Places Discussed (Cyclopedia of Literary Places)
*Algiers. Coastal capital of Algeria, a country in North Africa. Although not specifically described, Algiers serves as a general backdrop not only to the main action but above all to Meursault’s struggle with the collective forces of nature arrayed against him.
Beach. Outside Algiers, where Raymond, Meursault’s friend, has a bungalow. When the sun beats down on Meursault, the reflecting light gouges into his eyes, the lazy sea waves turn him lethargic, the fiery beach presses him forward, and the cloudless sky pours a sheet of flame on him. Under this onslaught, he has no other choice but to react in self-defense, first, by erasing the source of the attack (the Arab and his shining knife) and then by firing four additional shots for the four elements of nature.
Prison. Tiny cell in which Meursault awaits his execution. Only a confined space can allow him to concentrate on the essential and to think philosophical thoughts, unmolested by outside distractions and pointless discussions. After his final metaphysical revolt he is ultimately at peace, as evidenced by the stars shining on his face like a celestial projector, instead of the relentless and punishing sun, and by the heat now being replaced by the refreshingly cool night breeze on his cheeks. This Meursault calls “the benign indifference of the universe.”
(The entire section is 511 words.)
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Resuming a policy of imperialist expansion after the Napoleonic era, France invaded Algeria in 1830. The French soon controlled the city of Algiers and some coastal areas, but not until 1857 did they subdue the whole region. France sent settlers to colonize the conquered region, but even as late as 1940 the French in Algeria were outnumbered 9 to 1. During World War II the Algerians fought on the side of Germany, which occupied France. However, they were not too keen on resisting the Americans, and when General Eisenhower landed in November of 1942, he met little resistance. That invasion prevented Camus from leaving France and joining his wife in Algeria until the liberation of France in 1944. Throughout the rest of the war, the Algerian independence movement grew due to contact with other Westerners—British and American soldiers.
The independence movement continued to grow after the war but was violently put down by French troops. The struggle escalated when the National Liberation Front (FLN) wrote a new constitution in 1947. Unable to deliver on the promise of the new constitution, the FLN began a war of independence with France in 1954. By 1962, Charles de Gaulle agreed to grant the country independence.
World War II
World War II was in full swing in 1942, since America had declared war on Japan and Germany in response to the Pearl Harbor attack. However, the Allied cause did not look good. France had...
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Part 1, Chapter 1: Questions and Answers
1. Where does Meursault live?
2. How does Meursault react when he learns of his mother’s death?
3. What happens when Meursault asks his employer for time off to attend his mother’s funeral?
4. Who is Celeste?
5. What happens to Meursault on the bus to the nursing home?
6. How does Meursault feel when he talks to the warden?
7. What do Meursault and the doorkeeper do during the all-night vigil?
8. Who is Thomas Perez?
9. Does Meursault cry at his mother’s funeral?
10. What does Meursault react to during the funeral?
1. Meursault, the narrator of the story, lives in Algiers, a hot, sun-drenched city in North Africa.
2. Meursault does not show any real emotion when he receives a telegram informing him of his mother’s death; he only expresses a passing interest in the details.
3. The employer is somewhat irritated that Meursault will be away from the office. Meursault feels guilty at first, then annoyed that his employer is not more sympathetic.
4. Celeste is Meursault’s friend and the owner of Meursault’s favorite restaurant.
5. Meursault is bothered by the glaring sun on the road. He falls asleep during the ride.
6. Meursault feels uneasy and gets the impression that the warden blames him for putting his mother in the nursing...
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Part 1, Chapter 2: Questions and Answers
1. Why does Meursault worry about his employer when he wakes up on Saturday morning?
2. Who is Marie Cardona?
3. What kind of movie does Marie want to see?
4. How does Marie react when Meursault tells her about his mother?
5. Why does Meursault decide not to eat at Celeste’s on Sunday?
6. What does Meursault do when he’s alone in his apartment?
7. Who does Meursault see from his bedroom window?
8. How does the tobacconist sit on his chair?
9. What does the football fan say to Meursault?
10. How does Meursault feel about Sundays?
1. Meursault worries that his employer will be annoyed at him for taking two days off right before the weekend, even though it was for his mother’s funeral. He’s afraid the employer will think he’s taken a four day holiday for himself.
2. Marie Cardona used to work as a typist at Meursault’s office. He meets her at the swimming pool on Saturday and they see each other again that night.
3. Marie wants to see a comedy starring the French actor Fernandel.
4. Meursault notes that Marie “shrank away a little” when he told her about his mother.
5. Meursault does not eat at Celeste’s because he doesn’t want to be bothered by people asking him questions about his mother’s death.
6. Meursault stays in...
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Part 1, Chapter 3: Questions and Answers
1. How does Meursault’s employer treat him when he returns to work on Monday?
2. Who is Emmanuel?
3. How does Celeste react when he sees Meursault?
4. How long has old Salamano had his dog and why does he abuse him?
5. Who is Raymond Sintes?
6. Why does Raymond want to get revenge on his girlfriend?
7. What does Raymond ask Meursault to do for him?
8. Does Meursault want to be Raymond’s friend?
9. What does Raymond say about Meursault’s mother?
10. What does Meursault do after he leaves Raymond’s room?
1. Meursault’s employer is in a good mood on Monday morning. He offers his sympathy to Meursault and asks how he is feeling.
2. Emmanuel is Meursault’s co-worker. At lunchtime they have an adventure running after and leaping onto a truck.
3. Celeste is sympathetic and says she hopes that Meursault isn’t “feeling too badly.” Meursault tells Celeste he is very hungry.
4. Old Salamano has lived with his dog for eight years. The old man becomes furious when the dog pulls him down the street or gets in his way.
5. Raymond Sintes is Meursault’s neighbor. He is a tough young man, reputed to be a pimp.
6. Raymond claims that he is supporting his girlfriend, but that she is cheating on him. He found a lottery ticket and bracelets in...
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Part 1, Chapter 4: Questions and Answers
1. Where do Meursault and Marie go on Saturday?
2. What does Marie do when Meursault tells her about old Salamano and his dog?
3. How does Meursault feel about policemen?
4. How does Raymond greet the policeman who comes to his door?
5. Why is Raymond shaking when he talks to the policeman?
6. How does Meursault feel about being Raymond’s witness?
7. Why is old Salamano so upset?
8. How does Raymond treat Salamano?
9. When Salamano visits Meursault, what does Meursault tell him?
10. Why does Meursault think about his mother?
1. Meursault and Marie go to the beach. Later they return to Meursault’s apartment.
2. Marie laughs at Meursault’s story.
3. Meursault tells Marie that he doesn’t like policemen.
4. Raymond greets the policeman with a “sickly smile” and a cigarette hanging out of his mouth.
5. The policeman accuses Raymond of being drunk, but Raymond says he is shaking because the angry policeman is standing at his door.
6. Meursault says he has no objections, but he doesn’t know what Raymond expects him to say.
7. Old Salamano is upset because he lost his dog at the Parade Ground.
8. Raymond tries to reassure Salamano that he’ll find his dog again.
9. Meursault tells Salamano that his...
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Part 1, Chapter 5: Questions and Answers
1. Where does Raymond want to go on Sunday with Meursault and Marie?
2. What does Meursault’s employer suggest during their ¬meeting?
3. How does Meursault feel about Paris?
4. What does Marie ask Meursault?
5. Does Meursault want to marry Marie?
6. With whom does Meursault eat at Celeste’s?
7. What does Meursault notice about the “robot” woman?
8. What was Salamano’s occupation?
9. According to Salamano, what do Meursault’s neighbors say about him?
10. Why did Meursault put his mother in the nursing home?
1. He wants to go to a friend’s seaside bungalow just outside Algiers.
2. The employer suggests that Meursault take a job in the new branch office in Paris.
3. Meursault has no interest in living in Paris. He thinks it is a dingy town with masses of pigeons and dark courtyards.
4. Marie asks Meursault if he loves her and if he will marry her.
5. Meursault doesn’t care. He says he doesn’t “mind” and agrees to marry Marie if it will make her happy.
6. The “little robot” woman eats at Meursault’s table in Celeste’s.
7. Meursault watches the robot woman study the menu, add up the bill, and march off down the street in a stiff, mechanical fashion.
8. Salamano worked for the railroad....
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Part 1, Chapter 6: Questions and Answers
1. How does Meursault feel when he wakes up on Sunday morning¬?
2. Where does Meursault first see the Arabs?
3. What does Meursault think about Raymond’s outfit?
4. Who is Masson?
5. How does Meursault feel after he eats lunch?
6. Where do Meursault, Raymond, and Masson go after lunch?
7. What happens when Raymond fights with the Arab?
8. What does Raymond do when he meets the Arab again?
9. How does the sun affect Meursault when he’s walking alone on the beach?
10. What happens when Meursault confronts the Arab?
1. Meursault wakes up with a headache, feeling “under the weather.”
2. He sees them standing around in front of the tobacconist’s shop.
3. Meursault is “put off by his getup.”
4. Masson is Raymond’s friend. He owns the bungalow on the beach.
5. Meursault complains of feeling “slightly muzzy.”
6. They go for a walk on the beach and they encounter the two Arabs.
7. The Arab pulls a knife and cuts Raymond on the face and arm.
8. The second time Raymond meets the Arab, he considers shooting him, but Meursault talks him out of it.
9. Meursault experiences a “dark befuddlement” when the intense sunlight “blasts” into his face.
10. With the sun “stabbing” into...
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Part 2, Chapter 1: Questions and Answers
1. What does Meursault think about the magistrate when he first meets him?
2. What does Meursault’s lawyer look like?
3. What charge against Meursault, besides murder, is the lawyer concerned about?
4. Is the lawyer optimistic about Meursault’s case?
5. How did Meursault feel about his mother?
6. How does the lawyer react to Meursault during their first meeting?
7. What does the typist do during Meursault’s meeting with the magistrate?
8. How does Meursault react to the magistrate when the magistrate starts talking about God?
9. How does Meursault feel sitting in the magistrate’s office?
10. Does Meursault accept the fact that he is a criminal?
1. Meursault finds him to be “highly intelligent and, on the whole, likable enough.”
2. The lawyer is a “small, plump, youngish man with sleek, black hair.”
3. He is concerned about the charge of “callousness.”
4. When the lawyer first meets with Meursault, he tells him that he has a good chance of getting off, if Meursault follows his advice.
5. Meursault tells the lawyer that he had been “quite fond of Mother.”
6. He is repulsed by Meursault and annoyed at his answers.
7. The clerk types an answer he assumes Meursault will give to the magistrate’s question about...
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Part 2, Chapter 2: Questions and Answers
1. What does Meursault hope for when he’s first put in prison?
2. How does the Arab prisoner help out Meursault?
3. What does Meursault feel the first night he spends in jail?
4. How far apart are the prisoners kept from their visitors?
5. What does Meursault long for when he sees Marie?
6. What does Marie do when Meursault is led back out of the Visitors’ Room?
7. Why does the jailer think Meursault is different?
8. Besides women, what else are the prisoners deprived of?
9. As Meursault loses track of time, what are the two words that still have meaning for him?
10. What does Meursault use for a mirror?
1. Meursault has a “vague hope” that something good will happen, some “agreeable surprise.”
2. He shows him how to make a pillow with his sleeping mat.
3. Meursault feels bugs crawling on his face.
4. They are separated by a “gap of some thirty feet.”
5. He wants to reach out and squeeze her shoulders.
6. She throws him a kiss.
7. The jailer tells Meursault he’s different because he can think and “use his brains.”
8. Smoking is also forbidden in the prison.
9. The words “yesterday” and “tomorrow” still have meaning.
10. He uses a polished “tin pannikin.”
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Part 2, Chapter 3: Questions and Answers
1. During what month does Meursault’s trial begin?
2. What does the special news correspondent from Paris look like?
3. How many judges preside over Meursault’s trial?
4. What is the first thing the judge questions Meursault about?
5. What does the judge ask Meursault about his mother?
6. Following Meursault, who is the first witness called?
7. What does the doorkeeper say about Meursault?
8. Who does the defense call as its first witness?
9. What does Marie do at the conclusion of her testimony?
10. Who is the last witness?
1. The trial begins in June.
2. He is a small, plump man who reminds Meursault of an “overfed weasel.”
3. There are three. Two are in black robes and one is in scarlet.
4. Meursault must answer questions about his identity.
5. The judge wants to know why Meursault sent her to the home.
6. The warden of the nursing home is the first witness.
7. The doorkeeper testifies that during the vigil over his mother’s body, Meursault slept, smoked cigarettes, and drank coffee.
8. Celeste is the defense’s first witness.
9. She bursts into tears.
10. Raymond is the last witness.
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Part 2, Chapter 4: Questions and Answers
1. According to Meursault, what did the prosecutor “aim at” during his closing argument?
2. How does Meursault want to explain his lack of regret to the prosecutor?
3. What does the prosecutor call “the most odious of crimes?”
4. How does the prosecutor compare Meursault’s crime to the parricide case?
5. Since Meursault has already admitted killing the Arab, what verdict does the prosecutor ask for?
6. How do some of the spectators in the courtroom react when Meursault tries to explain his reaction to the sun?
7. What word does Meursault’s lawyer use when referring to Meursault during his speech?
8. What is Meursault’s impression of his lawyer?
9. How is Meursault to be executed?
10. How do those near Meursault react to him after the sentence is read?
1. His purpose was to convince the jury that Meursault’s crime was premeditated.
2. He wants to explain in a “quite friendly, almost affectionate way.”
3. Parricide is called the “most odious of crimes.”
4. He says Meursault is “morally guilty of his mother’s death.”
5. Murder without extenuating circumstances is the verdict he asks for.
6. They giggle.
7. He uses the word “I.”
8. Meursault thinks his lawyer is inexperienced and less...
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Part 2, Chapter 5: Questions and Answers
1. How many times has Meursault refused to see the chaplain?
2. The guillotine reminds Meursault of what other type of device?
3. How does Meursault spend his nights in his cell?
4. What subject does Meursault wish he had read more about?
5. What does Meursault do after he refuses to see the chaplain?
6. Instead of a “divine face,” what image does Meursault try to see on the wall of his prison cell?
7. Does Meursault allow the chaplain to kiss him?
8. What happens when the chaplain touches Meursault’s shoulder?
9. When the jailers rush into Meursault’s cell, what do they do to him?
10. What does Meursault do after the chaplain leaves?
1. He refused to see the chaplain three times.
2. The guillotine’s shining surfaces and finish remind Meursault of some type of laboratory equipment.
3. He forces himself to stay awake, waiting for the dawn.
4. Meursault wishes he had read more accounts of public executions.
5. He thinks about Marie.
6. Meursault tried to envision Marie’s face, but he was never successful.
7. No, he does not allow the chaplain to kiss him.
8. Meursault grabs the chaplain and launches into an angry tirade.
9. They go to strike him but the chaplain begs them not to.
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Psychological self-examinations are common in French first-person narratives, but Camus’s The Stranger gave the technique of psychological depth a new twist at the time it was published. Instead of allowing the protagonist to detail a static psychology for the reader, the action and behavior were given to the reader to decipher. Camus did this because he felt that “psychology is action, not thinking about oneself.” The protagonist, along with a failure to explain everything to the reader, refuses to justify himself to other characters. He tells only what he is thinking and perceiving, he does not interrupt with commentary. By narrating the story this way, through the most indifferent person, the reader is also drawn into Meursault’s perspective. The audience feels the absurdity of the events. However, other characters, who do not even have the benefit of hearing the whole of Meursault’s story as the book’s readers do, prefer their ideas of him. They are only too ready to make their judgments at the trial. Moreover, they readily condemn him to death as a heartless killer without regret.
Structure and Language
Camus’s narration was immediately recognized as extremely innovative. His language, while recognized as similar to the American “Hemingway style,” was seen as so appropriate to the task as to be hardly borrowed. The style that Camus uses is one of direct speech that does not allow much...
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The Stranger is probably the most original of all of Camus's works. A narrative rather than a novel, it was really executed in the spirit of a "new novel," that writers of the 1960s, influenced by Camus, were to discover. Actually the story is the fragment of a tale, with many pieces left to the reader's imagination. The very fragmentation suggests the lack of coherence in the world of the absurd. The choice of language and style conveys Meursault's indifference and apathy. The absence of the passe simple, the past tense traditionally used in literature and present, is here replaced by the passe compose, or conversational past. The author makes free use of indirect speech, and thus accentuates the gulf between what is happening and what Meursault is thinking.
The novel is divided into two parts, with parallel structure. Critics generally consider the first part as superior and more original. It is here that Meursault describes the lack of relationship between the world and himself. The second part deals with his trial, and contains more irony and lyricism, with particular emphasis on solar imagery and poetry. In both parts, however, Camus shows his skill in narration as well as in lyricism.
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The Stranger was the first great novel to emerge from French Algeria. The Arab presence figures prominently in the story, and stresses kinship, rivalry, and bloodshed. The violence expressed in the murder of the Arab by Meursault brings out the violence in Arab-European relations. The Arabs, however, were not natural enemies to the French, and the one who is killed in the story represents his race as a model of silence and contemplation. The tact that Meursault murders him needlessly shows that murder is not the solution to the Arab-European conflict, which was to erupt into warfare in the 1950s, and in which Camus took a side opposed to native independence.
Camus also addresses the question of justice in Meursault's trial. Actually, it is a parody of justice, for he is tried, not for killing a man, but for not having wept at his mother's funeral. Throughout his trial, he is robbed of his own identity, never really allowed to speak, and his lawyer uses the first person in his place. Meursault represents the person persecuted by society because he refuses its falseness and hypocrisy. He will have no part of its artificiality, and will not become involved in its game. In the end, he is convicted on a technicality, showing that the trial is a meaningless formality.
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Compare and Contrast
1942: Algeria is a French colony under Nazi occupation. Today: The political party which established Algeria as an independent nation has lost power to more fundamentalist groups.
1942: Mahatma Gandhi is imprisoned as a part of the British government crack-down on India’s demand for independence.
Today: Independent India has a population of just under billion people and, according to Bill Gates, is soon to catch up with the United States in terms of technological sophistication. India’s middle class is currently the largest of any nation on Earth.
1942: Roosevelt’s $59 billion-dollar budget called for $52 billion to be spent on the war effort.
Today: In peace time, the U.S. spends 6 times that amount on military expenditure.
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Topics for Further Study
Consider the element of time in the novel. Suggest some reasons why Camus chose not to establish the date or era. Keep in mind the historical context of the novel and the universal pretension of the theme.
Consult psychological literature and create a profile of the “outsider.” What sort of mental condition creates a person of moral indifference? Begin with the book The Outsider by Colin Wilson.
Do some research on the condition of freedom of the press in France under Nazi occupation and the role of journals such as Combat in the resistance to this occupation. Does the refusal of Meursault to abide by the societal code of the world in which he lives have anything to do with the conditions under which Camus struggled?
Read the The Myth of Sisyphus. What is the absurd man? Was Camus successful in creating a character in terms of his theory of the absurd? Does Meursault have a place in reality?
Read the first American existential novel by Richard Wright, entitled The Outsider (1953), and compare to Camus’s The Stranger.
Often encyclopedic entries on existentialism will list Camus as a representative author. Select an existential novel (by such authors as de Beauvoir or Sartre) and compare its themes to Camus’s theory of the absurd. Agree or disagree with such a categorization.
Much has been made of the evident moral clash between Meursault and the...
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Camus has often been compared to Pascal in his existential questioning and anguish, although Pascal was a firm believer in immortality. Among his nineteenth-century predecessors are the skeptical Vigny, and Stendhal, whose The Red and the Black (Le Rouge et le noir,1830) also contains a mistrial and a condemnation on technicalities. Victor Hugo's The Last Day of a Man Condemned to Death (Le Dernier jour d'un condamne,) 1829) also contains the reflections of a man in prison. Meursault's crime is similar to that in Samuel T. Coleridge's The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (1798). Germaine Bree sees in Meursault an echo of Fyodor Dostoevsky's Dmitri Karamazov, "whose real crime was not the one that he is tried for, but one which will lead him to a new level of awareness" (The Brothers Karamazov [Bratya Karamazov], 1879-1880). Finally, the short, unconnected sentences of the entire narration are most like Hemingway, who was a great influence on many mid-century French authors.
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The only one of Camus's novels to have been adapted for the cinema is The Stranger, produced by Paramount in 1967 and directed by Luchino Visconti. Emmanuel Robles, a friend of Camus's, also shared in the screenplay, which was quite faithful to Camus's text. There is a short film, Albert Camus: A Self-Portrait, produced by Fred Orjain, which shows Camus talking about the theater, and which also gives some views of Algeria. There are a number of sound recordings of Camus's voice, where he reads selections from The Fall (1956), The Plague (1947), and The Stranger. The 1950 film Panic in the Streets, directed by Elia Kazan, although not directly inspired by Camus, treats the same theme of the plague as in Camus's The Plague.
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There has been only one adaptation of Camus’s novel to the screen. Directed by Luchino Visconti, L’Etranger was produced in 1967 by Paramount pictures. The film failed to capture the Camus’s style, but fortunately, the role of Arthur Meursault is executed brilliantly by Marcello Mastroianni and Anna Karina delivers a fine performance as Marie Cardona.
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What Do I Read Next?
The obvious next step from The Stranger would be to read Camus’s other 1942 work, The Myth of Sisyphus. There, through a collection of essays, he explains his position on the absurd at the time of writing The Stranger.
Camus was regarded as the conscience of occupied France for his writings in Combat. For that paper he wrote such editorials as Neither Victims Nor Executioners (printed in the fall of 1946 and reprinted in 1968 by Dwight Macdonald). This piece argued the logical basis of an anti-war stance consistent with his own theories. He argued that murder is never legitimate, silence between those in disagreement is intolerable, and fear must be understood. In short, he defined a modest position “free of messianism and disencumbered of nostalgia for an earthly paradise.”
Camus’s 1947 novel, The Plague, is seen by many to be a parable about World War II that demonstrates his moral philosophy. In this novel, a town is struck by plague but survives not by beliefs and prayer but through the rational investigation and practice of medical science.
There are other works which deal with the theme of absurdity. One very famous work was a play written by an Irishman who also took part in the French Resistance. The play is Waiting for Godot (1952) by Samuel Beckett.
A more properly existentialist work is the 1947 work, The Age of Reason, by Jean-Paul Sartre. Camus...
(The entire section is 293 words.)
Bibliography and Further Reading
Donald Lazere, The Unique Creation of Albert Camus, Yale University Press, 1973.
Henri Peyre, “Camus the Pagan,” in Yale French Studies, Vol. 25, 1960, pp. 65-70.
Richard Plant, “Benign Indifference,” in The Saturday Review of Literature, Vol. 29, No. 20, May 18, 1946, p. 10.
Jean-Paul Sartre, “An Explication of The Stranger,” in Camus: A Collection of Critical Essays, edited by Germaine Bree, Prentice-Hall, 1962, pp. 108-21.
Philip Thody, “Camus’s L’Etranger Revisited,” in Critical Quarterly, Vol. 2, Summer, 1979, pp. 61-69.
Colin Wilson, The Outsider, Houghton Mifflin, 1956.
For Further Study
Robert J. Champigny, A Pagan Hero: An Interpretation of Meursault in Camus’s ‘The Stranger’, translated by Rowe Portis, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1969. Champigny analyzes Mersault through several readings which show the character as innocent but whose characteristics set the stage of his guilt. Champigny also argues that Meursault’s reaction to his guilt make him a hero.
Raymond Gay-Crosier, “Albert Camus,” in Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 72: French Novelists, 1930- 1960, edited by Catherine Savage, Gale Research, 1988, pp. 110-35. The article presents an overview of the life and works of Albert Camus.
Adele King, Notes on...
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Bibliography (Cyclopedia of Literary Characters, Revised Third Edition)
Bree, Germaine, ed. Camus: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1962. An early collection of essays by outstanding critics. Includes a translation of Jean-Paul Sartre’s influential “Explication of The Stranger.”
Ellison, David R. Understanding Albert Camus. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1990. An overview of the development of Camus’ themes and writing style. Focuses on Camus as a literary man whose works embody a consistent philosophical outlook. Especially useful for first-time readers of Camus.
King, Adele, ed. L’Étranger: Fifty Years On. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1992. Twenty original essays by leading Camus scholars. Offers a variety of viewpoints and provides a valuable companion to a study of the novel.
McCarthy, Patrick. Albert Camus: The Stranger. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the novel. McCarthy is especially good on the novel’s political aspects and on how Camus manages to transform an unsympathetic protagonist into an Everyman.
Rhein, Phillip H. Albert Camus. Rev. ed. Boston: Twayne, 1989. Relates The Stranger to the whole of Camus’ philosophy and focuses on the novel as a reflection of that philosophy....
(The entire section is 197 words.)