Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening, Robert Frost
“Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” Robert Frost
This entry represents criticism of Robert Frost's “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.”
“Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” is generally regarded as Frost's masterpiece. The poem was included in Frost's collection New Hampshire (1923) for which he won the first of his four Pulitzer Prizes. It is Frost's most famous poem, and one which he himself viewed as his “best bid for remembrance.” It is also perhaps Frost's most frequently taught and anthologized poem. The speaker in the poem, a traveler by horse on the darkest night of the year, stops to gaze at a woods filling up with snow. While he is drawn to the beauty of the woods, he has obligations which pull him away from the allure of nature. The lyric quality of “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” can be heard in the enchanting final stanza: “The woods are lovely, dark, and deep, / But I have promises to keep, / And miles to go before I sleep, / And miles to go before I sleep.”
Plot and Major Characters
The speaker (presumably a man, although no gender is specified), while traveling on horseback (or in a horse-drawn sleigh) on the darkest evening of the year, stops to watch the woods fill up with snow. He thinks the owner of these woods is someone who lives in the village and will not see the speaker stopping on his property. While the speaker continues to gaze into the snowy woods, his little horse impatiently shakes the bells of its harness. The speaker describes the beauty and allure of the woods as “lovely, dark, and deep,” but reminds himself that he must not remain there, for he has “promises to keep,” and a long journey ahead of him.
“Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening,” like many of Frost's poems, explores the theme of the individual caught between nature and civilization. The speaker's location on the border between civilization and wilderness echoes a common theme throughout American literature. The speaker is drawn to the beauty and allure of the woods, which represent nature, but has obligations—“promises to keep”—which draw him away from nature and back to society and the world of men. The speaker is thus faced with a choice of whether to give in to the allure of nature, or remain in the realm of society. Some critics have interpreted the poem as a meditation on death—the woods represent the allure of death, perhaps suicide, which the speaker resists in order to return to the mundane tasks which order daily life.
“Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” was included in Frost's volume New Hampshire, for which he won the first of four Pulitzer prizes. Critics generally agree that its central theme is the speaker's dilemma in choosing between the allure of nature and the responsibilities of everyday life in human society. However, the ambiguity of the poem has lead to extensive critical debate. Some conclude that the speaker chooses, by the end of the poem, to resist the temptations of nature and return to the world of men. Others, however, argue that the speaker's repetition of the last line “And miles to go before I sleep,” suggests an indecisiveness as to whether or not he will, in fact, “keep” the “promises” by which he is obligated to return to society. Many have pointed out that this “ambiguity” is in part what makes the poem great. Another standard interpretation is that the speaker is contemplating suicide—the woods, “lovely, dark, and deep,” represent the allure of death as a means of escape from the mundane duties of daily life. Still others, however, such as Philip L. Gerber, argue that “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” is most importantly a “lyric” poem, which should be appreciated in terms of its formal, metrical qualities, such as the complex, interlocking rhyme scheme, rather than its content or “meaning.” Gerber notes that “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” is “widely regarded, metrically, as Frost's most perfect poem.” Critics also point to the mood or tone of the poem, as created by its formal properties, as one of a person caught up in a reverie; the hypnotic quality of the repeated closing lines, in particular, suggests a chant or spell. James Hepburn noted that the inability of critics to secure a particular meaning of the poem is due to the quality by which “It is a poem of undertones and overtones rather than of meaning.” Critical debate over the meaning and significance of “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” rages on, but few question the status of the poem as one of the greatest in American literature. Donald J. Greiner has observed of “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” that “Its deceptive simplicity, its ambiguity, and its interlocking rhyme scheme have been so lauded that it is now one of the most explicated American poems.” The extent to which this poem has been discussed—perhaps overanalyzed—by critics was indicated by the parodic interpretation of Herbert R. Coursen, Jr., who, tongue-in-cheek, surmised that the speaker is in fact none other than Santa Claus, the “little horse” who rings its harness bells representing a reindeer, and the “darkest night of the year,” during which the poem takes place, a reference to the winter solstice, which is only a few days before Christmas. According to this interpretation, the “promises” that the speaker must keep refer to Santa Claus's responsibility to deliver presents on Christmas Eve.
A Boy's Will 1913
North of Boston 1914
Mountain Interval 1916
New Hampshire 1923
Selected Poems 1923; revised, 1928 and 1934
West-Running Brook 1928
Collected Poems of Robert Frost 1930
The Lone Striker 1933
Two Tramps in Mud-Time 1934
From Snow to Snow 1936
A Further Range 1936
Selected Poems 1936
A Witness Tree 1942
Come in and Other Poems 1943; revised as The Road Not Taken,1951
A Masque of Reason 1945
The Poems of Robert Frost 1946
A Masque of Mercy 1947
Steeple Bush 1947
Complete Poems of Robert Frost, 1949 1949
Selected Poems 1955
In the Clearing 1962
Selected Poems of Robert Frost 1963
The Poetry of Robert Frost 1966
Complete Poems of Robert Frost 1968
The Poetry of Robert Frost: The Collected Poems, Complete and Unabridged 1969
Robert Frost: Poetry...
(The entire section is 162 words.)
SOURCE: Ogilvie, John T. “From Woods to Stars: A Pattern of Imagery in Robert Frost's Poetry.” South Atlantic Quarterly 58, (winter 1959): 64-76.
[In the following essay, Ogilvie discusses the recurring image of the dark woods in Frost's poetry.]
Leaves are all my darker mood
Together with “Birches,” “Mending Wall,” “The Road Not Taken,” “After Apple-Picking,” and a dozen or so other familiar descriptive pieces, “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” is one of Robert Frost's most admired poems. The beginning poetry student in particular is likely to take to it, for quite understandable reasons: its diction is unpretentious and subtly musical; it presents an engaging picture and hints at a “story” without too much taxing the imagination; it is short and seemingly unambiguous. And the teacher, from his side, likewise welcomes the opportunity to present a poem that can be enjoyed purely for its visual and verbal interest without having to be subjected to a rigorous search for “hidden meanings.” But, as experienced readers of this poem know, “Stopping by Woods” has a disconcerting way of deepening in dimension as one looks at it, of darkening in tone, until it emerges as a full-blown critical and pedagogical problem. One comes to feel that there is more in the poem than is given to the senses alone. But how is one to treat a...
(The entire section is 4312 words.)
SOURCE: Thompson, Lawrance. “Yes, I Suppose I am a Puritan.” In Robert Frost: The Years of Triumph, 1915-1938, pp. 236-39. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970.
[In the following excerpt, Thompson describes the process by which Frost wrote “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.”]
Fatigued and yet elated, after finishing the rough draft of “New Hampshire” in one stretch of work, Frost was not immediately aware that he had written straight through the short June night. When he put his pen down on the dining-room table and stretched, looking out through the living-room window, he was surprised to see that there was light in the east and that the syringa bush at the edge of the front lawn was already coming out of darkness. With a sense of unusual excitement, he stood up, walked stiffly to the front door, opened it, descended the stone steps to the dew-heavy grass, and stood marveling less at the dawn than at his night's work. Never before, in all his years of sitting up late to write, had he worked straight through until morning. Even now, with the poem tentatively finished, he was not ready to stop. There was something else he wanted to write, or that he felt impelled to write, although he had nothing immediately in mind as a starter. Back into the house he went, moving through the living room to the dining room almost as though he were sleepwalking. He picked up his pen, found a clean...
(The entire section is 3011 words.)
SOURCE: Coale, Samuel. “The Emblematic Encounter of Robert Frost.” In Frost: Centennial Essays III, edited by the Committee on the Frost Centennial of the University of Southern Mississippi, pp. 107-17. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1978.
[In the following excerpt, Coale discusses the theme of man's encounter with the allure of nature in “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.”]
Frost admitted that “my best bid for remembrance” ([Lawrance] Thompson [Robert Frost: The Years of Triumph; hereafter cited as Thompson], 598) would be “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening,” and it is ironic that of all the Frost poems we have examined, this is the least “Frost-y.” It contains all the “proper” Frost images—snow, woods, darkness, a sleigh—but it is extremely unlike the usual stance of mutual confrontation. Frost advised, “Set yourself against the moon. Resist the moon” (Thompson, 77), but here he has not resisted and has for once slipped into a state of what we may call romantic reverie, a kind of self-hypnosis. Always before, he has resisted the spellbinding, seductive quality of the encounter with nature, placing himself firmly on the far side of his emblems as observer and visitor. In “Into My Own” he wishes that “those dark trees” would stretch away “unto the edge of doom,” so that he might enter beyond that boundary line of nature's “territorial...
(The entire section is 2113 words.)
SOURCE: Greiner, Donald J. “Robert Frost's Dark Woods and the Function of Metaphor.” In Frost: Centennial Essays III, edited by the Committee on the Frost Centennial of the University of Southern Mississippi, pp. 373-88. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1978.
[In the following excerpt, Greiner discusses Frost's use of the image of the woods as a metaphor in his poetry.]
We should begin with a discussion of the spellbinding power of the woods because most interpretations of poems like “Stopping by Woods,” “The Sound of Trees,” and “Come In” comment upon the poet-figure's almost mystical attraction to the trees.1 “Stopping by Woods” is the focal point of this particular reading of Frost because it contains most of the elements to be found in the group of poems that inspires the interpretation. Finding himself alone between the opposing worlds of nature and man, the traveler stops to watch the woods fill up with snow. Even his horse knows that one does not normally stop so far from the village, especially on the “darkest evening of the year.” But any fear of isolation which the traveler might have gives way before the pull of his casual interest in the scene. Natural interest, though, soon becomes fascination as the woods, with the help of “easy wind and downy flake,” begin to weave their spell. The woods seem to offer a place of revery, a welcome interlude...
(The entire section is 2599 words.)
SOURCE: Bernhard, Frank. “Frost's ‘Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.’” Explicator 40, no. 4 (summer 1982): 43-45.
[In the following essay, Frank provides a psychological interpretation of the speaker in “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.”]
Like the snake, a poem may slough off some of its more overt meanings and survive brilliantly in a new skin. The first level interpretation of Robert Frost's “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening,” that of an exaltation of nature's beauty, has long since lost its allure; and the death-wish interpretation, too, has been overworked. It has recently been modified into a “little death” as opposed to the “big death” of the suicide wish. “… If there is any death in the poem,” writes Nat Henry, “… it is the little death of abnegation to which we sentence ourselves daily because of what we owe to those who depend on us …” (Explicator, 37, 1 , 37-38).
It is the naïve tone of the speaker that leads us first to read the poem as an ode to the beauty of nature; surely nothing more sophisticated can be attributed to the simple farmer on his homeward journey. Only the line, “The woods are lovely, dark, and deep” (italics mine), alerts us in its yearning and its mystification of the woods to a death-wish the speaker does perhaps neither understand nor even discern.
(The entire section is 981 words.)
SOURCE: Greiner, Donald J. “The Indispensable Robert Frost.” In Critical Essays on Robert Frost, edited by Philip J. Gerber, pp. 222-38. Boston: G. K. Hall and Co., 1982.
[In the following excerpt, Greiner argues that it is the element of “ambiguity” which makes “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” a great poem.]
“Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” (New Hampshire, 1923) was written in late spring 1922 and first published in the New Republic (7 March 1923). Yes, I know; the poem is overanthologized and thus overly familiar, but that does not mean that it is overpraised. Its deceptive simplicity, its ambiguity, and its interlocking rhyme scheme have been so lauded that it is now one of the most explicated American poems. But a more important point is that “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” is the poem of dark woods in American literature. Frost himself knew that the poem was memorable; in a letter (2 May 1923) to Louis Untermeyer, he refers to “Stopping by Woods” as “my best bid for remembrance.”1
The judgment of history may concur. The irony is that the myths that Frost fabricated about the poem have contributed to its reputation. Although Thompson has shown that Frost's stories about the composition of “Stopping by Woods” are false, the poet claimed time and again that he wrote his most famous lyric with one stroke of...
(The entire section is 1061 words.)
SOURCE: Gerber, Philip L. “The Appropriate Tool: Frost’s Craftmanship.” In Robert Frost, pp. 66-88. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1982.
[In the following excerpt, Gerber analyses “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” in terms of its formal, metrical elements.]
“Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” is widely regarded, metrically, as Frost's most perfect poem. He himself always offered it as the prime example of his commitment to convention, describing it as “my heavy duty poem to be examined for the rime pairs.”1 Frost said that he wrote it after an extended night of work on his long poem “New Hampshire.” Whether it was inspired by “auto-intoxication” and sheer tiredness, as its author suggested, or by some more ethereal influence, it has come to be the single poem with which most readers identify Frost.
Whose woods these are I think I know. His house is in the village though; He will not see me stopping here To watch his woods fill up with snow.
My little horse must think it queer To stop without a farmhouse near Between the woods and frozen lake The darkest evening of the year.
He gives his harness bells a shake To ask if there is some mistake. The only other sound's the sweep Of easy wind and downy flake.
The woods are lovely, dark and deep, But I have promises to keep, And miles to go before I sleep,...
(The entire section is 1097 words.)
SOURCE: Hepburn, James G. “Stopping by Robert Frost.” In Critic into Anti-Critic, pp. 15-21. Columbia, SC: Camden House, 1984.
[In the following essay, Hepburn discusses a variety of critical responses to “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.”]
Many years ago, William Rose Benét called Robert Frost a “wise old woodchuck,” and more recently Lionel Trilling called him “a terrifying poet.” Trilling explained that the universe that Frost depicts is a “terrifying universe”; but even as he was speaking, Robert Langbaum was saying that “Frost takes into account nature's destructiveness, but his examples of it are seldom very frightening.” To Yvor Winters, Frost was incapable of grasping the predicament of modern man; to Hyatt H. Waggoner, he understood the predicament and made a “strategic retreat”; to James M. Cox, he “forced a clearing in the woods,” braved “the alien entanglements of experience.”1
Consider the variety of interpretations of a single poem, “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.” Some earlier writers see the poem as a tribute to the New England sense of duty; Lawrance Thompson sees it as an epitome of the journey through life, with hardships (the dark and cold evening), beauties and pleasures (the woods), duties, and death. Leonard Unger and William Van O'Connor think that the traveler's choice is between estheticism and moral...
(The entire section is 3751 words.)
SOURCE: Mack, Anne, and J. J. Rome. “Marxism, Romanticism, and Postmodernism: An American Case History.” South Atlantic Quarterly 88, no. 3 (summer 1989): 627-30.
[In the following excerpt, Mack and Rome offer a semiotic analysis of the title and opening passage of “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.”]
What comes to us as the title, the prefatory “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening,” is a set of words which, even if we regard them as a single word string, are by no means self-identical. An initial reading may legitimately ask, for example, whether the third word is a common or a proper noun, and hence whether the “stopping” referred to is a casual “stopping by” at the Woods's house, or whether it is a “stopping alongside” a stand of trees. To say that the former reading is eliminated by the first line of the poem is merely to say that one has assented to the traditional formatting imposed upon the words of the poem. As we shall see in a moment, those words carry—fatally, as it were—many more signifying possibilities than the narrow range of significations so cunningly, and deceptively, specified by the received format.
But to return for a moment to the “title,” or prefatory material. If we put a period after “Stopping by” the title changes; if we put “Stopping” on a line by itself, then place immediately below it, centered, “by Woods,”...
(The entire section is 1179 words.)
SOURCE: Garcia, Leni R. “Reflections on ‘Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.’” Sophia 20, no. 1 (May-August 1990): 27-31.
[In the following essay, Garcia reflects upon “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” in terms of the philosophical perspective of Marcelian phenomenology.]
In this short reflection paper, I do not aim to discuss anything new. My objective is to cross the bridge between philosophy and literature. My framework is the Marcelian phenomenology.
There are pages and pages of literature devoted to the interpretation of Robert Frost's “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.” What I wish to do in this paper is to make a simple exposition of this poem in the light of the Marcelian process of reflection. The poem serves as an illustration of Marcel's philosophy in particular, and of existentialism in general.
Gabriel Marcel's contention is that philosophy is mainly reflective. To reflect is to be conscious of the events in one's situation. For Marcel, this is even synonymous with noticing a “break in the daily chain of habit.” But what is this “break” in one's routine that catches attention and causes reflection?
Marcel points to the sad fate of the world in that it has become functional—that is, the interaction between the active members of the community has become mechanical. People have...
(The entire section is 1882 words.)
SOURCE: Gray, Richard J. “In Search of a Past: The Fugitive Movement and the Major Traditionalists.” In American Poetry of the Twentieth Century, pp. 101–52. New York: Longman, 1990.
[In the following excerpted essay, Gray discusses the seeming lack of resolution in the closing lines of “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.”]
The duality of the narrator's response to the woods [in “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening”] is caught in the contrast between the relaxed, conversational idiom of the first three lines (note the gentle emphasis given to ‘think’, the briskly colloquial ‘though’) and the dreamlike descriptive detail and hypnotic verbal music (‘watch … woods’, ‘his … fill … with’) of the last. Clearing and wilderness, law and freedom, civilization and nature, fact and dream: these oppositions reverberate throughout American writing. And they are registered here in Frost's own quietly ironic contrast between the road along which the narrator travels, connecting marketplace to marketplace, promoting community and culture—and the white silence of the woods, where none of the ordinary limitations of the world seem to apply. In a minor key, they are caught also in the implicit comparison between the owner of these woods, who apparently regards them as a purely financial investment (he lives in the village) and the narrator who sees them, at least potentially, as a...
(The entire section is 723 words.)
SOURCE: Rotella, Guy. “Comparing Conceptions: Frost and Eddington, Heisenberg, and Bohr.” In On Frost: The Best from American Literature, edited by Edwin H. Cady and Louis J. Budd, pp. 147–169. Durham: Duke University, 1991.
[In the following excerpt, Rotella discusses the balancing of opposites and “indeterminacy” in “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.”]
“Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” stages its play of opposites at typically Frostian borders between night and day, storm and hearth, nature and culture, individual and group, freedom and responsibility. It works them, not “out” to resolution but in permanent suspension as complementary counters in mens animi, the feeling thought of active mind. The poem is made to make the mind just that. It unsettles certitude even in so small a matter as the disposition of accents in the opening line: “Whose woods these are I think I know.” The monosyllabic tetrameter declares itself as it declares. Yet the “sound of sense” is uncertain. As an expression of doubtful guessing, “think” opposes “know,” with its air of certitude. The line might be read to emphasize doubt (Whose woods these are I think I know) or confident knowledge (Whose woods these are I think I know). Once the issue is introduced, even a scrupulously “neutral” reading points it up. The evidence for choosing emphasis is insufficient...
(The entire section is 1249 words.)
SOURCE: Meyers, Jeffrey. “Michigan and the Lecture Circuit, 1921–1926.” In Robert Frost: A Biography, pp. 167–189. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1996.
[In the following excerpt, Meyers discusses literary references in “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.”]
The masterpiece in New Hampshire is the justly famous “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.” Like “The Road Not Taken,” it suggests vast thematic implications through a lucid narrative. And like its predecessor, it has the same technical perfection as the poems by Frost's greatly admired touchstones: Herrick, Shirley and Collins. Frost said that he wrote this poem, “my best bid for remembrance,” right off at dawn, after completing “New Hampshire”—though he later revised the second stanza. The most amazing thing about this work is that three of the fifteen lines (the last line repeats the previous one) are transformations from other poems. “He gives his harness bells a shake” comes from Scott's “The Rover” (in Palgrave): “He gave the bridle-reins a shake.” “The woods are lovely, dark and deep” comes from Thomas Lovell Beddoes' “The Phantom Wooer”: “Our bed is lovely, dark, and sweet.” The concluding “And miles to go before I sleep” comes from Keats' “Keen Fitful Gusts”: “And I have many miles on foot to fare.” Though these three lines are variations from other poets, Frost,...
(The entire section is 629 words.)
SOURCE: Hochman, Jhan. “An Overview of ‘Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.’” In Poetry for Students. Vol. 1, pp. 276–79. Detroit: Gale Research, 1997.
[In the following essay, Hochman discusses multiple interpretations of “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening,” a poem that seems to evade any one definite interpretation.]
Perhaps no poem of Robert Frost is more anthologized and studied than “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening”. The poem appeared in Frost's collection, New Hampshire: A Poem with Notes and Grace Notes (1923) for which he won one of four Pulitzer Prizes. Even Frost called the poem his “best bid for remembrance.” “Stopping,” describes an unremarkable moment: a driver stopping his horse-drawn buggy to look at the woods, his horse shaking the harness bells which the driver thinks is the horse's way of saying, “There must be some mistake,” and the driver deciding it is time to move on. It is not known who the person is, nor whether male or female. Neither is it known from where or to where the driver is going, nor why, and the promises the driver must keep also go unexplained. Finally no clue is supplied as to where this scene takes place. Here then, is a poem that functions as a perfect vehicle upon which to heap meaning, since, one is likely to think, the mere situation of stopping and looking at woods surely cannot be all there is to the poem. The...
(The entire section is 1609 words.)
SOURCE: Kilcup, Karen L. “The Faded Flowers Gay.” In Robert Frost and Feminine Literary Tradition, pp. 44-47. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998.
[In the following excerpt, Kilcup asserts that “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” is a “feminine” poem and compares it to Helen Hunt Jackson's “Down to Sleep.”]
The final goal of the war on sentimentalism was to consolidate cultural authority over and against a dangerous feminine and feminizing mass culture. Ostensibly excluded from modernism is the sentimentality that resides within it, for (feminine) emotion remains transgressive in a culture structured by (masculine) rationality.1 Nevertheless, as my discussion of Frost's poetry so far indicates, to characterize the sentimental as defined solely by the emotional realm oversimplifies at best. What we need to interrogate more narrowly are kinds of emotion, the means for their evocation in all poetry, and the interaction of appeals to feeling and intellect, along with the relative position of narrator, author, and reader.
With these ideas in mind we should notice the gendered quality of the language that protests my choice of weak over strong poems, with stronger being a code for “more masculine” and detached and weaker invoking “more feminine” and “sentimental.” Frost's use of the images, rhetoric,...
(The entire section is 1512 words.)
Coursen, Herbert R. Jr. “The Ghost of Christmas Past: ‘Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.’” In The Overwrought Urn, edited by Charles Kaplan, pp. 86-88. New York: Pegasus Press, 1969.
Offers a humorous parody of an interpretation of “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening,” concluding, tongue-in-cheek, that the speaker of the poem is Santa Claus.
Ferry, Anne. “Frost's ‘Obvious’ Titles.” In Reading in an Age of Theory, edited by Bridgit Gellert Lyons, pp. 147-63. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1997.
Presents an analysis of the significance of the titles of Frost's poems.
Ford, Caroline. The Less Traveled Road. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1935, 59p.
A discussion of Frost's views on his own poetry.
Heaney, Seamus. “Above the Brim: On Robert Frost.” Salmagundi, no. 88-89 (fall-winter 1991): 275-94.
Explores the darker side of Frost's poetry.
Hoffman, Daniel. “Robert Frost: The Symbols a Poem Makes.” Gettysburg Review 7, no. 1 (winter 1994): 101-12.
Discusses the use of symbols in Frost's poetry.
McDowell, Michael J. “Since Earth is Earth: An Ecological Approach to Robert Frost's Poetry.” South Carolina Review...
(The entire section is 509 words.)