The Country (Encyclopedia of Global Resources)
Spain is located in the southwest corner of Europe on the Iberian Peninsula between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. The dominant physical feature is the Meseta, a vast, somewhat barren tableland that has an average elevation of 600 meters and slopes gently to the west. Three major rivers flow from the Meseta to the Atlantic: the Douro, Tagus, and Guadiana. The high and broad Pyrenees are on the northern border with France. The Cantabrian Mountains run behind the north coast. The Betic Cordillera stretches from the Gibraltar highlands at the peninsula’s southern tip east to the province of Alicante. Less dramatic sierras punctuate the Meseta. Two major depressions are between the Meseta and the marginal ranges: the Ebro, with its namesake river draining to the Mediterranean, and the Guadalquivir, with its namesake river flowing to the Atlantic. The coastal plains are few in number and extent. Spain’s territory also includes the Balearic Islands in the western Mediterranean; the Canary Islands off the northwest coast of Africa; Ceuta and Melilla, two autonomous port cities along the Mediterranean coast of Morocco; and six small islands off that coast. In 2007, Spain had the world’s eighth largest national economy. Key resources are coal, iron and steel, water, olives and olive oil, citrus fruit, grapevines and wine, and other minerals and foodstuffs.
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Coal (Encyclopedia of Global Resources)
Coal is Spain’s most plentiful natural resource. Bituminous and anthracite coals are found in the northern provinces of Asturias and León and in the southern provinces of Ciudad Real and Córdoba. Lignite (brown coal) occurs in the regions of Catalonia and in Galicia. Coal has been important to Spain’s economy since the last half of the nineteenth century. However, importing coal has been necessary because Spain’s deposits tend to be small, with narrow seams and impurities, and domestic anthracite is not suitable for conversion into coke for use in the iron and steel industry. Because of these disadvantages, Spain’s coal industry demanded government protection from competition with cheaper coal imported from Great Britain. This protection is estimated to have raised industrial prices in Spain between 2 and 5 percent until the 1960’s, when the coal industry was largely nationalized.
A small amount of domestic black coal is used for local industry and for heating fuel. Brown coal is used for mine-mouth power stations, but imported steam coal is increasingly important for power generation. The main use of coal in Spain is the generation of electric power, especially during times of drought, when hydroelectric power is less available.
Spain has reduced its subsidies to the coal industry while investing in structural change that will limit coal mining and government welfare for coal-mining districts. The Institute for the...
(The entire section is 294 words.)
Iron and Steel (Encyclopedia of Global Resources)
The iron and steel industry depends on two main resources: iron and coal. The nineteenth century blast furnaces required about 4 metric tons of coal to process 1 metric ton of iron. This ratio drew iron and steel producers to the coal deposits. Because Spanish coal was not competitive in quality and price with foreign coal, the iron and steel producers finally located in the province of Vizcaya. From there, ships exported Spain’s iron ore and pig iron to England and returned with inexpensive Welsh coking coal from Cardiff. By 1901, 90 percent of Spain’s excavated iron ore was exported to Great Britain. Although some of the largest iron-mining companies were subsidiaries of foreign iron manufacturers, most of the profits remained in Spain, helping to develop the iron and steel industry in Vizcaya and also partially underwriting the industrialization of the city of Bilbao. In 1902, the three largest iron and steel companies merged to form Altos Hornos de Vizcaya, which became the largest and most profitable industrial enterprise in Spain. However, at that time, Spain’s outputs of pig iron and steel were small compared to those of Great Britain and Germany.
The domestic industry’s growth resulted largely from tariffs protecting an oligopoly led by Altos Hornos de Vizcaya. When demand for iron and steel rose, the oligopoly raised prices before attempting to increase supply. Until 1960, the iron and steel industry retarded...
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Water (Encyclopedia of Global Resources)
Themost industrialized regions of Spain—the Basque Country and Catalonia—are relatively well endowed with water. However, water is a scarce resource in most of Spain, large regions of which receive less than 500 millimeters average annual precipitation. These regions are dry in the summer months, when their rivers carry less water for irrigation, processing raw materials for industry, and hydropower. Only 8 percent of Spain’s hydrologic resources are available for use without artificially altering the natural regimen; in the rest of Europe the comparable figure is 40 percent. As a result, Spain has about twelve hundred large dams and reservoirs and many canals to alter the natural water regimen so that an estimated 37 to 47 percent of the water is available for use.
Water management in Spain focuses on the river basin or watershed. Each autonomous community manages watersheds entirely within its boundaries. A Hydrographic Confederation oversees watersheds that spread over more than one autonomous community. Spain’s dams and reservoirs generate hydroelectric power, provide irrigation water for farming, supply potable water, support recreation, regulate downstream flow, and make water available for interbasin transfers. The large reservoirs have a water storage capacity of about 52 cubic kilometers; about 79 percent is for agriculture, 15 percent is for potable water in the urban supply network, and 6 percent is for industry. The...
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Olives and Olive Oil (Encyclopedia of Global Resources)
Spain has 2.4 million hectares in olive cultivation—as much as in Italy and Greece, the next largest olive growers in Europe, combined. Olive trees prefer thin, stony soils with little water and long, hot summers. The olive tree is intolerant to temperatures less than -5° Celsius. Most of the olive cultivation is in Andalusia, where 58 percent of the total cultivated area is dedicated to olive trees. The province of Jaén is home to more than one-half of Andalusia’s olive groves, followed in importance by the provinces of Córdoba, Sevilla, Badajoz, and Granada. Almost all of this cultivation is for oil; only 6 percent is for table olives. Spaniards consume about 0.4 liter of olive oil per person per week, and olive oil provides most of the fat in their diets. Spain is the world’s largest exporter of olive oil.
In recent years, olive oil production has risen in response to world demand, which grew 4 percent per year in the 1990’s. Although the traditional form of olive cultivation has been on small farms of less than 20 hectares, the growing demand has led to more farms larger than 100 hectares. The large groves tend to be located in flatter areas, use drip irrigation to increase tree density, and adopt mechanical harvesting. The large groves not only enjoy lower costs of production per kilogram of olives than small groves but also benefit from European Union subsidies that are correlated positively with the...
(The entire section is 417 words.)
Citrus Fruit (Encyclopedia of Global Resources)
Spain’s citrus crops are, in order of importance, sweet oranges, mandarins (especially clementines), lemons, grapefruit, and bitter (Seville) oranges. They are grown mainly in Mediterranean coast provinces, from Castellón to Málaga. The center of sweet orange orchards has been the province of Valencia; clementines are raised especially in Castellón; lemons and grapefruit prefer the hotter province of Murcia. However, citrus production is increasing rapidly in the region of Andalusia. Everywhere the trees are irrigated, either through flood irrigation or, in newer orchards, through drip irrigation.
The sweet orange accounts for about one-half of Spain’s citrus production. The sweet oranges come in many varieties and are typically raised on small farms belonging to cooperatives that supply packinghouses. Barring water-supply problems and unusually cold temperature spells, their production is gradually increasing.
Clementines, a cross between the sweet orange and the Chinese mandarin, are small, seedless citrus of different varieties. The small clementine tree (around 3 meters tall) is trimmed annually, and the fruit must be clipped by hand; a job for which the cooperatives usually recruit migrant labor. Clementine cultivation has expanded significantly, with most new orchards located in the Guadalquivir Valley and averaging more than 100 hectares. Spain is the world’s largest exporter of clementines, and U.S....
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Grapevines and Wine (Encyclopedia of Global Resources)
Grapevines require a dry, well-drained soil, summer temperatures neither too cold nor too hot, and an autumn without heavy rain. The vines grow in every province of Spain, but most vineyards are located along the Mediterranean coast from near the French border to the province of Almería. However, the largest wine region is La Mancha (in the provinces of Albacete, Ciudad Real, Cuenca, and Toledo). Spain has more land devoted to the wine grape than does any other country, with 1.2 million hectares under vine cultivation. However, the country produces less wine than France and Italy because of its aridity and rainfall variability.
Spain’s vineyards traditionally were planted in wide rows, with drought-resistant vines kept low and bushy to minimize evaporation. The resulting wine was ordinary to good, with some exceptional wines in the regions of Jerez, La Rioja, and Priorat. However, growers have been replacing vines with new grape varieties, adding drip irrigation, and pursuing new methods of wine making.
Spain’s sixty-nine Qualified Designation of Origin (DOCA) and DO areas produce distinct quality wines crafted from 146 varieties of grapes. Only La Rioja and Priorat have the DOCA designation. Vino de la Tierra (VdlT) wines come from regions with no special DO status but have a distinctive character. Vino Comarcal (VC) wines come from areas without any claim to quality. Finally, Vino de Mesa (VdM) table wines...
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Other Resources (Encyclopedia of Global Resources)
In the dry interior of the tablelands, wheat and barley are important crops grown for domestic consumption. Both are grown largely in the same areas and usually secano (without irrigation). Although barley is hardier, both crops can suffer significantly reduced yields from droughts and spring storms. Other crops grown mainly for the export market include Spanish melons, eggplants, tomatoes, lettuce, strawberries, peppers, and tomatoes. They are often grown under huge sheets of plastic and harvested by migrants living in nearby encampments.
Spain is highly mineralized, and its metal ores other than iron include alumina, copper, gold, lead, mercury, nickel, pyrites, silver, tungsten, uranium, and zinc. Industrial minerals include barite, clays, fluorspar, and potash. Energy resources also include small amounts of petroleum and natural gas.
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Further Reading (Encyclopedia of Global Resources)
Harrison, Joseph. “The Economic History of Spain Since 1800.” Economic History Review 43, no. 1 (1990): 79-89.
Sommers, Brian J. The Geography of Wine: How Landscapes, Cultures, Terroir, and the Weather Make a Good Drop. New York: Penguin Group, 2008.
Tortella, Gabriel The Development of Modern Spain: An Economic History of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Translated by Valerie J. Herr. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2000.
Viladomiu, Lourdes, and Jordi Rosell. “Olive Oil Production and the Rural Economy of Spain.” In Sustaining Agriculture and the Rural Environment: Governance, Policy and Multifunctionality, edited by Floor Brouwer. Northhampton, Mass.: Edward Elgar, 2004.
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Spain (Encyclopedia of Food & Culture)
Spain, situated on the westernmost peninsula of Europe and opening to the Atlantic Ocean on the northwest, historically has been oriented toward the Mediterranean both in its climate and in the temperament of its people. First settled by Celts, then invaded by Phoenicians, Greeks, and finally the Romans, who consolidated the peninsula into one province, ancient Spain became one of the most important agricultural regions of the Roman Empire. Following the Romans came the Goths, then Nordic invaders, and finally the Arabs, so that during the Middle Ages the country fragmented into many small kingdoms. Those former kingdoms roughly correspond to the provinces and regional cultures comprising modern Spain. Each of the invading peoples added its own identity to the rich mixture known as Spanish cuisine.
The Main Cultural Regions
Galicia, which has Celtic roots, is in the far northwest of Spain, and to the east are Asturias and the Basque country, whose culture and language predate Roman Spain. To the east of Asturias are Navarre and Catalonia, two important kingdoms during the Middle Ages that established Spain as a major maritime power in the Mediterranean. Along the western border with Portugal is Extremadura, and in the Spanish heartland to the east are Old and New Castile. Along the Mediterranean coast in the South, opposite Africa, are Andalusia and the Comunidades of Valencia and Murcia, all with distinctive regional cookeries and internationally known wines. The Arabic influence was strong in these regions and lingered in many aspects of the culture, perhaps best typified by the great Moorish palace of the Alhambra in Granada. Of course many islands are part of Spain, among them the Balearic Islands of Minorca, Majorca, and Ibiza and the Canary Islands off the Atlantic coast of Africa. No matter how Spanish culture is studied, it is obvious that this huge diversity rather than any one element of it defines the cuisine of modern Spain.
Added to this diversity is the climate. In the northern coastal area the weather is generally cool, even rainy, whereas in the central and southern parts of the country the climate is hot and dry like other parts of the Mediterranean. Thus even in its kitchen gardens and agriculture, the country exhibits a great diversity. In addition several gastronomic riches of the New World, including the tomato, the potato, the capsicum pepper, cacao, and vanilla, reached Europe via the Spanish Empire.
The Characteristics of Spanish Eating Habits
Not until the late twentieth century did a "national" Spanish characteristic for the times and places of food
Main meals. The most typical feature of the meal schedule is the tendency for Spaniards to delay the timing as much as possible. When midday dinner is adjusted to the work schedule, it usually takes place at around 2:00 P.M. On the other hand, when festivities or vacations allow more flexibility, Spaniards tend to postpone it until 4:00 in the afternoon for relaxation or friendly reunions or because of the earlier consumption of tapas. The most significant feature of the Spanish midday dinner is to prolong it as late into the day as possible with the help of desserts, liqueurs, and coffee. Its only rival activity is the siesta or midday nap. This dinner involves a major consumption of food. After the Spanish Civil War (1936939) families began to eat at the table three main dishes plus appetizers, cheeses, and dessert. Subsequently this pattern devolved into two main dishes and dessert.
The traditional Spanish supper usually takes place around 10:00 P.M., also in the home. It is characterized by its pretension of being light, although it consists again of two main dishes and dessert. Vegetables and fish are often preferred to assure that it is less heavy than the midday meal.
Meals between meals. Spaniards, being of a relaxed, Mediterranean temperament, have created a minimeal between breakfast and midday dinner. This meal, called an appetizer elsewhere in the world, is referred to in Spain by the verb tapeo (to eat tapas). Drinks and food are of equal importance to eating tapas. It is also popular among Spaniards to not eat the tapas in one establishment but rather to stroll through various eateries throughout the course of the morning.
A classical tapa can be eaten with a toothpick, in small pots or bowls with a fork, or on top of a piece of bread. All of these variations have their own descriptive nomenclatures based on appearance: pinchos, cazuelitas, and montados. Drinks of low alcoholic content, such as beer and wine, are always drunk with the tapas. In the South wines such as Jerez, Fino, and Mazanilla are served. Usually the higher the alcoholic content of the beverage served, the smaller the quantity of food consumed until, at the far extreme, tapas simply become dried fruits and olives.
Merienda. Merienda is the meal between the midday meal and supper. Generally it is a meal for socializing during afternoon visits or during a game of cards, or for children and the elderly who require extra nourishment between fixed meals. The drink most representative of the Spanish merienda is chocolate. Spanish-style chocolate is characterized by its thickness, although it is traditional to drink it in small cups called jícaras accompanied by absorbent cookies that can be dipped into the chocolate.
Another merienda, easy to eat during journeys, is the bocadillo. This is the equivalent of the sandwich, but it is prepared with a whole loaf of Spanish bread. During times of food shortages, bocadillos have been filled with sliced quince or a little grated chocolate. The more classical bocadillos are made of serrano ham and manchego cheese.
The bocadillo has undergone a gradual evolution. It is used as a quick meal suitable for any hour of the day since all of the basic types of nutrients can be put into the loaf, such as chorizo (a spicy pork sausage), calamares a la romana (squid fried in butter), sardines, or tortilla a la española (Spanish omelet). For excursions to the countryside something special is created, bocadillo filled with breaded filet of beef.
The weekly meal cycle. The Spanish housewife generally makes a clear distinction between the everyday meal and the festive meal, especially on Sundays. Traditionally it was possible for working husbands and school-children to eat in their own homes every day, and only manual laborers were obliged to eat at work. Housewives created a varied menu by distributing dishes representative of each day of the weekor example, Monday macaroni, Tuesday lentils, Wednesday stew, Thursday broiled fish, Friday porridge, Saturday salads, and Sunday paella. Depending on the economic means of the family, beef could be a choice, especially for Sundays. This custom continues in the "dish of the day" on restaurant menus.
The Seasonal Cycle
In spite of the geographical diversity of Spain, a shared seasonal climatic variation is common to all parts of the country. Thus, except for the colder regions, summer tends to be hot throughout Spain, which defines the character of summer meals. The foods of the warm season favor easy preparation and light, refreshing ingredients, such as salads and gazpachos. The basic ingredients of a typical salad are lettuce and tomatoes, and the simple salad dressinglive oil, wine vinegar, and salts prepared at the beginning of the meal by the guests themselves. This custom has continued in public restaurants. When the server places the cruet stand on the table, it is a sign that one of the dishes will include lettuce.
The "king" of all the first course dishes is gazpacho, one of the great contributions of Spanish cooking to hot weather cuisine. It is similar to a cold tomato soup, but in gazpacho all the ingredients, ripe tomatoes, cucumbers, green sweet peppers, garlic, olive oil, salt, and vinegar, are raw and are liquefied. Cold water is added to thin the soup. At restaurants it is served with garnishes, consisting of the same ingredients cut into small pieces, and small bits of bread.
In Spain the cold season is associated with the consumption of legumes. Lentils are part of a tasty repertoire of everyday meals, but when Spaniards want to feel satisfied, they think of garbanzo stew. When they want to feel extremely full, they think of the fabada asturiana. The fabada is a thick stew of white beans and pork products from the region of Asturias on the coast of northern Spain.
The Festive Cycle
The celebrations that have influenced Spanish gastronomy the most are the religious feasts, notably Christmas, a time when major excess prevails. The traditional feast days are Christmas Eve dinner on 24 December, Christmas Day dinner on 25 December, New Year's supper on 1 January, Three Kings supper (Epiphany Eve) on 5 January, Epiphany breakfast on 6 January, and Epiphany dinner on 6 January.
During the Middle Ages, Christmas Eve dinner followed a vigil, and from this period a light dish called sopa de almendras (almond soup) survived as a nostalgic relic. Only after midnight mass, or misa de gallo, could the great gastronomic excesses begin. Eventually this became the preeminent family dinner. The traditional dishes have continued, although they have evolved over time. Earlier the meal consisted of savoy or red cabbage and fish, usually red porgy, but grilled leg of lamb has become the porgy's competitor.
Certain Spanish confections, such as turrones, marzapán, and polvorones, convey a nostalgic dimension to Christmas, since they are only consumed at this time. The Christmas meal is family oriented, and turkey is the main dish. New Year's festivities tend to lose their family orientation, since New Year's Eve is a supper prelude to a party outside the home. Consequently it is light and easy to prepare, generally a cold meal of various seafoods, especially prawns. The cheapest and most common prawns are baptized with plenty of Catalan Cava (Spanish champagne).
Three Kings' supper on Epiphany Eve is a magical night for children, since they wait for gifts from the Three Kings of the East. The breakfast on Epiphany morning would not be of major importance were it not for the fact that the Magi have brought a roscón, a large, round, braided bread flavored with orange-flower water and decorated with crystal sugar, chopped almonds, and dried fruits. Spaniards give each other roscones de Reyes until every house has a great accumulation of them.
Lent is a period of recovery, forty days of penitence preceding the celebrations of the death and resurrection of Jesus. The traditional vigils and fasts during these forty days have developed many variations over time, yet the vigil dishes and the dishes of nourishment for days of fasting are a form of nostalgia or remembrance. The representative dish of a vigil is a potaje consisting mainly of garbanzos, dried codfish, spinach or cabbage, hard-boiled eggs, and a touch of cumin. During Lenten fasting one characteristic sweet, called torrija, is consumed. It is made with sliced bread soaked in milk and sugar, dipped in an egg batter, fried in olive oil, and drowned in wine, orange juice, or honey.
In addition to these great religious observances, each region of Spain has its own patron saint, who is celebrated with some characteristic meal. The confections made in the saint's honor add a special note to the extraordinary fare of the celebration and have given rise to numerous types of rosquillas, panecillos, and bollos ornamented with saintly symbols. Remarkably bakers invent new recipes for modern festivities, so many traditional observances are revitalized on a daily basis.
The Regional Cookeries of Spain
Because Spain has varied regional identities and diverse agricultural districts, regional cooking has acquired a special meaning. Besides the different languages and dialects, regionalism is thoroughly manifested in highly varied gastronomic traditions. In spite of this localization, many dishes have become popular over the entire country.
Local inns and taverns have a commercial interest in exposing consumers to dishes representative of the region. These can be identified by their last names, such as a la gallega, a la asturiana, a la riojana, a la catalana, a la valenciana, a la murciana, a la andaluza, just to mention a few specialties. Obviously these dishes are not always accurately prepared outside their regional settings, but they do allude to distinct culinary styles. Each regional capital has centers, called Casas Regionales, representing the cultures of other regions. These centers normally include restaurants that serve food typical of the regions they represent. All of Spain's regional cookeries are accompanied by an enormous diversity of wines that gradually have become certified by their nominations of origin, including sparkling Catalans, red Riojanos with a ribera del Duero body, and full-flavored Andalusians, plus a series of local liqueurs, the outstanding one being Anis.
Basque cookery. The importance of Basque cookery rests on the great Basque love for gastronomy and on the high quality of the natural products from that region, of which fish is the most important. In Basque country the clubs called Sociedad Gastronomica are exclusively for men. Whatever food they prepare themselves, they must also eat. The purpose of this society is to conserve traditional Basque cookery, but the members also are mindful of creative new cooking techniques. Out of this region great chefs, including those from the Basque part of France, given its close proximity, have emerged with innovative talents. In any city of Spain a restaurant run by a Basque chef will be well known for the high quality of its cookery.
Of the fish caught along the Basque coasts, the most notable is hake, which is also one of the most expensive. However, its closest relative, weakfish, is generally less expensive and equally tasteful. The best dark-fleshed fish also come from these waters, such as bonito and tuna. Basque sardines and anchovies have earned international popularity, and an industry has developed around preserving sardines and salted anchovies in oil.
Among the dishes most representative of Basque cookery, hake in green sauce stands out, as does marmitako, a stew composed of chopped bonito and potatoes with olive oil. The Basque secret of preparing codfish al pil-pil is the peculiar pan-shaking movement that must occur at the correct moment of cooking to emulsify the sauce. The typical wine from this region is txacolí, a young wine of low alcoholic content.
Castilian cookery. The central part of Spain is an extensive region known historically as the two Castiles. It is an area characterized by plateaus and a continental climate, cold winters and hot, dry summers. The area is rich in cereal products and herds of wool-producing animals, both sheep and goats. During the cold season residents consume legumes, most commonly garbanzos and lentils. Castilian-style garbanzos have given their name to the famous dish el cocido madrileño. Grain products hold an important place among the region's numerous shepherds, who make a light mealy frying flour or pieces of bread in olive oil, garlic, ground red pepper, and baconalled migas de pastor.
From Castile comes the best quality Spanish lamb, which when grilled attains a level of specialty by virtue of its utter simplicity. This area of Spain is also famous for its traditional method of grilling lamb and suckling pig. The cold, dry winters are traditionally the time for pork butchering, resulting in the famous chorizo sausage. This region also produces the famous manchego sheep's milk cheese, which gets its aromatic flavor from the wild herbs growing in the pastures where the sheep graze.
The cookery of Valencia. This style of Spanish cookery is famous for its clever use of rice. It has been said that the region's cooks are capable of producing 365 rice recipes, one for each day of the year. The two most famous rice recipes from this region are paella valenciana and paella alicantina.
Spanish rice is cooked with a precise proportion of grain to water so, at the end of the cooking process, the grains are perfectly fluffy, with no stickiness from excess water. The bomba variety of rice is ideal for paella, since it absorbs the stock surrounding it, producing the best texture.
The classic paella valenciana is composed of elements from the kitchen garden, chicken, rabbit, vegetables, and snails. Paella alicantina is essentially composed of seafood. It is visually attractive, presented at the table with shellfish, lobsters, shrimp, and prawns arranged radiating from the center. In both types of paella, saffron is essential to give the rice a yellow color and a distinctive flavor.
Andalusian cookery. Andalusia is one of the world's major producers of olive oil, and it has a bountiful seacoast and hot Mediterranean weather. These characteristics have given the regional cuisine its primary features, the refreshing gazpachos, the fried fish, and a style of cookery generally easy to prepare and accompanied by richly flavored wines. Andalusian fish fries are especially famous, and the best cured ham comes from this region.
The high quality of the region's ham is due to the fact that the cerdo ibérico (Iberian pig) breed is raised mostly in this region. The pigs' special diet in the pasture and a unique curing process contribute to the fine flavor of these hams, which are classified as serrano (plain cured) and bellota (acorn ham). Bellota comes from Iberian pigs fed on acorns, which achieves a flavor somewhat on the sweet side. This ham is of such prestige that it has been called Spanish "caviar."
Other regions. In addition to the culinary regions already mentioned, Galicia includes the best seafood, Rioja produces the highest quality Spanish wines, Catalan cookery is notable, and many subregions are incorporated within the larger provinces. The cookery of Galicia in particular benefits from the rugged coastline, ideal for nurturing quality seafood. Furthermore, its inland prairies produce beef and veal famous throughout the country. The delicious empanadas of medieval origin are made with the products of both land and sea.
The cookeries of Navarre and of the Rioja region enjoy the benefit of being in areas with special microclimates, and they are privileged with many bays and river valleys, where rich soils produce appealing vegetables. These vegetables are the ingredients in excellent stews that have encouraged mammoth feasts.
Catalan cooks, in their desires to rescue local traditions and to blend them with an innovative curiosity, compete with the Basques for first place in the Spanish kitchen. Their emphasis on grills and wood-burning fires is most likely of Roman heritage. As in Roman times clay tiles are used in cooking mushrooms, vegetables, fish, and meats. Catalan sauces or picadas are made by pounding mixtures of aromatic ingredients, such as garlic, dried fruits, tomatoes, herbs, olive oil, salt, and even cookies to give them a surprisingly sweet flavor. The weight of tradition is also reflected in Catalonia's varied ornamental confectionery.
Other regional foods, of no less importance, include the Murcian, with its fish chowders and the cookery of the Balearic archipelago, probably the most ancient style of cooking in Spain. Extremadura on the Portuguese border and the Canary Islands possess culinary riches inherited from Spain's age of discovery. From their cities came the curious voyagers who inaugurated Spain's expansion into a world empire, the true beginning of globalization.
Balzola, Asun, and Alicia Ríos. Cuentos Rellenos. Madrid, Spain: Editorial Gaviota, 1999. (19 cuentos relativos a la tradición oral gastronómica española).
Ríos, Alicia, and Lourdes March, The Heritage of Spanish Cooking. New York: Random House, 1991.
Translated from the Spanish by Enrique Balladares-Castellón
Spain (International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis)
In February and March 1893, one month after its appearance in the Viennese journal Neurologisches Zentralblatt, two Spanish journals, the Revista de ciencias médicas in Barcelona and the Gaceta médica in Granada, published On the Psychical Mechanism of Hysterical Phenomena by Josef Breuer and Sigmund Freud (1893a). It was, in the words of James Strachey, "the very first publication in the world of a translation of a psychological work by Freud."
In 1911 José Ortega y Gasset, the well-known intellectual, published a long article titled "Psicoanálisis, ciencia problemática" (Psychoanalysis, a problematic science), in which he recognized the importance of a great number of Freud's contributions. This article provoked the publication of Freud's works in Spanish. At Ortega's suggestion, the publisher Ruiz Castillo acquired the rights to publish all existing and future works by Freud and commissioned López Ballesteros to translate them. The publication of the first translation in the world of Freud's complete works in seventeen volumes appeared over ten years (1922-1932).
The most eminent psychiatrists of the time published various works in which they analyzed Freud's work and assessed the value of his contributions, but they also criticized what they considered "the omnipotent unconscious sexuality in all psychical phenomena" and the subjectivity of the therapeutic method. Psychoanalytic ideas exercised a considerable influence on judges, teachers, and thinkers. Writers and artists also felt attracted by Freud's discoveries. A group of intellectuals invited Freud to Spain to give conferences, but his illness prevented him from realizing this project. Sándor Ferenczi nevertheless went to Spain in October 1928 and conducted the communication program Learning Psychoanalysis and Psychoanalytic Transformation of the Character.
The discourse on psychoanalysis, already present in Spanish psychiatry, prompted two psychiatrists, Ramon Sarró and Angel Garma, to acquire psychoanalytic training. Garma trained at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute. He returned to Madrid in November 1931 and left Spain for good in 1936. For the five years between 1931 and 1936, motivated by the desire to create a psychoanalytic movement in Spain, he worked intensely to promote the discipline. The Spanish Civil War broke out in July 1936 and put an end to his hopes. He then emigrated to Argentina, where he participated in the creation of the Asociacíon psicoanalítica argentina (Argentine Psychoanalytic Association).
The Civil War (1936-1939) and the years of dictatorship imposed silence on many cultural and scientific sectors, particularly psychoanalysis. It was not until the end of the 1940s that two small groups of psychiatrists and intellectuals, one in Madrid and the other in Barcelona, took steps to train as psychoanalysts and to introduce psychoanalysis to Spain. In 1949 the Madrid psychiatrist R. del Portillo turned to the Deutsche psychoanalytische Gesellschaft (German Psychoanalytic Society) for training. He was analyzed by M. Steimback, whom he invited to Madrid to act as a training analyst. Steimback accepted and, until 1954, the year of his death, participated in training such analysts as Drs. R. del Portillo, Ma Teresa Ruiz, Carolina Zamora, J. Pertejo, and Julio Corominas.
During this same period Drs. Bofill, Folch, and Nuria Abelló from Barcelona turned to the Swiss Psychoanalytical Society for training. There they came into contact with Drs. Rallo from Madrid and F. Alvin from Lisbon. Drs. Pertejo, Zamora, and Corominas organized the Grupo Luso-Español de psicoanálisis (Portuguese-Spanish Group for Psychoanalysis), which, sponsored by the Swiss and Paris societies, was recognized by the International Psychoanalytical Association (IPA) in 1957. In 1958 R. del Portillo and Ma Teresa Ruiz joined the group. During the International Congress in 1959 the International Psychoanalytical Association admitted the group as a member. Following the break with the Portuguese group in 1966, the Sociedad Luso-Español de psicoanálisis (Portuguese-Spanish Society for Psychoanalysis) became the Sociedad Española de psicoanálisis (Spanish Psychoanalytical Society).
In 1973 psychoanalysts practicing in Madrid decided to form an independent group, and in 1979 the International Psychoanalytical Association recognized the Asociación de psicoanalítica de Madrid (Madrid Psychoanalytical Association) at the thirty-first congress. From then on the two IPA-affiliated societies together contributed to the development of psychoanalysis in Spain.
The scientific activity of the two societies proved to be intense and prolific throughout the years. Publications by Drs. León Grinberg, Folch, Bofill, Coderch, Torres de Bea, Spilka, Cruz Roche, Manuel Pérez Sánchez, Utrilla, Paz, Olmos, Loren, Guimón, congresses, symposia, schools, conferences; the publication of the journals Revista catalana de psicoanálisis and the Revista de psicoanálisis de Madridll bear witness to ongoing reflections on psychoanalytic theory and clinical practice. In these and other ways the two societies were active in both the medical and academic spheres, thus contributing to the dissemination of psychoanalytic thought.
In 1975 Oscar Masotta, an Argentinean philosopher and member of the Freudian School of Paris, introduced Jacques Lacan's ideas in Spain. In 1977 the library Biblioteca Freudiana was created in Barcelona, thus embodying the first institutional form of Lacan's ideas in the country.
After Masotta's death (1979), the dissolution of the Freudian school of psychoanalysis (1980), and the death of Lacan himself (1981), the Lacanian groups broke up and dispersed. In 1990, a group of eminent personalities, among them Jacques-Alain Miller, Eric Laurent, and Colette Soler, founded the European School of Psychoanalysis and the first section of the branch school in Barcelona. Later in the 1990s, different sections have come together in the European School of Psychoanalysispain. Other Lacanian groups also exist and are directly linked to various French groups.
One hundred years after the first publication in Spain of a work by Freud, a great many psychoanalytic ideas have taken hold in psychiatry, medicine, psychology, teaching, and ethics, and many psychoanalysts are actively working to relieve psychic pain and contribute to a better knowledge of human development, both normal and pathological.
MAR LUISA MUZ
Bermejo, Frijole V. (1993). La institucionalización del psicoanálisis en España en el marco de la A.P.I. Doctoral thesis, faculty of psychology, University of Valencia.
Caries, Egea. (1983). Introducción al psicoanálisis en España, 1893-1922. Doctoral thesis, University of Murcia.
Muñoz, María Luisa. (1989, May-November). Contribución a la historia del movimiento psicoanalitico en España. Revista de psicoanálisis. Madrid.
Muñoz Gonzalez, J. (1987). Evolución del psicoanálisis en España (1923-1936). Doctoral thesis, University of Murcia.
Pérez Sánchez, Manuel. (1984). Inicios del movimiento psicoanalítico. Revista catalana de psicoanálisis, 1,1.