St. John 700?-752?
Byzantine (Syrian) theologian. Also known as St. John Damascene and St. Johannes Damascenus.
John of Damascus was one of the first of a new generation of Christian theologians—the Scholastics—who attempted to transform a multiplicity of tenets and practices into a coherent and consistent system of beliefs. Although his major theological work was the task of compiling the wisdom of earlier leaders of the Church, John of Damascus is well known for his original contributions to the iconoclastic controversy that fractured the Christian church in the eighth and ninth centuries. His defense of the worship of images also led him to respond to the Muslim accusation that Christianity involved the practice of idolatry; his response took the form of a dialogue and was one of the first theological representations of the "heresy" of Islam to Christians.
Although there is disagreement about the family background of John of Damascus, it is generally acknowledged that he was born around the end of the seventh century into a prominent Christian family. Damascus at that point in its history was a city ruled by a Muslim caliph (a successor to Mohammed), and John thus had a great deal of exposure to the tensions between the emerging beliefs of Islam and the slightly more well-established ones of Christianity. Fluent in Arabic, he seems to have been familiar with at least part of the Koran—the sacred text of Islam—as well as with scholarly interpretations of it. Before becoming a monk at the monastery of Saint Sabbas in Jerusalem, he occupied a hereditary political office in Damascus. He was interested in music and is also famous as a hymnographer. Known for his eloquence, John of Damascus wrote several treatises describing and defending orthodoxy, and is considered by many to be a transitional figure between the Eastern theologians of the early centuries of the Christian church and the European scholastics of the Middle Ages. Even after entering monastic life, he traveled extensively in Syria to defend the worship of images within Christian ritual. This view propelled him into a prominent place in the iconoclastic controversy and brought him sharp disapproval from the Byzantine Emperor Leo III (680?-741), against whose powerful interventions into church policy John of Damascus strenuously argued. John also traveled to Constantinople to meet with Leo's successor, Constantine V (719-775), to discuss the status of images within Christian doctrine. In general, however, John of Damascus did not engage in political activities, concentrating instead on compiling the wisdom of past theologians.
John of Damascus took his most important task to be that of collecting and organizing the diversity of Christian thought into a coherent doctrinal system. According to most scholars, his greatest achievement was the Sources of Knowledge (written circa 743), also known as the Fount of Knowledge, which contains the three major works of Capita Philosophica (or Dialectica), an explanation of philosophical terms and ideas; De Haeresibus, a compilation of Christian and non-Christian heresies; and De Fide Orthodoxa, a systematic exposition of the Christian faith. The work is intended to instruct both negatively and positively—the heresies are described in order to reveal the error of those who might stray from the orthodox path. John of Damascus also is credited with writing two dialogues, Disceptatio Christiani et Saraceni and Disputatio Saraceni et Christiani, which represent the theological tensions between the two major religions of Palestine in the eighth century. Accordingly, John of Damascus is best known for his anti-Islamic polemics and his defense of Christian doctrine against the charge of idolatry, which Islamic scholars directed at Christianity. Islam is discussed as part of the catalogue of heresies in the Sources of Knowledge: John of Damascus frequently referred to Muslims as "Ishmaelites," or those who have fallen into the error of "deceptive superstition," an estrangement from orthodox Christianity. In particular, he criticized Islam for the rejection of the divinity of Christ and defended the paradoxical (and paradigmatically Christian) idea that the divine can also be incarnate. In his response to the Muslim accusation that Christians engage in idolatry, John of Damascus referred to the theological distinction between idols and icons: idols are associated with demons or, more generally, are images of beings which have no corporeal existence. Icons, contrastingly, are representations of corporeally existing beings. This difference between true and false images is intended to distinguish the Christian veneration of icons from pagan idolatry. It is Islam, John of Damascus countered, that practices idolatry, manifested in the worship of the "morning star and Aphrodite" (both are designations of the planet Venus, depending on its position in the sky; this worship was a practice preserved from pre-Islamic religion in Arabia), and the veneration of the Ka'ba. Although he recognized that Mohammed returned the Arabic people to monotheism, John of Damascus characterized him as a "false prophet," one who does not accept the tripartite nature of God. In general, John of Damascus sought to introduce Islam, as a nascent system of beliefs, to Christians as a way of deterring them from falling into a heretical understanding of the divine. This task typifies his larger goal of systematizing Christian doctrine.
Due to the propensity of John of Damascus to compile the writings of others, as well as to revise extensively his own work, it is difficult to establish precisely what he wrote and what he merely collected. Some critics have contended that the entire list of heresies (De Haeresibus) cannot be attributed to John of Damascus, as this part of the Sources of Knowledge does not appear in all editions of that work, particularly in early manuscripts. As the other two parts form a coherent unit, it has been suggested that the catalogue of heresies was incorporated later. Its first eighty chapters seem to have been copied from a fourth-century work, the Panarion, by Saint Epiphanius of Salamis. Yet most scholars have concluded that De Haeresibus is an "integral part," as Sahas claims, of the Sources of Knowledge, for it functions as a critical contrast to the exposition of Christian doctrine in the concluding part, De Fide Orthodoxa. Another controversy with regard to the authorship of this text is the question of the authenticity of Chapter 101 (as it appears in the nineteenth-century edition), the chapter that deals with the heresy of Islam. It can be distinguished both by its length and its style from the first one hundred chapters: its discussion of Islam is an extended dialogue. As early as the ninth century, however, this chapter was included in editions of the work. Although the issue of the authorship of Chapter 101 remains a subject of debate among scholars, the chapter is still primarily acknowledged to be the work of John of Damascus. Apart from this major theological work, John of Damascus is also generally credited with two dialogues between a "Saracen" (a Muslim) and a Christian, but John Meyendorff has argued that both are actually the work of Theodore Abu-Qurra and were merely compiled by John. All of these texts were preserved under the name of John of Damascus in church documents and were published in the nineteenth-century in J. P. Migne's authoritative Patrologiae Cursus Completus.
John of Damascus is generally considered to have been an important compiler of orthodox Christian doctrine, a function that places him between the early period of Christianity, which involved significant diversity and strife regarding central tenets and practices, and the Scholastic era. His defense of icons also places him at the center of the iconoclastic controversy, a crisis that contributed to theological differences between the Western and Eastern Church. It is his encounter with Islam, however, that has engendered the most critical attention in recent years. There is considerable disagreement about the extent of his knowledge about Islam—how familiar he might have been with all or part of the Koran, his understanding of the nature of the divine in Islam, and his grasp of Muslim law. In addition, there is much debate about the adequacy of John's responses to the Muslim charge of idolatry and the cogency of his counter-accusations. Most critics do acknowledge that John of Damascus had some sophisticated understanding of Islamic beliefs and practices, although his interpretation was significantly influenced by his designation of Islam as a heresy. His writings provide significant insights into the theological character of eighth-century Christianity, although Christian practices varied widely, as John's determined attempt to establish a single set of doctrines indicates. His fundamentally conservative approach manifests his belief that knowledge is a form of "spiritual contemplation" and that the greatest knowledge had already been divulged by past theologians. Later scholars within the Christian church have conformed to this approach, and therefore John of Damascus has had a crucial influence on such thinkers as Peter Lombard and Thomas Aquinas. Accordingly, as David Anderson has argued, the questions and tensions that animate John of Damascus's writings remain relevant for contemporary religious thinkers. Specifically, the problem of divine incarnation and the difficult issue of encounters between Christianity and "heresies," both within and outside of the Church, still inform contemporary religious scholarship.
Principal English Translations
"The Apology of John of Damascus" [translated by John W. Voorhis] 1934
Saint John of Damascus: Writings [translated by Frederic H. Chase] 1958
On the Divine Images [translated by David Anderson] 1980
(The entire section is 29 words.)
Arthur Cushman McGiffert (essay date 1932)
SOURCE: "John of Damascus and the Eastern Church of the Middle Ages," in A History of Christian Thought, Vol. I: Early and Eastern, from Jesus to John of Da-mascus, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1949, pp. 308-32.
[In the essay below, originally published in 1932, McGiffert locates the theological work of John of Damascus within the broader context of the early Christian church. In particular, the critic focuses on the third book of the Sources of Knowledge—the Exposition of the Orthodox Faith—finding that it provided no new or profound insights, but acknowledging that it significantly influenced the theology of the Eastern church for many ensuing decades.]
(The entire section is 8066 words.)
John Ernest Merrill (essay date 1951)
SOURCE: "Of the Tractate of John of Damascus on Islam," in The Muslim World, Vol. 41, No. I (January 1951): 88-97.
[In the essay that follows, Merrill discusses the response John of Damascus makes to the Muslim charge that Christianity encourages idolatry and polytheism, and documents the limits of the information about Islam available to John of Damascus.]
"The first outstanding scholar to enter the field of polemic against the Moslem was John of Damascus. (He is) known to history as the most honored of the later theologians of the Greek Church.… His great dogmatic work on the Sources of Knowledge includes an important section 'Concerning...
(The entire section is 4467 words.)
John Meyendorff (lecture date 1963)
SOURCE: "Byzantine Views of Islam," in Dumbarton Oaks Papers, No. 18, 1964, pp. 113-32.
[In the following essay, originally delivered as a lecture in 1963, Meyendorff contends that although there was some sophisticated understanding on each side of the Christian-Moslem confrontation, the two realms generally "remained impenetrable" in terms of real influence. The critic also discusses the superficiality of the interpretations of Islam that were instituted largely by John of Damascus.]
No knowledge of the Islamic teachings is evident in Byzantine literature before the beginning of the eighth century. We know that the spiritual and intellectual encounter of Muhammad and...
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Daniel J. Sahas (essay date 1972)
SOURCE: "The Text and Its Content," in John of Damascus on Islam: The 'Heresy of the Ishmaelites,' E. J. Brill, 1972, pp. 67-95.
[In the following essay, Sahas examines John of Damascus's criticisms of Islam as an idolatrous and superstitious heresy, and contends that he had an extensive knowledge of early Islamic theology.]
It is important to study closely what John of Damascus had to report and remark on Islam. It is only then that one can draw a picture of his knowledge and his evaluation of Islam.1
1. "There is also the deceptive superstition of the Ishmaelites, prevailing until now …" (764A)
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David Anderson (essay date 1979)
SOURCE: Introduction to On the Divine Images: Three Apologies against Those Who Attack the Divine Images, by St. John of Damascus, translated by David Anderson, St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1980, pp. 7-12.
[In the introduction that follows, written in 1979, Anderson argues that On the Divine Images, in which St. John of Damascus defended the veneration of images, retains its significance even today, especially with regard to tensions within present-day Christianity.]
The iconoclastic controversy begun in the eighth century by the Byzantine emperor Leo III (717-741) and continued by his successor Constantine V (741-775) cannot be considered in isolation from...
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Kenneth Parry (essay date 1996)
SOURCE: "Apophaticism and Deification," in Depicting the Word: Byzantine Iconophile Thought of the Eighth and Ninth Centuries, E. J. Brill, 1996, pp. 114-24.
[In the following essay, Parry examines the paradoxical characterization of God by John of Damascus—in which he described God's humanity as well as His divinity—and discusses how this depiction affected the iconoclastic controversy.]
The two doctrines of apophaticism … and deification …, are here treated together because they often complement one another in Byzantine theology. For example, Pseudo-Dionysius writes: 'Since the union of deified minds with that light which is beyond all deity...
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Addison, James Thayer. The Christian Approach to the Moslem: A Historical Study. New York: Columbia University Press, 1942, 365 p.
Discusses Christian missionary encounter with Islam beginning in the seventh century, with particular emphasis on the social and political atmosphere of these interactions.
Backus, Irena. "John of Damascus, De Fide Orthodoxa: Translations by Burgundio (1153/54), Grosseteste (1235/40) and Lefevre d'Etaples (1507)." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 49 (1986): 211-17.
Compares three Latin translations of De fide Orthodoxa, the third part of the Sources of Knowledge.
(The entire section is 80 words.)