also be involved. A dimness or transient loss of vision, particularly in one eye, is called amaurosis fugax. Occasionally, it can involve the same portion of the visual field in both eyes. Other symptoms of stroke may include dizziness, unsteadiness, sudden falls, headaches, confusion, or stupor. Coma is less commonly involved in a stroke.
Predisposing factors to strokes include hypertension(high blood pressure), diabetes, high cholesterol, smoking, atherosclerotic disease in other portions of the body (such as the heart or legs), and a previous or family history of strokes or transient ischemic attacks. Gender and age are also associated with the incidence of strokes.
In cerebrovascular disease, atherosclerosis affects the arteries that circulate blood to the brain. The brain receives blood from two major sets of arteries. The carotid arteries, in the front of the neck, supply the anterior (front) portions of the brain. The vertebral arteries travel through the...
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Treatment and Therapy (Magill’s Medical Guide, Sixth Edition)
Strokes and TIAs often occur quickly and without warning. The best treatment for them is preventive behavior to avoid the atherosclerotic disease leading to such events. When a stroke or TIA is suspected, however, a complete history and physical examination is usually the first component of diagnosis. Eliciting symptoms and noting significant risk factors and findings upon physical examination will help a physician determine the primary area of the brain affected, schedule the appropriate tests for further diagnosis, and choose the best course of therapy.
Because of the high incidence of death and disability associated with strokes, a variety of diagnostic tests have been developed since the 1950’s. One of the oldest noninvasive methods is the directional Doppler test. A Doppler device employs a probe with one or two piezoelectric crystals. An ultrasonic signal using a frequency of 2 to 5 megahertz (MHz) is sent into the body. Movement of red blood cells causes a shift in the frequency of the signal that is transmitted back. The amount of shift is proportional to the speed of blood flow. This device can also be used to determine the direction of blood flow. By listening with a continuous-wave Doppler over a branch of the ophthalmic artery at the corner of the eye and performing certain compression maneuvers on the arteries that supply the face, information regarding possible collateral pathways can be obtained...
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Perspective and Prospects (Magill’s Medical Guide, Sixth Edition)
Stroke is the third-leading cause of death in the United States, with approximately 158,000 deaths annually. There are 700,000 strokes annually, and about one-fourth of all nursing home patients are permanently impaired from strokes. These statistics have a great impact on the amount of money spent annually on care for victims of strokes.
Since the 1960’s, the death rate from strokes in the United States has decreased significantly, by about 60 percent. Control of blood pressure and diet, the development of new drugs and diagnostic techniques, and the advent of cardiovascular surgery in the early 1950’s have contributed to these results. Unfortunately, strokes are still prevalent given the extent of atherosclerotic disease in the American population, which is largely attributed to a high-fat diet. Autopsies of U.S. soldiers killed in the Korean and Vietnam Wars demonstrated evidence that atherosclerosis begins at a very early age, often by age eighteen. Atherosclerosis is more prevalent in males. Females have more protection until the onset of the menopause. Within five years of the menopause, however, the stroke and death rates of men and women tend to equalize.
High-salt diets, which contribute to hypertension, also contribute to the development and progression of atherosclerosis, as well as hemorrhagic strokes. Ethnic African and Asian populations appear to be at greater risk in this respect. Since the...
(The entire section is 605 words.)
For Further Information: (Magill’s Medical Guide, Sixth Edition)
American Medical Association. American Medical Association Family Medical Guide. 4th rev. ed. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, 2004. Provides updated, understandable medical information about various diseases including stroke.
American Stroke Association. http://www.stroke association.org. Gives information on warning signs, stroke care, and stroke programs. Offers newsletters and scientific and professional research links, among other features.
Marler, John R. Stroke for Dummies. Indianapolis, Ind.: John Wiley & Sons, 2005. Offers general information about strokes for nonscientists.
Rao, Paul R., Mark N. Ozer, and John E. Toerge, eds. Managing Stroke: A Guide to Living Well After Stroke. Washington, D.C.: ABI Professional, 2000. The staff of the National Rehabilitation Hospital in Washington, D.C., has created an instructional guide for those who have suffered a stroke.
Senelick, Richard C., and Karla Dougherty. Living with Stroke: A Guide for Families. 3d ed. Albany, N.Y.: Delmar, 2001. Provides a range of information for stroke patients and their families, including data on strokes, current theories on neural plasticity, and the process of rehabilitation, especially the emotional component of recovery.
Wiebers, David O., Valery L. Feigin, and Robert D. Brown, Jr. Handbook of Stroke. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins,...
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The Strokes (Contemporary Musicians)
Image Pop-UpThe Strokes.
Fabled New York City rock quintet the Strokes garnered critical accolades for their immensely successful debut record Is This It in the fall of 2001. The young band and its gritty but melodic tracks drew critical comparisons the Who, Velvet Underground, Television, and Tom Petty. Their sudden stardom, which even included a tribute in the mainstream newsweekly Time, left its young membersged 20 to 22lightly bewildered but nonetheless pleased. They, along with a few critics, were perplexed by the media hype surrounding their debut release, such as this tribute from Kevin Hopper of the Albuquerque Journal: "[T]here's something inherently new about the Strokes that has seemingly ushered in a wave of rock that closely rivals the freshness Nirvana introduced only a decade ago." San Francisco Chronicle critic James Sullivan noted, "the Strokes are also wholly original. They can play, and they can write a happening rock song. What else is there?"
The Strokes were formed in New York City in 1998. Lead singer and songwriter Julian Casablancas, the son of legendary Elite Modeling Agency founder John Casablancas, had known guitarist Albert Hammond, Jr., from their boarding-school days in Switzerland. Hammond, a California native, had moved to New York City to attend film school at New York University. He and Casablancas had a chance meeting one day on the street where they both lived, and as Hammond recalled in interview with Len Righi of Allentown [Pennsylvania]'s Morning Call paper, Casablancas "told me about his band and that they needed a guitar player. I went to audition, but later Julian told me I was in even before I tried out."
Casablancas had already started the fledgling band with friends Nikolai Fraiture, Nick Valensi, and Fabrizio Moretti, each of whom he had known since they attended the Dwight School, a private high school in New York City. Valensi had been playing guitar since the age of five, and at 14 had encouraged Casablancas to try it as well. Hammond, on the other hand, had not considered a career in music, even though his father, Albert Hammond, Sr., had recorded a soft-rock hit, "It Never Rains in Southern California," in the early 1970s. He told Righi that his father strongly discouraged him, recalling that he had been "very tough on me when he realized I was going to join the band. He said, 'Don't think I can help you. Look at what happened to John Lennon's sons.' It almost turned me off."
Undaunted, Hammond, Casablancas, and the rest of the Strokes persevered, spending nearly a year writing songs. Their first performance came in the fall of 1999 at Spiral, a New York City bar on the Lower East Side. It was, by the band's admission, an abysmal show, and one they later claimed just three people paid to see. They returned to rehearsing, and within a year were playing weekly at New York's famed Bowery Ballroom. Word of mouth on the band soon spread, and a December gig at the Mercury Lounge introduced them to booking agent Ryan Gentles, who convinced them to cut a demo record. "After it was finished I looked over at [Hammond] and said, 'Dude, this is gonna get us signed,'" Casablancas told Teen People journalist Tom Lanham. True to his prediction, the record was picked up by the Rough Trade label in England, and was released in Britain in January of 2001. The band played several shows in Britain to promote it, and also won supporting slots touring with Guided by Voices and Doves.
The Strokes also took that EP, The Modern Age, to the South by Southwest Music Festival in Austin, Texas, in March of 2001, and gained a slot on the festival bill. A headline in the Austin American-Statesman review of that show read "The Strokes Offer a Peek at Rock 'n' Roll's Future," and critic Jason Cohen declared that "the band's pounding, grimy, hard-spiked minimalism comes in a candy shell of instantly memorable pop songs. They sound like everybody, but they sound like nobody." The Modern Age EP, bolstered by their live shows in Austin and Britain led to a bidding war among major labels to sign them. RCA emerged the victor, and the band headed back into the studio to record a full-length album.
Is This It was released first in the England in late August of 2001, where it entered the charts at number two. British critics were especially effusive in their accolades and the band even appeared on a famed music show, Top of the Pops. A journalist for the Belfast, Northern Ireland paper News Letter, Jeff Magill, declared that "Every band churned out of America these days seems to be nu-rock, Californian hiphoppers attired in over-sized shorts and wearing tights on their head, but the Strokes are distinctively New York chic. Tight-fitting retro suits, thin ties and army jackets is their favourite apparel." Critics also gave the debut itself strong praise. "Is This It's 11 songs are ruthlessly efficient," declared a writer for the London Guardian newspaper, Alexis Petridis. "Every track makes its point within four minutes, then stops dead. Thrillingly, in an era of over-padded, CD-filling marathons laden with hidden bonus tracks, interactive videos and CD-ROM games, the entire album lasts just over half an hour."
The buzz from England spread to America in the weeks just before Is This It was released, but its appearance was delayed by two weeks when RCA decided to pull one track, "New York City Cops." It was a love song, but contained the refrain: "New York City cops, they ain't too smart." In the wake of the September 11th attacks on the World Trade Center, in which many public-safety officers lost their lives, the label feared unfavorable publicity if the track remained. Another song was substituted, and the October 9, 2001, release was greeted with an almost unanimously positive response. Reviewers seemed besotted with the Strokes' sound. Rolling Stone writer Joe Levy opened a review by declaring, "This is the stuff of which legends are made." Levy commended the Strokes for bringing together so many seminal musical ideas, and its frontman's delivery across the eleven songs, which he also compared to Jagger, as well as to John Lennon and Bryan Ferry. "Casablancas uses distance to communicate passion," Levy noted. "Half the time, he seems to be singing through an intercom, like he's buzzing at the door asking to come into your life, and his greatest trick is a pleading tear in his voice that lets him slip around the songs, crooning one second, leering the next, then exploding into a throat-shredding shout."
Critics also wrote approvingly of the Strokes' live shows as well. Sullivan, writing in the San Francisco Chronicle, noted that "the Strokes artfully straddle the gulf between hipster indifference and frantic nervous energy," and commended the way in which Valensi and Hammond "played perfectly complementary parts, trading off antsy, new-wave-y lines and tense, dirty solos." Writing in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, William Lamb found that Casablancas "sang like Lou Reed but looked much like Mick Jagger circa 1964, before the Stones' frontman learned how to work a stage." The Albuquerque Journal critique from Hopper succinctly summarized the paeans from others: the band, he claimed, "has given us something we have heard before, but it's in a shiny new package."
Is This It entered the Billboard charts in the United States at number 74n impressive feat for a record that had received almost no radio airplay. Critics compared the Casablancas and the rest of the band to many other seminal rock acts, from Television to the Jam and even Oasis. Los Angeles Times writer Steve Hochman stressed that the Strokes' debut displayed a certain originality, despite all the name-dropping from critics, including his own. "As a unit the band developed a melodic, energetic style with echoes of acts ranging from the Velvet Underground and New York Dolls to Tom Petty and the Jam. But the Strokes' music is far from breaking ground of its own, and at this point lacks the dark mystique at the heart of the best of its models. Still, there is an earnest joy in the presentationive and on recordhat gives it potential for growth." A London newspaper critic, Neil McCormick, visited New York and wrote about how difficult it was for any band to make it in New York City. His Daily Telegraph article noted that the city boasted a thriving underground music scene, one that was extremely creative and competitive. McCormick called it "a maelstrom of activity where only the hippest survive, like the Strokes, the city's newest favourite sons: five pretty rich kids playing raw, perfectly distilled, lo-fi, dirty, arty rock and roll."
Throughout the fall of 2001, the Strokes enjoyed playing sold-out shows far cry from their door earnings from just two years before. Remembering that first New York gig at the Spiral, Casablancas told the New York Post that the band was surprised by the sudden fame, having possessed the humblest of ambitions when starting out. "We wanted to play a better show and get signed to an indie label," Casablancas recalled. Regarding the massive amount of press attention that greeted their debut, guitarist Valensi remarked to Time that as a whole, he and his bandmates "try not to pay too much attention to [the hype]. It could be a trap, to believe what people write about you."
The Modern Age (EP), Beggars Banquet, 2001.
Is This It, RCA, 2001.
(Contributor) Spider-Man (soundtrack), Sony, 2002.
Albuquerque Journal, January 25, 2002, p. 13.
Atlanta Journal-Constitution, October 26, 2001, p. 3.
Austin American-Statesman (Austin, TX), March 18, 2001; October 25, 2001, p. 25.
Boston Herald, September 28, 2001, p. S4.
Daily Post (Liverpool, England), February 15, 2002, p. 27.
Daily Telegraph (London, England), January 5, 2002, p. 9.
Dallas Morning News, January 3, 2002, p. 21 A.
Guardian (London, England), August 24, 2001, p. 14.
Los Angeles Times, August 11, 2001, p. F1.
Morning Call (Allentown, PA), November 10, 2001, p. A39.
News Letter (Belfast, Northern Ireland), June 15, 2001, p. 34; August 31, 2001, p. 37.
New York Post, October 28, 2001, p. 45; December 20, 2001, p. 50.
People, December 3, 2001, p. 37.
Rolling Stone, October 11, 2001.
San Francisco Chronicle, August 9, 2001, p. C1; October 15, 2001, p. B1.
St. Louis Post-Dispatch, November 23, 2001, p. D10.
Teen People, February 1, 2002, p. 78.
Time, September 15, 2001, p. 30.
The Strokes Official Website, http://www.thestrokes.com (February 23, 2002).