Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz Essay - Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz Poetry: World Poets Analysis

Juana Inés de Asbaje y Ramírez de Santillana

Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz Poetry: World Poets Analysis

Although most of the compositions have merit, the lyric poems, in the order of their treatment here, are usually considered to be the best, and they may be used as a point of departure for delineating a canon of Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz’s most significant writings.

Sor Juana was a deeply passionate and intelligent woman who dedicated her life to knowledge and spiritual perfection. On one hand, she seems to have renounced love for intellectual freedom, and from her amatory and philosophical writings, it appears that her renunciation of the world, along with her commitment to learning, paradoxically caused an obsession with intimacy and a profound disillusionment with any reality except that of spiritual intimacy. On the other hand, judging from her other prose and verse, Sor Juana was also a writer engaged with her society, closely involved with its institutions and its native culture. An anthology of Sor Juana’s most popular compositions may slight this more social side of her personality, but it is important to remember as one reviews her major poems of love and disillusionment that the poetess wrote more concerning religion than about any real or imaginary love and that she was as adept at elaborate versification about current events and visitors to the viceroyalty as at revealing her most private feelings. It is not difficult to dwell on the more romantic side of the “tenth muse,” to use certain of her poems to enhance the image of a jilted, precocious, disenchanted teenage intellectual sequestering herself in a convent and spending her life in extremely elaborate sublimation. Her most famous pieces contribute to such an image, but as the reader is exposed to a wider spectrum of her talents, a more balanced picture emerges; a trajectory of maturation becomes visible in which Catholicism and the Baroque are means to the self-fulfillment and self-expression originally thwarted in her youth by her lack of social position and her fascination with scholarship.

Progression of love

If one reads Sor Juana’s writings to observe a progression from human to divine love, it is appropriate to begin with the sonnet “Esta tarde, mi bien” (this afternoon, my love). The poem is one of the few in which she relates a moving encounter with another person, and it contrasts the impotency of words with the efficacy of tears in the communication of love. Here, there is none of the love-hate dialectic that colors most of her amatory poems; instead, one finds the description of a delicately feminine, sensitive, and formidably talented personality in a moment of unguarded abandon. It is only a slight exaggeration to say that after “Esta tarde, mi bien,” one sees in Sor Juana’s verse the psychological effects of an unhappy affair rather than the experience of love itself. Even the tender lira “Amado dueño mio” (my beloved master), while documenting in a poetic sense the dimensions of intimacy, is a conventional lament of the lover separated from the beloved. The lover, like a Renaissance shepherdess, tells her misfortunes to the wind, which carries her complaints, her passion, and her sadness to the distant partner. Alfonso Méndez Plancarte states that the poem contains some of Sor Juana’s finest lines and that it may surpass the eclogues of Garcilaso de la Vega. The comparison with Garcilaso is appropriate, and poetry in his likeness is fitting to express the absence of consummation rather than its presence; significantly, the lira keynotes a thematic transformation from completion to emptiness.

The sonnet “Detente, sombra de mi bien esquivo” (stay, shadow of my scornful love) can be considered an introduction to a series of poems that admit both the positive and negative effects of passion as well as the inconclusive status of unconsummated love. In “Detente, sombra de mi bien esquivo,” the beloved himself eludes the poet, but his image cannot escape the prison of her fantasy. Important in this and the poems under discussion below is the counterpoint of conceits and emotions about the love “por quien alegre muero” (for whom I would happily die) but also “por quien penosa vivo” (for whom I live in agony), which develops to an extreme in the sonnet “Al que Ingrato me deja, busco amante” (I seek the one who spurns me) and “Que no me quiera Fabio, al verse amado” (that Fabio does not love me as I love him), and the redondilla “Este amoroso tormento” (this torment of love). In the latter piece, as in the other poems of this group, the poet never finds fulfillment, “porque, entre alivio y dolar, hallo culpa en el amor y disculpa en el olvido” (because between relief and pain, I find blame in love and exoneration in forgetfulness).

Beyond frustration and the love-hate duality that the poet attributes to romantic feeling lie disillusionment and bitterness. The sonnets “Silvio, yo te aborezco” (I hate you, Silvio), “Amor empieza por desasosiego” (love begins uneasily), and “Con el dolor de la...

(The entire section is 2052 words.)