Sordello Essay - Critical Essays

Sordello

Introduction

Sordello c. 1189-1200 - c. 1269

(Also referred to as Sordel) Italian troubadour.

One of the most celebrated early Italian troubadours, Sordello gained a formidable reputation primarily through his noble characterization in Dante Alighieri's Purgatorio, which immortalized the poet as a symbol of patriotic pride. Sordello wrote in the tradition of the troubadours— creative lyric poets of the late eleventh to the late thirteenth centuries who hailed primarily from northern Italy, northern Spain, and southern France and produced poems in their vernacular tongues. He composed about forty poems on such subjects as love, chivalry, and morality and became a fairly significant figure in the development of Italian literature, attracting attention to his native land as his fame spread. Following his death, his reputation grew as legends emerged about events in his life; early Mantuan chroniclers, perhaps influenced by Dante's portrayal of Sordello, centered on and presumably embellished his public importance and his gallant adventures. Scholars have debated whether these early characterizations contributed to Sordello's appeal to poets Robert Browning and Ezra Pound, both of whom were inspired by the troubadour. In 1840, Browning composed a largely imaginative version of the troubadour's life in his fulllength poem Sordello, a complex and highly idealized account of the development of the poet's spirit. Pound, one of the staunchest defenders of Browning's poem, echoed Sordello's lyrics in several of his Cantos, perhaps impressed, as scholars have suggested, by the troubadour's disdain for moral and political corruption as well as by his dedication to a plain style of composition.

Biographical Information

Most existing accounts of Sordello's life are considered unreliable, coming from his songs; from vidas, factually questionable biographies whose authors are unknown but thought to have been other troubadours; and razos, prose explanations preceding the songs. It is generally acknowledged that he was active in politics, attaching himself to wealthy, pro-Empire clans, and that he was entangled at various times in scandalous activities that threatened his courtly duties. He was born in the city of Goito, near Mantua, sometime between 1189 and the turn of the thirteenth century. His family belonged to the minor nobility, and he spent his youth learning the art of being a courtier, which often involved the composition of music in the troubadour tradition of southern France. One of the first historical mentions of Sordello occurs in the mid-1220s and recounts his patronage at various courts of Lombardy in northern Italy, where he exchanged verses with fellow troubadours and began acquiring a reputation as a poet of merit. Sometime during the mid-to late-1220s he was involved in the abduction and possible seduction of Cunizza, wife of one of his hosts, Count Ricciardo di San Bonifacio, and sister of the notorious Lord Ezzelino da Romano. Allegedly, he then traveled to Onedes, where he secretly wedded Lady Otta di Strassi (or Otha di Strassi), arousing the fury of her brothers. In danger of becoming the target of revenge by the Strassi clan as well as by Bonifacio, Sordello ultimately fled in the late 1220s to Provence, the center of culture in western Europe and where he most actively pursued his vocation as a troubadour poet. By the 1230s he had secured the patronage of Raymond Bérenger IV, ruler of Provence, in whose powerful court he encountered such notable literary figures as the poet Peire Bremon Ricas Novas, who appears in several of Sordello's poems. In addition, he associated with influential heads of state, including Lord Blacatz of Aups, whose death around 1237 prompted Sordello's most famous poem, and he fell in love with a lady, perhaps Berenger's daughter Beatrice, for whom he wrote numerous chansons addressed to the dolza enemia ("sweet enemy"). Following the count's death in 1245, Sordello served as friend and counsellor to his successor, the ambitious Charles I of Anjou, during whose reign the poet was taken prisoner while on a military campaign to Italy. Evidencing his public significance at the time was Pope Clement IV's intervention on his behalf, which prompted his release. The last mention of Sordello occurs in 1269, when historical records show that his feudal holdings, which Charles had granted him for his services, had been turned over to another Provençal knight. This transfer of property has led scholars to assume that either Sordello had died by this time or that he died in Provence a short time thereafter, possibly at the hands of one of his enemies.

Major Works

Sordello was the author of approximately forty poems of various styles and subjects, all of which were written in Provençal, the language spoken by courtly audiences in Spain, Italy, and France. His minor works include several love lyrics celebrating purity and chastity, most of which were written while he was in Italy and later, while he served under Charles I. Scholars emphasize that the significance of these works lies in the biographical information they provide rather than their artistic merit. Other of his minor works include his tensos, or partimens ("debate poems"), in which the poet holds discussions with such historical figures as Bertran d'Alamanon (it is not clear whether his subjects actually contributed their portions). In direct contrast with the idealized vision of his love poems, these debate poems reveal a pragmatic, and even cynical, side to the poet. Sordello's major works are predominantly sirventes (satiric poems) and cansos ("songs"), most of which he wrote from the 1230s to the early 1240s. His cansos form a more or less unified group and, although lacking the originality of his sirventes, are significant for their elegance and simplicity. Written in the style of trobar pla ("plain composition")—rather than trobar clus ("hermetic or closed composition"), customary among other troubadours—these lyrics, scholars believe, may have influenced later poets, including Dante, to abandon highly metaphoric and abstruse writing in favor of a clear and limpid style. In addition, Sordello's love poems, though often conventional in motif, are distinguished by their concentration on the theme of honor—regarded as the highest aspiration of a lover and the highest virtue of a lady. This focus marked a shift in troubadour poetry from an emphasis on the emotional, bereaved state of the dejected lover, to an examination of spiritual and moral questions. Sordello further explored this theme in his well-known didactic sirvente Ensenhamen d'Onor (Instruction in Honor), in which he contemplated the qualities that constitute honor. Characteristic of didactic poetry of the time, with its vague terminology and lack of heightened poetic feeling, Instruction in Honor offers a portrait of the morality of the period, when one's worth was measured not by intrinsic characteristics but by reputation. In his sirventes, Sordello both censures his country's moral and political climate and launches bitter assaults against his contemporaries; several of these attack his adversary Peire Bremon Ricas Novas, who accused him of imposture. Sordello's best-known, as well as his most successful, sirvente is the high-minded "Lament on Lord Blacatz" (c. 1237). In this planh ("funeral lament") the poet praises the courage and merits of his charitable patron and friend and criticizes the weaknesses of western European sovereigns, advising them to feed upon the subject's heart so that they too might become brave and generous. A political diatribe against decadent rulers, the work was imitated or parodied by at least two of Sordello's contemporaries. "Lament on Lord Blacatz" also inspired Dante; in cantos six through eight of his Purgatorio, the Florentine poet depicts an impressive Sordello who, in the Vale of Negligent Rulers, voices a severe invective against the princes of his time.

Textual History

None of Sordello's works composed in his native Tuscan, the standard literary dialect of Italian, survive. Scholars believe that his approximately thirty-four to forty works in Provençal may have been initially preserved through oral performance, as troubadour poems were often performed by either the composer or a joglar ("minstrel") before court audiences. This oral stage preceded or occurred simultaneously with the copying of his poems into manuscripts, possibly originally intended as memory prompts for the performer. By the mid-thirteenth century, scribes and perhaps even various troubadours themselves began a serious effort to record lyrics in collections of Old Provençal writings; several other collections followed in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Modern editions of Sordello's writings have been undertaken by several German and French philologists. Most notable among these are the eighteenth-century Provençal authority Jean Baptiste de La Sainte-Palaye and the nineteenth-century Provençal scholar François Raynouard, who compiled the poet's writings in both Choix de poésies originales des troubadours (1816-21) and Lexique roman (1838-44). In the late 1800s Cesar de Lollis produced the authoritative Italian text Vita e poesie di Sordello di Coito; this work was followed in the mid-1950s by Marco Boni, whose Sordello, le poesie under-went revision by its editor more than fifteen years later. While many English translations of Sordello's individual works have been made since the nineteenth century, primarily for inclusion in anthologies of troubadour poetry, it was not until 1987 that James J. Wilhelm, an American medievalist and Pound scholar, produced the first complete critical edition, The Poetry of Sordello.

Critical Reception

During his lifetime Sordello was generally recognized as an influential and talented Provençal poet; as evidence of this, scholars point to the troubadour Americ de Peguillan of Toulouse, who declared in one of his poems that only Sordello could judge its merit. By the late nineteenth century, critics had begun to speculate that perhaps some of Sordello's best writings were not preserved, maintaining that his extant works comprise only a portion of his total work. Around the turn of the twentieth century, critical tide shifted toward the perception that his poetic talent exceeded that of other Provençal poets. Singling out his "Lament for Lord Blacatz" as one of his finest works, commentators praised its originality, with Eugene Benson claiming that it "stirred the troubadours of the day. It gave them a new suggestion, a new idea, and they tried to equal it, if not to surpass it." Early twentieth-century scholars had also probed the tales surrounding Sordello's life and attempted to separate historical fact from legend. This led to the theory of two Sordellos: one, the honorable, illustrious poet of Italy who defended his native Mantua against attackers; the other, a vagabond adventurer and lover of pleasure. While contemporary critics have attempted to resolve this issue by seeking additional biographical materials, modern debates have revolved more frequently around Dante's interest in the troubadour. Attempting to reconcile the stature granted him by Dante with Sordello's actual poetic output and personal history, some scholars have purported that Dante admired Sordello for recognizing the limitations of his own vernacular and adopting Provençal instead. Others have maintained that Sordello's main attractions for Dante were the variety, vigor, and political convictions with which his works are infused and which in turn inspired several passages of Dante's Purgatorio. Although Sordello's love poems have been viewed historically as lacking originality, some scholars have found that his ruminations on love do individualize his work. For example, as Sordello equates his lady with a captor and himself with a prisoner, he contemplates the psychological effects of unrequited love, thus marking a transition in troubadour poetry toward an increasingly moralistic tone.

Principal English Translations

*Anthology of Troubadour Lyric Poetry (edited and translated by Alan R. Press) 1971

The Poetry of Sordello (edited and translated by James J. Wilhelm) 1987

*An anthology of troubadour material that includes translations of a number of Sordello's poems.

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Criticism

Dante Alighieri (poem date c. 1307-20)

SOURCE: "Cantos VI-IX," in Purgatorio, translated by Allen Mandelbaum, University of California Press, 1982, pp. 48-80.

[Dante is perhaps the most famous poet of the Middle Ages. An accomplished prose and verse stylist in both Latin and Italian, he was the first major author to compose literature in the Italian vernacular. His most famous work is the Commedia (c. 1320), later known as the Divina Commedia, which consists of three sections: Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paridiso, and details Dante's journey through the locales of medieval theology. In the following excerpt from the Purgatorio (c. 1307-20), Dante and Vergil experience a joyous encounter in the...

(The entire section is 4246 words.)

Caroline H. Dall (essay date 1872)

SOURCE: "Sordello, the Troubadour," in Sordello: A History and a Poem, Robert Brothers, 1886, pp. 5-11.

[The following is an excerpt from an article by Dall first published in a periodical in 1872. She summarizes the disparate chronicles of Sordello's life and speculates that perhaps two interpretations of the troubadour's character existed: one as a singer only and the other as a warrior and thinker. Dall also assesses the poet's writings, finding that "the best of Sordello's verses show a dignity of composition and purity of taste which put him in the very front rank of the Provençals. "]

"Who wills has heard Sordello's story told," yet not without some hard work;...

(The entire section is 2344 words.)

Ida Farnell (essay date 1896)

SOURCE: "Sordello," in The Lives of the Troubadours, David Nutt, 1896, pp. 225-31.

[In the following excerpt, Farnell attests to the significance of Sordello, citing the high esteem in which Dante held the poet as well as the energy and vitality of the poet's major works. Of these, the critic contends that "Lament for Lord Blacatz" demonstrates "originality and force."]

The name of Sordel, or Sordello, is a household word among us, and the noble lines in Dante's Purgatorio, with the profound and complex character in Browning's poem, cannot but inspire one with a wish to know something of the Sordello of actual life. Yet, on turning to the scanty records, and to...

(The entire section is 878 words.)

H. J. Chaytor (essay date 1902)

SOURCE: "Notes: Sordello," in The Troubadours of Dante, Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1902, pp. 173-76.

[In the following excerpt, Chaytor outlines Sordello's biographical history and explores Dante's significant inclusion of the poet in the Purgatorio and De Vulgari Eloquentia, finding that "there is no necessity whateverto imagine that two separate Sordellos are mentioned."]

There is much uncertainty concerning the facts of Sordello's life: he was born at Goito, near Mantua, and was of noble family. His name is not to be derived from sordidus, but from Surdus, a not uncommon patronymic in North Italy during the thirteenth...

(The entire section is 1439 words.)

Eugene Benson (essay date 1903)

SOURCE: "Part V," in Sordello and Cunizza, J. M. Dent & Co., 1903, pp. 59-87.

[In the following excerpt from his full-length study of the troubadour, Benson addresses the theory of two Sordellos: one a noble public figure and the other a reckless adventurer and lover. He suggests that Sordello's varied life might be understood as representative of one who abandons the passions of youth for the dignity of adulthood.]

There are two brief and ancient Provençal documents concerning Sordello—the lives of the Provençal poets, transcribed in red, preceding the specimens of their poetry. One describes him as a Mantuan of the Castle of Goito, a courteous Captain, most...

(The entire section is 6487 words.)

M. A. Dunne (essay date 1910)

SOURCE: "One of Dante's Troubadours," in The American Catholic Quarterly Review, Vol. XXXV, No. 140, October, 1910, pp. 606-24.

[In the following essay, Dunne contrasts three views of the character of Sordello—as revealed by a Provençal chronicler, by Dante in his Purgatorio, and by Browning in his poem Sordello—proposing that "the real Sordello lives in no one of the three."]

I. THE SORDEL OF THE CHRONICLERS.

Sordel—a soft, uncertain, two syllabled cadence—we find the name on the illuminated pages of the Provença chroniclers; Sordello, stronger for the added vowel, we spell it out through the soft starlight of Dante's...

(The entire section is 8748 words.)

Ezra Pound (essay date 1913)

SOURCE: "Troubadours: Their Sorts and Conditions," in Literary Essays of Ezra Pound, edited by T. S. Eliot, New Directions, 1954, pp. 94-108.

[Regarded as one of the twentieth-century's most influential American poets and critics, Pound is chiefly renowned for his ambitious poetry cycle, the Cantos, which he revised and enlarged throughout much of his life. These poems are significant for their lyrical intensity, metrical experimentation, literary allusions, varied subject matter and verse forms, and incorporation of phrases from foreign languages. An avid student of politics and history, Pound was particularly interested in the poetry of Provence, translating Old Provençal...

(The entire section is 5866 words.)

C. M. Bowra (essay date 1953)

SOURCE: "Dante and Sordello," in Comparative Literature, Vol. V, No. 1, Winter, 1953, pp. 1-15.

[Bowra, an English critic and literary historian, was considered among the foremost classical scholars of the first half of the twentieth century. He also wrote extensively on modern literature, particularly modern European poetry, in studies noted for their erudition, lucidity, and straightforward style. In the following essay, he argues against the theory that Dante, by placing Sordello in Purgatory, characterized the troubadour as among the negligent rulers. Proposing that Sordello's placement in the poem resulted from his violent death and inability to repent, Bowra maintains that Dante had...

(The entire section is 6817 words.)

Peter Makin (essay date 1978)

SOURCE: "Sordello," in Provence and Pound, University of California Press, 1978, pp. 186-214.

[Makin is an educator and Pound scholar. In the following excerpt, he discusses the content, style, and language of Sordello's poetry, and examines the influence of his life and works on Pound's early verse and his Cantos.]

Pound's respect for both Browning and Dante gave him good reasons to be interested in Sordello. But in the early years of studying the troubadours he brushed over him; he tended to think of writing as either noble-and-difficult or easy-and-slick, and Sordello was easy.

But when Pound came back to the troubadours he followed Dante's lead...

(The entire section is 6510 words.)

Teodolinda Barolini (essay date 1979)

SOURCE: "Bertran de Born and Sordello: The Poetry of Politics in Dante's Comedy," in PMLA, Vol. 94, No. 3, May, 1979, pp. 395-405.

[In the following essay, Barolini attempts to illuminate Sordello's stature in Dante's Purgatorio by comparing his position with that of another figure in the work, Provençal troubadour Bertran de Born.]

The stature Dante grants Sordello in the Comedy has long puzzled critics, since it seems greater than warranted by the achievements of this Provençal poet. Not only does the meeting with Sordello, in the sixth canto of the Purgatorio, serve as the catalyst for the stirring invective against Italy that concludes...

(The entire section is 6960 words.)

James J. Wilhelm (essay date 1987)

SOURCE: An introduction to The Poetry of Sordello, edited and translated by James J. Wilhelm, Garland Publishing, Inc., 1987, pp. xi-xxxi.

[Wilhelm is an American medievalist and Pound scholar. In the following excerpt from his introduction to The Poetry of Sordello, he speculates that Dante was inspired by the vitality and variety he found in Sordello's works, as evidenced in the invective satire of the troubadour's sirventes, the political diatribe of his "Lament for Lord Blacatz," and the skepticism of his debate poems. Wilhelm also addresses the pronounced influence of Sordello on later poets, including Browning and Pound.]

ARTISTIC ACHIEVEMENT...

(The entire section is 3004 words.)