Spanish Civil War (Magill’s Guide to Military History)
Article abstract: At issue: Control of Spain’s national government. Result: Rebellious right-wing forces defeat the Spanish Republican government, establishing Francisco Franco’s thirty-six-year dictatorship.
The Spanish Civil War followed more than thirty years of political turmoil. From 1902 when King Alfonso XIII was enthroned until 1923, Spain had thirty-three government ministries. Leftist revolutionary forces included a growing labor movement led by two trade unions, the socialist Union General de Trabajadores (UGT) and the anarcho-syndicalist Confedración Nacional de Trabajo (CNT). Other leftist factions included Republicans, Basque and Catalan autonomists, Communists, and Marxists. In opposition were right-wing nationalist groups that supported a return to traditional government in Spain. They included conservative military officers, the fascist Falange España, Carlists, Monarchists, and the majority of Catholics under the political organization Confederación Española de Derechas Autonomas (CEDA). Violent conflicts between the various groups prevented the Spanish government from establishing legitimate political control. As a result, the military formed juntas de defense, and both leftist trade unions supported private militias.
Fundamental to the political divisions was a pervasive social and economic inequality. In 1931, approximately 20,000 people owned half the land in...
(The entire section is 1866 words.)
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