St. Anselm of Canterbury Essay - Critical Essays

St. Anselm of Canterbury


St. Anselm of Canterbury 1033/34–-1109

Italian-born Anglo-Norman theologian.

Saint Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109, is considered an important figure in the field of medieval Scholasticism, a theological school of thought that emphasized the close relationship between faith and reason and dominated Western philosophy for centuries. In practice, Anselm has become best known for his two works on the primary nature of God, the Monologion (1076) and Proslogion (1077–78)—the latter containing his famous ontological argument for God's existence. Both works are of particular interest in the history of church doctrine for their argumentative use of reason as the sole means of explaining the mysteries of revelation, as well as defining the characteristics of God without recourse to direct quotation of past authority. Anselm's other outstanding works include writings on Christian redemption, especially his Cur Deus Homo (1094–98) and his principal devotional compositions collected as Orationes sive Meditationes (1060–78). An innovative thinker and spiritual leader, Anselm also contributed to the development of Christian Platonism in the Middle Ages and was often involved in the eleventh- and twelfth-century disputes between ecclesiastical and secular authorities in the granting of high church offices known as the investiture controversy. Canonized in 1163, he was named a Doctor of the Roman Catholic Church in 1720.

Biographical Information

Anselm was born in Aosta, a town in the Piedmont region of northern Italy, in either 1033 or 1034. His parents were members of the continental nobility; his mother, Ermenberga, belonged to a landholding family in Burgundy, and his father, Gondolfo, was a Lombard aristocrat. Schooled in classical languages and the theological doctrines of the period, the young Anselm excelled in Latin and opted to pursue monastic life upon completion of his education. He departed Aosta in 1057, stopping at monasteries in southern and central France before joining the order of Benedictine monks at Bec in Normandy in 1060. There he hoped to serve under Lanfranc, a distinguished cleric who had recently returned from Rome. Lanfranc's departure to Caen in 1063 opened the way for Anselm's elevation to prior of the monastery at Bec; he was later be made Abbot in 1078. During this period, Anselm began to compose his theological and devotional writings, the first outstanding achievement of which was his Monologion. Undertaken at the request of his fellow monks, the Monologion was sent by Anselm to his superior, Lanfranc, in order to win his approval. The Abbot's reaction to Anselm's work, however, was one of thinly disguised disapproval, principally for the work's failure to quote authority in the accepted tradition of theological inquiry and argumentation. Undaunted by Lanfranc's lack of enthusiasm, Anselm began composition of a follow-up work that was far more ambitious in scope. Shortly after its appearance, the Proslogion sparked a vehement challenge by the monk Gaunilo of Marmoutier, who in his Liber pro insipiente questioned Anselm's arguments. In response, the Abbot of Bec composed the Liber apologeticus contra Gaunilonem (1078), which essentially restates the original thesis of the Proslogion. Meanwhile, the Norman conquest of England in 1066 placed lands on the far side of the English Channel under the ecclesiastical authority of Bec, lands Anselm visited several times in the ensuing years. His strong relationship to the region culminated in his being named Archbishop of the See at Canterbury in England by William Rufus, son of William the Conqueror, in March of 1093. Despite Anselm's reluctance to transfer his authority to a region devastated by Norman occupation, he accepted the promotion in December of that same year, filling a position previously held by Lanfranc until his death in 1089. Tension between Anselm and William II in regard to the transfer of monies from church possession to the King's treasury erupted in a dispute between the Norman ruler and Pope Urban II regarding ecclesiastical investiture. Two years later, in 1095, English bishops decided in favor of their King, and Anselm was expelled from England. The overall investiture issue remained unresolved. Returning to Italy, Anselm completed work on his Cur Deus Homo (1094–98). The death of William II in the spring of that year prompted Anselm to return to England in support of William's brother Henry I. Continuing controversy over lay versus ecclesiastical investiture raged between 1103 and 1106, however, forcing Anselm to again leave Canterbury. Anselm's return in 1107 was followed by two years of relative calm before his death in April of 1109. The events of Anselm's life were first recorded by the devout monk Eadmer in his Vita Anselmi, completed in the early years of the twelfth century. Later, under the authority of Thomas Becket of Canterbury, Anselm was referred for canonization in 1163. His official sanctification as a Doctor of the Roman Catholic Church was affirmed in 1720 by Pope Clement XI.

Textual History

In accordance with Anselm's high ecclesiastical position and sweeping influence on medieval thought, numerous manuscript editions of his works have survived into the modern era. Principal among these is the complete collection of Anselm's writings housed in the British Library, London. Another extant collection, the Hereford Cathedral manuscript, was bequeathed to the Augustinian abbey at Cirencester in the mid-twelfth century and there preserved. A fourteenth-century compilation comprising Anselm's Proslogion and several of his dialogues can be found at the Library of the University of Cambridge. In addition to these texts, many other editions containing portions of Anselm's collected works, including diverse letters written by the cleric, are available from the late medieval period. The standard Latin critical edition of Anselm's oeuvre, the six-volume Sancti Anselmi Opera Omnia, was edited by Franciscus S. Schmitt and published in the middle of the twentieth century. Various English translations of Anselm's major and most of his minor writings also abound.

Major Works

Principal among Anselm's early works are a series of devotional writings collected in his Orationes sive Meditations (Prayers and Meditations of St. Anselm), most of which were composed before Anselm became abbot of Bec in 1078. They include a number of pious exhortations that insist on the sinners' finding repentance through their acceptance of the boundless love of God. Outstanding among these works is Anselm's “Meditation on Human Redemption,” written somewhat later than the other prayers, which encapsulates the monk's intense devotional spirit. Scholars regard Anselm's first groundbreaking work, the Monologion, as a meditation on the subject of faith combined with a philosophical inquiry into the existence of God. Based upon reason alone, without appeal to authority, Anselm's early treatise outlines his conception of God as the ultimate standard of perfection conceivable by human beings. In the early chapters of its companion work, the Proslogion, which originally bore the subtitle Fides Quarens Intellectum (“faith seeking understanding”), Anselm lays out his famous ontological argument for the existence of God. Like the Monologion, this work completely eschews traditional appeals to authority in favor of a meditative understanding of divine nature. Building upon Anselm's definition of God as “something a greater than which cannot be conceived” (“aliquid quo nihil maius cogitari posit”), the Proslogion employs the device of a questioning Fool who denies God's existence. Using this format, Anselm argues in the work that God necessarily exists precisely because of His presences in such diverse conceptual frames as those of the Fool, the author himself, and by logical extension all beings capable of thought. Anselm's contributions to soteriology rest on the arguments of his Cur Deus Homo (Why God Became Man), in which he offers his view of human redemption through the death of Christ. Articulating a theory of satisfaction atonement, Anselm's treatise forwards a conception of justice that mirrors the hierarchical moral and social orders of medieval feudalism. Just as individuals in feudal society demand recompense for harm done based upon their position within the social hierarchy (i.e., a king may claim far greater satisfaction than a peasant if he is wronged), so does God demand the highest possible level of atonement for the sins of humankind against him—an infinitude. Such an amount can only be equaled by an act of God Himself, namely the act of sacrificing Christ. Another notable work, the Epistola de Incarnatione Verbi (1094) contains Anselm's response to the monk Roscelin of Compiègne, an outspoken critic of ecclesiastical authority, and was drafted in the form of a letter to Pope Urban II. The treatise condemns Roscelin's theory distinguishing the three persons of the Trinity as separate entities, calling this conceptualization heretical. Anselm's additional writings comprise a series of theological discourses composed as dialogues. Scholars are quick to point out that despite the seeming dialectical character of this literary form, Anselm's dialogues instead fall squarely into the Platonic tradition. Rather than making distinctions between rival points of view or schools of thought in order to come to a synthetic conclusion, Anselm's dialogues generally offer a convenient form in which to organize his essentially monologic thought. Representative of these works, De Libertate Arbitrii (1085) defines freedom in human obedience to God and De Concordia Praescientiae Praedestinationis et Gratiae Dei cum Libero Arbitrio (1007–08) presents arguments against theological fatalism. Finally, Anselm's extant Correspondence (c. 1089–1109) contains some 400 letters written over the course of his career as Abbot of Bec and Archbishop at Canterbury.

Critical Reception

Long venerated as a seminal figure of Scholastic thought and a promulgator of church orthodoxy as a Doctor of Roman Catholicism, Saint Anselm has continued to elicit considerable scholarly interest in the contemporary era. Primarily, critics have been drawn to his arguments for the existence of God in the Proslogion and its precursor the Monologion, as well as to the soteriological theories of his Cur Deus Homo. Regarding his well-known ontological argument, numerous theologians and philosophers have sought to either champion or condemn Anselm's methodology in arguing for God's existence. Generally, critics have acknowledged that Anselm's argument fails to withstand rigorous logical analysis, noting his tacit assumption of divine existence in the opening portions of the proof. Thus, some have accused Anselm's ontological argument of failure on the grounds that it “begs the question” by postulating elements of its final conclusion, or otherwise have suggested that it derives false conclusions from inaccurate assumptions. Critics have usually recognized its greatest logical flaw in its implication that because God exists on a conceptualized level, He must necessarily also exist in reality. Most commentators sympathetic to Anselm, however, urge that the general methods and ideas of Anselm's ontological argument, rather than the specifics of his logical proof, are the principal issues at stake in these works. His reliance on reason to produce a compelling description of God's characteristics, then, constitutes the work's main value for such scholars. These views notwithstanding, many critics have continued to maintain that Anselm's writings, despite their clarity of purpose, remain deficient in logical precision, and are thus open to a thorough rational critique. Other areas of critical interest are his intensely felt and highly personal devotional writings, particularly his Orationes sive Meditationes, which have also been studied in the context of similar works by St. Augustine. Likewise, the intellectual relationship between Anselm and Augustine, and particularly the influence of Augustine's De trinitate and other writings on Anselm's thought has fascinated many scholars. Anselm's unique and fundamental articulation of the relationship between faith and reason, which posits the primacy of faith as a necessity to the exercise of rational thought, has also been viewed as a formative and enduring contribution to the tradition of Scholasticism in the Middle Ages.

Principal Works

Orationes sive Meditationes (meditations) c. 1060-78

Monologion (theology) 1076

Proslogion (theology) 1077–78

Liber Apologeticus Contra Gaunilonem (theology) c. 1078

Disputatio Inter Christianum et Gentilem (theology) c. 1079

De Casu Diaboli (theology) c. 1085-90

De Grammatico (theology) c. 1085-90

De Libertate Arbitrii (theology) 1085

De Veritate (theology) c. 1085

Correspondence (letters) c. 1089-1109

De Humanis Moribus per Similitudines (theology) c. 1090...

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Hugh R. Smart (essay date 1949)

SOURCE: Smart, Hugh R. “Anselm's Ontological Argument: Rationalistic or Apologetic?” Review of Metaphysics 3 (1949): 161-66.

[In the following essay, Smart argues that Anselm's ontological argument offers a combination of rational proof and spiritual revelation about the existence of God.]

In this paper I propose to consider two possible interpretations of Anselm's ontological argument. According to the first interpretation the argument is purely rational; according to the second, reason and faith together form the foundation of the argument.

The ontological argument, as understood by the first interpretation, runs as follows: The concept...

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Norman Malcolm (essay date 1960)

SOURCE: Malcolm, Norman. “Anselm's Ontological Arguments.” Philosophical Review 69 (1960): 41-62.

[In the following essay, Malcolm considers whether Anselm's ontological arguments stand up to the scrutiny of logic as well as of faith.]

I believe that in Anselm's Proslogion and Responsio editoris there are two different pieces of reasoning which he did not distinguish from one another, and that a good deal of light may be shed on the philosophical problem of “the ontological argument” if we do distinguish them. In Chapter 2 of the Proslogion1 Anselm says that we believe that God is something a greater than which cannot be...

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R. W. Southern (essay date 1963)

SOURCE: Southern, R. W. “The Monk of Bec.” In Saint Anselm and His Biographer: A Study of Monastic Life and Thought 1059-c. 1130, pp. 27-76. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1963.

[In the following excerpt, Southern describes the content of Anselm's early works, the Monologion and Proslogion, the latter of which features his arguments concerning the existence of God.]


Until he became archbishop, Anselm's life for over thirty years was one of monastic peace disturbed only by the occasional enmities inseparable from the life of men living in close proximity in a small community, and by material cares...

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Richard Campbell (essay date 1979)

SOURCE: Campbell, Richard. “Anselm's Theological Method.” Scottish Journal of Theology 32 (1979): 543-48.

[In the following excerpt, Campbell asserts that critics of Anselm's ontological argument have misrepresented his point, which is simply to demonstrate “that it cannot be said that God is not.”]

The study of Anselm's Proslogion argument on the existence of God which I recently undertook1 emerged out of a growing conviction that commentator after commentator had been guilty of serious misrepresentation of its structure. Traditionally, Anselm has been taken as presenting in Proslogion 2 the first version ever to be formulated fully of...

(The entire section is 2117 words.)

A. E. McGrath (essay date July 1981)

SOURCE: McGrath, A. E. “Rectitude: The Moral Foundation of Anselm of Canterbury's Soteriology.” Downside Review (July 1981): 204-13.

[In the following essay, McGrath evaluates Anselm's thought on salvation as it appears in his Cur Deus Homo, maintaining that Anselm's conception of justice is based on theological rather than legal foundations.]

Anselm of Canterbury has attracted increasing scholarly attention during the past century as a major thinker standing at the dawn of the Middle Ages. His greatest intellectual achievement is generally considered to be the monograph Cur Deus Homo, which is of decisive importance in the history of doctrine. Its...

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Allan Bäck (essay date 1981)

SOURCE: Bäck, Allan. “Existential Import in Anselm's Ontological Argument.” Franciscan Studies 41 (1981): 97-109.

[In the following essay, Bäck analyzes Anselm's ontological argument in terms of traditional logic, suggesting that criticism of it can be resolved through a consideration of the Aristotelian nature of his syllogistic reasoning.]

The ontological argument of Saint Anselm has attracted a great deal of attention. There has been considerable discussion of whether the argument begs the question, by assuming the existence of God in the premises of the argument. But, although the theological, Augustinian context of Anselm's argument has been dealt with, and...

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Donald F. Duclow (essay date January 1982)

SOURCE: Duclow, Donald F. “Anselm's Proslogion and Nicholas of Cusa's Wall of Paradise.” Downside Review 100, no. 338 (January 1982): 22-30.

[In the following essay, Duclow juxtaposes Anselm's ontological argument with the symbolism of Nicholas of Cusa's “wall of paradise” in order to emphasize Anselm's use of limit or boundary thinking in his Proslogion.]

Perhaps Gilson gave the best excuse for presenting yet another essay on Anselm's Proslogion when he wrote that one simply cannot resist the temptation.1 An author does, however, need some justification for indulging his concupiscence. I would therefore make two claims for the...

(The entire section is 4146 words.)

William Collinge (essay date December 1984)

SOURCE: Collinge, William. “Monastic Life as a Context for Religious Understanding in St. Anselm.” American Benedictine Review 35, no. 4 (December 1984): 378-88.

[In the following essay, Collinge applies a Wittgensteinian concept of “seeing-as” (in this case: viewing through the paradigm of monastic obedience) to arguments in Anselm's Cur Deus Homo and Proslogion.]

Is the study of monastic life of interest to philosophers as philosophers?1 There is much in contemporary philosophy of religion to suggest that it can be.

One of the dominant tendencies of the philosophy of the past two centuries in the West is the effort to...

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Walter Fröhlich (essay date 1984)

SOURCE: Fröhlich, Walter. “The Letters Omitted from Anselm's Collection of Letters.” Anglo-Norman Studies 6 (1984): 58-71.

[In the following essay, Fröhlich surveys Anselm's collected correspondence, highlighting the monk's efforts to suppress letters that could potentially damage his reputation.]

The writing of letters and the gathering of such letters in large letter-collections is one of the striking features which distinguish intellectual life of the eleventh and twelfth centuries from those immediately preceding and following. This activity blossomed forth from the numerous schools which were attached to the monasteries and cathedrals of western Europe....

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Hugh Feiss (essay date March 1985)

SOURCE: Feiss, Hugh. “The God of St. Anselm's Prayers.” American Benedictine Review 36, no. 1 (March 1985): 1-22.

[In the following essay, Feiss surveys Anselm's Trinitarian theology as it appears in his devotional writings.]

St. Anselm was a monastic theologian, insofar as the context of his life and thought was Benedictine, and the principal aim of his thinking and praying was to seek the face of the Lord. One would, therefore, expect to find a close parallel between his thinking and his spirituality.1

In his faith Anselm was untroubled; in his approach to monasticism he was conservative.2 In both his theology and his written...

(The entire section is 8074 words.)

Aidan Nichols (essay date July 1985)

SOURCE: Nichols, Aidan. “Anselm of Canterbury and the Language of Perfection.” Downside Review 103, no. 352 (July 1985): 204-17.

[In the following essay, Nichols investigates the biographical context of Anselm's Proslogion and defines the work's fundamental aim as the search for a “language of perfection” that would allow one to articulate the transcendent nature of God.]

The aim of this article is to reconsider the Proslogion of St Anselm in its historical setting, and to suggest, in the light of recent Anselmian studies, that its basic argument is only acceptable if one shares the ‘fiduciary’ view of language represented, in different ways,...

(The entire section is 6318 words.)

Thomas A. Losoncy (essay date 1985)

SOURCE: Losoncy, Thomas A. “Language and Saint Anselm's Proslogion Argument.” In Acta Conventus Neo-Latini Bononiensis: Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress on Neo-Latin Studies, edited by R. J. Schoeck, pp. 284-291. Binghamton, N. Y.: Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, 1985.

[In the following essay, Losoncy claims that critical appraisals of the Proslogion have generally failed to recognize and understand Anselm's particular use of language, thus reaching misleading conclusions.]

In the over nine hundred years since Saint Anselm wrote the Proslogion steadfast disagreement over what he meant, and sometimes over what he...

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William L. Craig (essay date February 1986)

SOURCE: Craig, William L. “St. Anselm on Divine Foreknowledge and Future Contingency.” Laval théologique et philosophique 42, no. 1 (February 1986): 93-104.

[In the following essay, Craig assesses Anselm's arguments against theological fatalism and his ideas regarding free will.]

Contemporary discussions of foreknowledge and future contingency have all but completely overlooked the contributions of Anselm of Canterbury on this score, despite that fact that his treatise. De concordia praescientiae praedestinationis et gratiae Dei cum libero arbitrio (1107/08) contains a very interesting and illuminating discussion of the problem of theological fatalism. That...

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Drew E. Hinderer (essay date spring 1986)

SOURCE: Hinderer, Drew E. “Anselm's Ontological Argument: What's in the Fool's Understanding?” Michigan Academician 18, no. 2 (spring 1986): 271-77.

[In the following essay, Hinderer contends that Anselm's ontological argument for the existence of God fails because its premise that “God exists in the understanding” is problematic and false.]

Anselm's ontological arguments have been the subject of very sustained philosophical interest from his own day through the present. The vast majority of those who have written about the arguments have treated them as proofs, i.e., as efforts to persuade unbelievers that the very nature of God's being is such as to make His...

(The entire section is 3127 words.)

Thomas H. Bestul (essay date 1988)

SOURCE: Bestul, Thomas H. “St. Augustine and the Orationes sive Meditationes of St. Anselm.” Anselm Studies 2 (1988): 597-606.

[In the following essay, Bestul elucidates the stylistic influence of St. Augustine's work on Anselm's devotional writing.]

St. Anselm composed most of his nineteen prayers and three meditations between the years 1060 and 1078, while he was a monk at Bec. As scholars have frequently observed, those Orationes sive Meditationes mark a turning point in the devotional literature of the Western Church. Composed in an effusive, exclamatory, highly personal style, making use of lengthy balanced periods and carefully balanced...

(The entire section is 3433 words.)

Frederick Van Fleteren (essay date 1991)

SOURCE: Van Fleteren, Frederick. “Augustine and Anselm: Faith and Reason.” In Faith Seeking Understanding: Learning and the Catholic Tradition, edited by George C. Berthold, pp. 57-66. Manchester, N.H.: Saint Anselm College Press, 1991.

[In the following essay, Van Fleteren highlights some features of the theological relationship between Anselm and St. Augustine.]

It would be but an elaboration of the obvious to prove that the thought of Anselm was greatly influenced by Augustine. Anselm's own description of his thought, fides quaerens intellectum, owes much to the credo ut intelligam of Augustine and indeed is an excellent description of Augustine's...

(The entire section is 4283 words.)

Richard Law (essay date 1991)

SOURCE: Law, Richard. “The Proslogion and Saint Anselm's Audience.” In Faith Seeking Understanding: Learning and the Catholic Tradition, edited by George C. Berthold, pp. 219-26. Manchester, N.H.: Saint Anselm College Press, 1991.

[In the following essay, Law summarizes the rhetorical effects of the Proslogion while observing that the work was probably originally drafted simply to bring joy to its first intended audience, the monks of Bec.]

The epigraph for this talk is from Sir Richard Southern's notable book first published twenty-five years ago, Saint Anselm and His Biographer (1963): the Proslogion “was written in a state of...

(The entire section is 2847 words.)

Paschal Baumstein (essay date March 1992)

SOURCE: Baumstein, Paschal. “Benedictine Education: Principles of Anselm's Patronage.” American Benedictine Review 43, no. 1 (March 1992): 3-11.

[In the following essay, Baumstein outlines the influence of Anselm's character and ideals on the fundamental principles of Benedictine education.]

When creating the Benedictine college in Rome in 1687, Innocent XI promulgated the Apostolic Constitution Inscrutabili. That decretal invested Anselm of Bec (1033-1109) as the athenaeum's titular. It also lent him empire, ordaining that his thought, his perspective, should be embraced as the topos of all Benedictine education. The school's faculty was bound to vigilant...

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C. J. Mews (essay date 1992)

SOURCE: Mews, C. J. “St. Anselm and Roscelin: Some Texts and Their Implications.” Archives d'histoire doctrinale et littéraire du moyen age 58 (1992): 55-98.

[In the following excerpt, Mews concentrates on the text and arguments of Anselm's Epistola de Incarnatione Verbi, a polemical treatise aimed against Roscelin of Compiègne's conception of the Trinity.]

The solid reputation of St Anselm as thinker and saint could scarcely be more different from the few hazy details commonly remembered about Roscelin of Compiègne.1 Was not St Anselm a deeply spiritual monk determined to explain his religious faith in terms of reason rather than of written...

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J. F. Worthen (essay date 1993)

SOURCE: Worthen, J. F. “Augustine's De trinitate and Anselm's Proslogion: ‘Exercere Lectorum.'” In Collectanea Augustiniana, edited by Joseph T. Lienhard, Earl C. Muller, and Roland J. Teske, pp. 517-29. New York: Peter Lang, 1993.

[In the following essay, Worthen asserts that St. Augustine in his De trinitate and Anselm in his Proslogion engage in a narrative process of leading readers toward an understanding of God, and compares the methods used by both writers to achieve this goal.]


The power of speech, Socrates says in the Phaedrus, consists in ψυχαγωγία, which we might translate as “the...

(The entire section is 5594 words.)

Montague Brown (essay date 1994)

SOURCE: Brown, Montague. “Anselm's Argument for the Necessity of Incarnation.” Proceedings of the PMR Conference (1994): 39-52.

[In the following essay, Brown evaluates and ultimately rejects Anselm's rational claims in his Cur Deus Homo regarding the necessity of God's Incarnation as Christ in order to save humanity.]

In Cur deus homo, Anselm presents a rational argument for the necessity of the Incarnation, an argument suitable for convincing nonbelievers that the Incarnation is not only possible (that is, it does not involve a contradiction), but can be shown, by natural reason alone, to be necessary. Since there are many (believers as well as...

(The entire section is 5810 words.)

Ryan Topping (essay date February 2002)

SOURCE: Topping, Ryan. “Transformation of the Will in St. Anselm's Proslogion: A Response to Augustine's Articulation of the Problem of Human Evil.” European Legacy 7, no. 1 (February 2002): 33-43.

[In the following essay, Topping explores Anselm's response to St. Augustine's formulation of human will as the root cause of evil, seeing Anselm's solution to this problem in the transformation of man's will through the contemplation of God.]


Anselm wrote the Proslogion between 1077 and 1078 while abbot of the Benedictine monastery at Bec, in Normandy. While little is known of his youth, much is known about his...

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Further Reading


Bäck, Allan. “Anselm on Perfect Islands.” Franciscan Studies 43 (1983): 188-204.

Schematizes Anselm's counterargument to Gaunilo regarding that critic's objection to his lost, perfect island line of reasoning originally laid out in the Proslogion.

Bestul, Thomas H. “St. Anselm, the Monastic Community at Canterbury, and Devotional Writing in Late Anglo-Saxon England.” Anselm Studies: An Occasional Journal 1 (1983): 186-98.

Reviews the manuscript tradition of Anselm's collected prayers and meditations Orationes sive meditationes.

Bourke, Vernon J. “A Millennium of Christian...

(The entire section is 574 words.)