The first African American to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature (1993), Toni Morrison has achieved a place in the first rank of American writers and is considered by many critics the greatest American novelist of the late twentieth and early twenty-first century. Born Chloe Anthony Wofford in 1931, Morrison earned a bachelor of arts degree from Howard University in 1953 and a master of arts degree from Cornell University in 1955, writing her master’s thesis on the theme of suicide in the fiction of William Faulkner and Virginia Woolf, whose influence is apparent in her novels. She later taught at Howard and at the State University of New York at Purchase and served as a senior editor at Random House. She received a National Book Award nomination in 1975 for her second novel, Sula (1973), the National Book Critics Circle Award in 1977 for her fourth novel, Song of Solomon, and the Pulitzer Prize in 1988 for her fifth novel, Beloved (1987). Perhaps more than any other writer, Morrison is responsible for asserting the influence of African American literature and culture on American culture as a whole. She uses modernistic techniques such as multiple narrators, interior monologues, and discursive, nonchronological narration, so Morrison’s fiction is highly complex, but because she possesses a rare skill in breathing life into settings and characters, her prose is also highly readable. Song of Solomon combines these qualities in...
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