Hawthorne, Sophia Peabody
Sophia Peabody Hawthorne 1809-1871
(Born Sophia Amelia Peabody) American travel writer and diarist.
Sophia Hawthorne, generally remembered as the wife of the celebrated nineteenth-century American author Nathaniel Hawthorne, is regarded by modern commentators as an accomplished writer of travel sketches, descriptive letters, and journals. The only original work of Hawthorne's to be published during her lifetime was the journal she kept during her European travels, Notes in England and Italy (1869). Since that time, as her letters and diaries have become available to the general public, scholars have come to recognize Hawthorne's exceptional writing talents. Collections of her letters have been reproduced in literary journals, and contemporary scholars consider her compositions as irreplaceable primary sources for the study of Nathaniel Hawthorne's home life, periods of creativity, and personality, as well as valuing them for the firsthand view they provide of the Victorian era both in America and abroad.
Hawthorne was born in Salem, Massachusetts, into a prominent family, the female members of which would rise to the forefront of the nineteenth-century movement for the equal rights of women. Her mother Eliza was a teacher and supported her children with the income she received from a series of schools run from her home. The elder of Sophia's two sisters, Elizabeth, was an active member of the New England Transcendentalists, a group that included such well-known and influential writers as Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Margaret Fuller. Sophia's other older sister, Mary, was also a writer and wife of educational reformer Horace Mann. Hawthorne's place in this dynamic family was that of youngest daughter and invalid. From the age of nine she suffered violent, debilitating headaches that often confined her to her room for days at a time. She was nonetheless well educated at home by her mother, father, and sister Elizabeth. In her youth, Hawthorne learned to read Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French, German, and Italian and studied a broad range of academic disciplines from natural science to religion. A woman of high intellect and learning, she was also a skilled painter. In 1833, Hawthorne accompanied her sister Mary to Cuba in the hopes that the subtropical climate would lessen the pain of her headaches. The sisters remained there for two and a half years, and during that time Sophia wrote long, descriptive letters to her family. These letters were passed from hand to hand among family, friends, and acquaintances and form the body of The Cuba Journal. Passages from these letters enchanted a Peabody family friend, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and he later used some of them as the basis for his own stories. Elizabeth had discovered that the young writer was a near neighbor and struck up an acquaintance with him. When he finally met Sophia, he found that she had illustrated one of his short stories in its magazine appearance and was immediately taken with this talented young woman. Their courtship lasted from 1837 until 1842 and included a voluminous exchange of letters. (Nathaniel Hawthorne burned his wife's letters to him in 1853, but Sophia preserved all of his correspondence.) According to the letters that Hawthorne wrote after her wedding, her marriage was blissful, and she dedicated herself to being the perfect wife to a gifted genius. The Hawthornes had three children, Una, Julian, and Rose, to whom Hawthorne was as passionately devoted as to her husband. During these years, Nathaniel supported the family through his position as surveyor of the Salem Custom House, a government appointment. He lost that job in 1849 after a change of political administration, and afterward Sophia helped support the family by hand-painting lampshades and fire screens while her husband wrote, in quick succession, The Scarlet Letter, The House of the Seven Gables, and The Blithedale Romance in the early 1850s. In 1853, Nathaniel was appointed U.S. Consul to Liverpool, and the family moved to England. He resigned in 1857, and the family subsequently settled in Italy for a year before returning to England, where they lived for another year. While in Italy, Hawthorne, delighted to finally be in the presence of great artistic masterpieces, was at pains to introduce her husband to the glory of art. For the first time, she was able to see and study the originals of many works that she had copied and knew only from reproductions. She concluded that her own artistic skills were only mediocre, though her husband was inspired by her drawings to write The Marble Faun. The Hawthornes returned to America in 1860 and moved into the Wayside in Concord, Massachusetts, which they had purchased from Bronson Alcott before they left. The next four years were difficult for them. Una had been so ill in Rome that she had nearly died, and she experienced repeated relapses after returning home. The Civil War had begun, and in 1864, after a protracted period of poor health, Nathaniel died. Hawthorne was left in difficult financial straits and began a lengthy and frustrating correspondence with Nathaniel Hawthorne's publisher, James Fields, about the royalties due her from the money earned by her husband's books. Fields suggested that she could make some money by releasing his journals, and she at last agreed on the condition that she could edit them. In an effort to reduce her expenses, Hawthorne moved her family to Dresden, Germany, in 1868. While living in Dresden, she copied and edited her own journal, which was published as Notes in England and Italy in 1869. A year later, she and her daughters Una and Rose moved to London. Hawthorne died there of pneumonia in 1871.
Hawthorne was a devoted diarist and letter-writer throughout her life. Her letters from Cuba, which sometimes extend to the length of twenty pages or more, describe the country and its people as well as documenting unfolding social and political events. These letters make up The Cuba Journal, kept as private correspondence until they were edited and published in 1985. In addition to compelling accounts of Caribbean plantation life, Spanish colonialism, and the vigorous mercantile and slave trades in Havana, Hawthorne's overseas correspondence contains samples of the writing that her husband undoubtedly read before they actually met, which later was used as inspiration for several of his short stories. Hawthorne's first and only publication during her lifetime, Notes in England and Italy, is a combination of letters she wrote in England, while her husband served as U.S. Consul to Liverpool, and extracts from journals she kept during the succeeding years when the family lived as tourists in Italy. The text offers reflections on the landscape and, especially in Italy, on renowned masterpieces of classical and Renaissance art. In the years after her husband's death, Hawthorne, edited Nathaniel's notebooks for publication. These include three of Nathaniel Hawthorne's journals: Passages from the American Notebooks (1868), Passages from the English Notebooks (1870), and Passages from the French and Italian Notebooks (1872). In editing these works, Hawthorne made extensive alterations according to her taste and the custom of the time, freely deleting many passages, including any mention of herself or her children, and emending numerous portions of the text she thought offensive to Victorian sensibility.
Unwilling to make her writings public, Hawthorne made only one exception, publishing her Notes in England and Italy in direct response to mounting financial pressures in the late 1860s. Despite the vogue for travel literature at that time, Hawthorne remained one of only very few women who published book-length travel accounts during this period. The collection was well received, and eight editions were printed within thirteen years of its first appearance. At the time of her death, a family friend, Henry Bright, wrote to Hawthorne's son Julian, “No one has yet done justice to your mother. Of course, she was overshadowed by him,—but she was a singularly accomplished woman, with a great gift of expression … she was, too, an artist of no mean quality.” In the contemporary era, critics have come to recognize Hawthorne's contributions as a travel-writer and diarist. Her editorial acumen, however, remains controversial. Regarding Hawthorne's editing of her husband's journals for publication, her substantial excisions and changes have generally been viewed with contempt by twentieth-century scholars. This opinion has since been tempered as commentators have come to understand that Hawthorne's editing style was common to the era.
Passages from the American Note-Books. 2 vols. [editor] (journal) 1868
Notes in England and Italy (journal) 1869
Passages from the English Note-books. 2 vols. [editor] (journal) 1870
Passages from the French and Italian Note-books. 2vols. [editor] (journal) 1872
*“A Sophia Hawthorne Journal, 1843-1844” (journal) 1975
The Cuba Journal, 1833-1835 (journal) 1985
†“With Hawthorne in Wartime Concord: Sophia Hawthorne's 1862 Diary” (journal) 1988
‡“Sophia Hawthorne's Diary for 1861” (journal) 1989
Selected Literary Letters of Sophia Peabody Hawthorne, 1842-1853 (letters) 1992
§“Sophia Peabody Hawthorne's American Notebooks” (journal) 1996
*Published in periodical The Nathaniel Hawthorne Journal.
†Published in periodical Studies in the American Renaissance.
‡Published in periodical Nathaniel Hawthorne Review.
§Published in periodical Studies in the American Renaissance.
(The entire section is 101 words.)
SOURCE: Badaracco, Claire M. “Pitfalls and Rewards of the Solo Editor: Sophia Peabody Hawthorne.” Resources for American Literary Study 11, no. 1 (spring 1981): 91-100.
[In the following essay, Badaracco places Hawthorne's editorship of her husband's journals in historical context and reflects on the process of editing Hawthorne's own Cuba Journal.]
When I began to edit the Cuba Journal as a solo editorial project, I recall describing in blithe naivete my aspirations and goals. I told a distinguished colleague that because the collection which housed the document permitted neither microfilm nor typewriters, I was planning to transcribe in pencil the three-volume, one-thousand-page holograph during the day, type a transcript from the handwritten copy in the evenings, eventually proofread typescript against holograph, and perform the necessary tasks of annotation, apparatus, and introduction. My friend looked at me squarely enough—man to man, so to speak—and admitted sympathetically: “My dear, you will need a wife.” Indeed, in a discussion of the pitfalls and rewards of the solo editor, the labor of more than a few of the wives of literary and historical men, who have delved in, proofed and indexed, done whatever tasks were necessary, would have to be acknowledged. For without their careful work, many editorial projects never would have been accomplished.
(The entire section is 4050 words.)
SOURCE: Woodson, Thomas, James A. Rubino, and Jamie Barlow Kayes. “With Hawthorne in Wartime Concord: Sophia Hawthorne's 1862 Diary.” Studies in the American Renaissance (1988): 281-84.
[In the following excerpt, Woodson, Rubino, and Kayes consider the background to Hawthorne's journal of 1862.]
In addition to her considerable correspondence, Sophia Hawthorne left behind several notebooks, journals, and diaries—documents that will allow scholars to follow the incidents of her life in much more consistent detail than can be done for her husband's. He often tried to efface documents of a merely biographical interest, allowing survival much more frequently to notebooks that retained the value of providing brief, generalized subjects or incidents for stories than to anything that savored of the autobiographical or confessional.
During her last years she made use of the format of the Pocket Diary, apparently following Nathaniel's lead. In England in 1856 he had kept such a record, giving a brief, telegraphic report to each day usually on the day itself. Beginning at Paris in 1858, and again in Rome in 1859, he had continued the practice, recording many names and places that did not get into the very full notebooks he was also keeping in preparation for writing The Marble Faun. At that time Mrs. Hawthorne journalized at greater length, but less frequently. She wrote with special...
(The entire section is 1476 words.)
SOURCE: Valenti, Patricia Dunlavy. “Sophia Peabody Hawthorne: A Study of Artistic Influence.” Studies in the American Renaissance (1990): 1-21.
[In the following essay, Valenti highlights the importance of Hawthorne's painting and appreciation of art and the influence these had on others around her, including her husband.]
“Sophia, wife of Nathaniel Hawthorne” is the simple inscription which marks the grave of a woman remembered for her marriage to one of the foremost men in American letters. However, she deserves to be remembered among the earliest women in American painting. The flawlessness of her copies could have provided her with a comfortable living, but she aspired with the intensity and seriousness of a professional to surpass the status of an amateur or copyist to become a painter of original canvases. Her aspirations were affirmed by the leading painters of the day who became her mentors. Influenced as she was by Chester Harding, Washington Allston, and Thomas Doughty, she then exerted an influence upon her husband as his mentor in understanding the visual arts and the place they held in his fiction, a fact perhaps recognized by their son, Julian who, entitling the biography of his father Nathaniel Hawthorne and His Wife, wrote that “in drawing, painting, and sculpture she showed a loving talent not far removed from genius. Thus she was able to meet at all points her husband's...
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SOURCE: Herbert, T. Walter. “The Queen of All She Surveys.” In Dearest Beloved: The Hawthornes and the Making of the Middle-Class Family, pp. 37-58. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.
[In the following essay, Herbert analyzes the inner fears and sadness of Hawthorne's early life and summarizes her spiritual and social thought.]
Sophia Hawthorne is the most vilified wife in American literary history, after having been in her own time the most admired. Elizabeth Shaw Melville has been blamed for not having measured up to Fayaway, and although Lidian Emerson was eminently presentable, like her short-lived predecessor, Ellen Louisa Tucker, neither woman is credited with having a vital relation to her husband's imagination. Thoreau, Whitman, and James did not marry, and Henry Adams's wife, Clover Hooper, is omitted—a gasping silence—from the story of his education. Sophia Hawthorne, by contrast, was hailed as indispensable to the flowering of her husband's genius, a role that Hawthorne himself fervently celebrated and impressed upon his friends and his children. “Nothing seems less likely,” Julian affirmed, “than that he would have accomplished his work in literature independently of her sympathy and companionship” [Julian Hawthorne, Nathaniel Hawthorne and His Wife, 2 vols. Hereafter: NHW, 1:39].
Scholars in our own time have found Sophia a force...
(The entire section is 10064 words.)
SOURCE: Valenti, Patricia Dunlavy. “Sophia Peabody Hawthorne's American Notebooks.” Studies in the American Renaissance (1996): 115-28.
[In the following excerpt, Valenti discusses Hawthorne's editing of her husband's journals, contrasting entries written by Sophia and by Nathaniel in the family notebooks from which the published Hawthorne journals were derived.]
Within months of Nathaniel Hawthorne's death, James T. Fields suggested to Sophia Hawthorne the publication of a series of extracts from her husband's journals. Sophia initially rejected this overture, but her financial situation quickly dictated that she accept the enticing offer of ＄100.00 per installment for the publication of “gems” from her husband's notebooks. Sophia thus began the work of selecting, editing, and copying pages from these notebooks. The first installment, an excerpt from Nathaniel's earliest journal,1 appeared in the January 1866 issue of the Atlantic Monthly. Fields then suggested that Sophia further mine the journals to produce a book, and she agreed. In late 1868, Sophia's work culminated in the two volume publication of Passages from the American Note-Books of Nathaniel Hawthorne (Centenary Edition, [CE] 8:682-84, 693).
Sophia's editorial procedures were influenced by several factors. First of all, she attempted to assume her husband's wishes in...
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SOURCE: Hurst, Luanne Jenkins. “The Chief Employ of Her Life: Sophia Peabody Hawthorne's Contribution to Her Husband's Career.” In Hawthorne and Women: Engendering and Expanding the Hawthorne Tradition, edited by John L. Idol, Jr. and Melinda M. Ponder, pp. 45-54. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1999.
[In the following essay, Hurst concentrates on Hawthorne's indefatigable support of her husband in his literary pursuits.]
Sophia Hawthorne once wrote to her sister Mary Mann: “If I could help my husband in his labors, I feel that that would be the chief employ of my life. But all I can do for him externally is to mend his shirts & socks—spiritually, it is another thing” (6 Apr. 1845, ms., Berg Collection).1 Ironically, she seems not to have realized how much she did do to help Nathaniel Hawthorne “in his labors.” Sophia was always Nathaniel's most devoted admirer, and in her letters she consistently promoted him as the greatest and most creative artist alive. These letters also reveal her reactions to his stories and romances as he finished them and read them to her (her reactions being clearly important to him), and they reveal her fierce loyalty to him—sometimes leading to a strong rebuke of a beloved sister who dared to criticize her husband's social aloofness or leading her to chastise her mother for failing to send books for Nathaniel to read. Perhaps...
(The entire section is 4997 words.)
SOURCE: Knapp, Bettina L. “But It Is Impossible in Such Hurried Visits to Immortal Works, to Give an Adequate Idea of Their Character.” Journal of Evolutionary Psychology 22, no. 1-2 (March 2002): 47-58.
[In the following essay, Knapp explores Hawthorne's responses to Italian Renaissance art as contained in the “Roman Journal” portion of her Notes in England and Italy.]
“Character,” upon which Sophia Hawthorne's art appraisals focused, spawned many of the critical responses … imprinted in her “Roman Journal” (1858). Not only did her probings reveal an ingrained sense of esthetics, a historical understanding of the artists and the periods treated; but most intriguing were her glimpses into her inner topography: her idealizations, happy, and somber mood swings. Understandably, then, did her verbal distillations range from rationally and meticulously controlled to flamboyant, lyrical, and excitable assessments. Her melding of ethics paved the way for ideological strayings which, on occasion, took her far afield from the constricting guidelines of her time. Such flights encouraged her to see into line, form, and rhythmic sequences, transforming her “Roman Journal” into a living document of the soul.
Sophia's art critiques disclosed a uniquely personal feel for figures and objects, which not only expanded the scope of her original intent, but...
(The entire section is 5537 words.)
SOURCE: Hall, Julie E. “‘Coming to Europe,’ Coming to Authorship: Sophia Hawthorne and Her Notes in England and Italy.” Legacy 19, no. 2 (2002): 137-51.
[In the following essay, Hall portrays Hawthorne's transformation from amanuensis and editor for her husband to professional writer as the author of Notes in England and Italy.]
With the publication of Notes in England and Italy, a volume based on letters and journals she wrote while the Hawthorne family lived abroad from 1853 to 1860, Sophia Peabody Hawthorne for the first and last time in her life put herself “into a pair of book covers,” as she once described it, and presented herself before the public gaze as an author. Although the nineteenth century was fairly afloat in travel literature, with Italy “taking the lead in eliciting memoirs” (Buzard 159), Hawthorne's Notes made a place for itself in the crowded market. Appearing serially in Putnam's Magazine in 1869 and then in book form in both England and the United States later that year, Hawthorne's volume was in its eighth edition with Putnam and Sons in 1882, fourteen years after its first appearance. The publication of Notes also marked Hawthorne's entrance into a rather elite club, for while some eighteen hundred writing Americans published travel books before 1900, only about two hundred of these were women, and fewer than fifty American women...
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Cowley, Malcolm. “The Hawthornes in Paradise.” American Heritage 10, no. 1 (December 1958): 30-5, 112-15.
Recounts the courtship and early married life of Sophia and Nathaniel Hawthorne, interspersed with excerpts from their journals and letters.
Hawthorne, Julian. “Sophia Amelia Peabody.” In Nathaniel Hawthorne and His Wife, pp. 39-81. Cambridge, Mass.: The Riverside Press, 1884.
A chapter from Julian Hawthorne's biography of his parents in which he describes his mother, her upbringing, the role she played in the family, and her influence on his father.
Marshall, Megan. “Three Sisters Who Showed the Way.” American Heritage 38, no. 6 (September-October 1987): 58-66.
Examines the role of the Peabody sisters in the nineteenth-century American women's liberation movement.
Miller, Edwin Haviland. “A Calendar of the Letters of Sophia Peabody Hawthorne.” Studies in the American Renaissance (1986): 199-204.
A list of Hawthorne's letters preceded by a biographical sketch.
Tharp, Louise Hall. The Peabody Sisters of Salem, Kingsport, Tenn.: Kingsport Press, 1950, 372 p.
Biography of Hawthorne and her sisters Mary and Elizabeth, significant portions of which are devoted to Hawthorne's...
(The entire section is 331 words.)