The Snows of Kilimanjaro, Ernest Hemingway
"The Snows of Kilimanjaro" Hemingway, Ernest
The following entry presents criticism of Hemingway's short story "The Snows of Kilimanjaro." See also, The Old Man and the Sea Criticism, "A Clean, Well-Lighted Place" Criticism, and Ernest Hemingway Criticism.
One of the best-known writers of the twentieth century, Hemingway played a crucial role in the development of modern fiction. In his renowned short stories, including "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber" and "The Snows of Kilimanjaro," he drew from his own experiences to create fiction that was praised as direct, immediate, and powerful. Hemingway consciously adopted the central Modernist tenet that form expresses content, and he strove to imitate the rhythms of life in his fiction, augmenting meaning through repetition, counterpoint, and juxtaposition. "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" offers numerous examples of this literary style, with collage-type effects employed to convey the protagonist's vivid memories of his childhood and youth.
Plot and Major CharactersThe epigraph to "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" describes the frozen carcass of a leopard preserved near the icy summit of Mount Kilimanjaro, the highest peak in Africa. This image stands in startling contrast to the opening details of Hemingway's story. Stranded on the hot African plain, within sight of the snow-capped mountain, the protagonist, Harry, suffers from a gangrenous leg wound. He is accompanied by his wealthy lover, Helen, on whom he is financially dependent. As they await rescue by plane, Harry bitterly reflects on his once-promising writing career. He realizes that he has sacrificed his talent for the material pleasures offered by Helen. Filled with rage and self-disgust, Harry responds with sarcasm to Helen's thoughtful ministrations. The couple fruitlessly bicker, and as they argue he has a premonition of his own death. He wistfully recalls his life, packed with experiences he once planned to translate into art: the purity of skiing in the Austrian alps; the torment of first love; the charm and absurdity of bohemian Paris; the stark beauty of his grandfather's farm in Michigan; and the horror of trench warfare during World War I. As night falls and a hyena flits past the camp, Harry once again senses the approach of death. He feels a sudden sensation of weight on his chest, but as he is carried to his tent his discomfort is abruptly relieved. The following morning the rescue plane arrives and Harry is airlifted to apparent safety. However, as the plane rises into the clouds, he suddenly realizes that he is headed not for the hospital but for the blindingly white summit of Kilimanjaro. At this moment, the story abruptly cuts to the sound of Helen's sobs as she discovers Harry's corpse and we realize that the "plane trip" was, in fact, the final flight of Harry's imagination.
"The Snows of Kilimanjaro" reveals the preoccupation with mortality common to much of Hemingway's fiction. As in his novel The Sun Also Rises, a significant distinction is drawn between spiritual and physical death. By compromising his literary talent, Harry has already embraced a kind of death-in-life. The corruption spreading from his gangrenous leg simply makes manifest his moral decay, an irony of which he is painfully aware. Elsewhere in the Hemingway canon the theme of death is examined with an almost journalistic realism. "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" presents a fascinating exception to this rule by making use of a group of recurrent symbols. The figures of the frozen leopard and scavenging hyena contrast two attitudes to death: while the leopard's preserved corpse suggests the possibility of permanence through fame, the hyena signifies the inevitability of death. Kilimanjaro itself offers a powerfully multifaeeted symbol. Its dazzling heights provoke a wealth of associations from Chaucer's House of Fame to Shelley's Mont Blanc. Most importantly, however, the mountain represents the mystery of death, a mystery underlined by the double closure of "The Snows of Kilimanjaro."
Hailed by critics as one of Hemingway's greatest short stories, "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" has garnered a wealth of interpretations in the past half-century. In general, discussion has focused on two related issues: the significance of the epigraph and the meaning of Harry's final death-flight. While some commentators have found parallels to the frozen leopard in Dante and in biblical passages, others have viewed the frozen leopard as an uncomplicated symbol of heroic perseverance. It also has been asserted that the association of the leopard with idealistic aspiration reinforces the story's rejection of material pleasures. However the reader views the leopard, the question of Harry's success or failure remains. Most critics have perceived the final scene as a moral triumph, as the protagonist Harry rises above a lifetime of failure in his final moments, imaginatively matching the leopard's achievement. Others have rejected this view, arguing that Harry miserably fails to redeem himself. Additional critical studies have examined the story's autobiographical elements and misogynist qualities, as well as identifying the possible influences on Hemingway's work.
SOURCE: "Lesson from the Master," in Hemingway: The Writer as Artist, Princeton University Press, 1963, pp. 191-96.
[In the following excerpt, which was originally published in 1952, Baker explores the autobiographical aspects of "The Snows of Kilimanjaro. "]
"The Snows of Kilimanjaro" is a tragedy of a different order [from "The Short and Happy Life of Francis Macomber"]. Its setting is the final afternoon and evening in the second life of a writer named Harry, dying of gangrene in a camp near the edge of the Tanganyika plains country. "Francis Macomber" proceeds through and by action; "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" is an experiment in the psychology of a dying man. Like Across the Riverand Into the Trees, it contains almost no overt physical activity, though much is implied. Judged in terms of its intention, it is a triumphant piece of writing.
Hemingway's own experiences on safari help to account for the origin of the story. The undeveloped germ of "Francis Macomber" may have been the occasion when Hemingway and M'Cola entered a bush-covered area in pursuit of a lion they heard but never saw. The general outline of "The Snows" was almost certainly suggested by Hemingway's own grave illness, the flight out of the plains country, and the distant view of the enormous, snowcapped mountain of Kilimanjaro. During the flight east, and no doubt also during the period of treatment in...
(The entire section is 1886 words.)
SOURCE: "The Leopard and the Hyena: Symbol and Meaning in The Snows of Kilimanjaro'," in The University of Kansas City Review, Vol. XXVII, No. IV, June, 1961, pp. 277-82.
[In the following essay, Montgomery analyzes the significance and implications of the central symbols in "The Snows of Kilimanjaro. "]
In "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" Ernest Hemingway employs specific symbols—a mountain, a hyena, a leopard—to dramatize a favorite theme: heroic perseverance. But the symbols' relationship to the action of the story arouses questions of interpretation which are not easily resolved. It is the purpose of this [essay] to analyze the story to see just where the symbols, the leopard and hyena particularly, raise problems in the dramatic structure and the meaning of the story and to consider to what extent the problems are solved by the story.
The center of dramatic conflict in "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" is the protagonist's mind, which is constantly agitated by a contrast between the present ignoble situation and the memory of a more heroic past. Harry, a writer, at the point in his life where he should have realized his ideal or should at least find himself still devoted to the ideal, lies dying of gangrene because of his carelessness in not treating a scratch got on a hunt. He knows that he is dying physically, but he knows also that he has died spiritually long before, through his choice...
(The entire section is 3180 words.)
SOURCE: "'The Snows of Kilimanjaro': A Revaluation," in PMLA: Publications of the Modern Language Association, Vol. LXXVI, No. IV, December, 1961, pp. 601-07.
[In the following essay, Evans delineates the differing critical interpretations of various symbols in "The Snows of Kilimanjaro, " in addition to offering an alternative reading of his own.]
When "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" first appeared in Esquire (August 1936), it attracted immediate attention. It was promptly reprinted (in Best American Short Stories of 1937) by Edward J. O'Brien, who, praising it in his preface, remarked: "Nothing is irrelevant. The artist's energy is rigidly controlled for his purpose." Since then it has been anthologized many times, and now it is probably safe to say that, with the possible exception of "The Killers," none of Hemingway's stories has enjoyed greater popularity than this one. Hemingway's own opinion was that it was "about as good as any" of his shorter works.
In the last ten or fifteen years, however, "The Snows" has come in for considerable disparagement, mainly from the so-called New Critics and their followers. In 1945 Ray B. West, Jr., wrote in The Sewanee Review [January-March issue]: "While I consider this story one of Hemingway's best .. . it is spoiled for me by the conventionality of its leading symbol: the White-capped mountain as the 'House of God'." In...
(The entire section is 5542 words.)
SOURCE: "A New Reading of The Snows of Kilimanjaro'," in The Houses That James Built: And Other Literary Studies, Ohio University Press, 1961, pp. 173-99.
[In the following essay, Stallman provides a structural analysis of Hemingway's story.]
When in doubt, it seems, when in fear, when taken by surprise, when lost in bush or desert and without a guide, the human, the animal, heart prescribes a circle. It turns on itself as the earth does and seeks refuge in the movement of the stars.
—Laurens Van Der Post: Venture To
The Interior (1951)
What has not been noticed about "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" is how it is designed. Scenes of external reality alternate with juxtaposed scenes of internal monologue, reminiscences of Harry's past life that Harry failed to utilize as writer. These cutbacks—they are set into italics—are not dreams, but rather they are recollected reality; the point is that they relate thematically. They are not irresponsible reminiscences. They are relevant in that they elicit, albeit obliquely, one motif or another relating to the plight of the protagonist. The narrative progression moves now forward in present reality and now backward to recollected reality.
The story is about an artist—or potential artist—who died spiritually the day he...
(The entire section is 3365 words.)
SOURCE: "Two Views of Kilimanjaro," in The Grotesque: An American Genre and Other Essays, Southern Illinois University Press, 1962, pp. 119-24.
[In the following essay, O'Connor places "The Snows of Kilimanjaro " within the context of the genteel tradition in American literature.]
In the early 1850's, Bayard Taylor made a trip to Africa, traveling in Egypt, Soudan, and Ethiopia. He wrote a book about his travels entitled A Journey to Central Africa, or, Life and Landscapes from Egypt to the Negro Kingdoms of the White Nile. He also wrote a number of poems, including one called "Kilimanjaro." In the early 1930's, Ernest Hemingway was hunting in Africa. Out of his experiences came The Green Hills of Africa, as well as "The Short Happy Life of Francis McComber" and "The Snows of Kilimanjaro." It is merely fortuitous, of course, that two American writers, almost a century apart, chose to write about the great African mountain. The coincidence, however, affords an opportunity to examine two separate traditions in the American literary mind.
It so happens that Hemingway made a statement in The Green Hills of Africa about the "genteel tradition." He said the genteel writers were "good men with the small, dried, and excellent wisdom of the Unitarians. . . . They were all very respectable. They did not use the words that people always have used in speech, the words that...
(The entire section is 2080 words.)
SOURCE: "Ernest Hemingway," in F. Scott Fitzgerald and His Contemporaries, The World Publishing Company, 1963, pp. 155-216.
[In the following excerpt, Goldhurst compares the figure of the failed writer in works by Hemingway and F. Scott Fitzgerald.]
The destroyed writer is an American phenomenon and something of an American preoccupation. The fate of such literary artists as Edgar Allan Poe and Hart Crane seems more typical, to many observers at least, than the opposite image of established solidity typified by William Dean Howells. Van Wyck Brooks, for example, has commented at some length upon what he calls "the abortive career" of the American literary artist. The same theme has attracted the attention of some of our leading fictionists: Henry James remarked that the American writer seemed destined to follow a pattern of "broken careers, orphaned children, early disasters, violent deaths." James's comment is but one of many that stress the native tendency toward unfulfilled talent, alcoholism, and suicide—comments that seem to culminate in Fitzgerald's "Crack-Up" essays. "No one of us escapes it," said Sherwood Anderson, speaking of the "tragedy" of the creative man in America. "How can he?"
If Anderson's remark is exaggerated, it is nevertheless true that many American writers, among them Ring Lardner and Scott Fitzgerald, reveal a tendency toward tragic misfortune in their...
(The entire section is 1399 words.)
SOURCE: "The Real Thing," in Ernest Hemingway, Twayne Publishers, 1963, pp. 35-9.
[In the following excerpt, Rovit examines the theme of artistic failure in "The Snows of Kilimanjaro."]
Although many of Hemingway's heroes might nominally qualify as artists—Jake Barnes, writer; Nick Adams, writer; Frederick Henry, architect; Richard Cantwell, expert in general; Robert Jordan, writer—only Harry of "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" is presented convincingly as a writer; and only he seems actively concerned with the problems created by his calling. Structurally the story is rather simple—a variation on Ambrose Bierce's classic "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge." Harry, the writer, tries to come to terms with the fact of his approaching death; he has a badly gangrenous leg which is too far advanced to be cured, even though a rescue airplane is expected on the following day to carry him out of the African bush to the nearest hospital. He spends the afternoon and early evening quarreling with his wealthy wife, berating himself for having wasted his talents, remembering sharp vignettes of the past that he had always intended to use in his writing but never did. The last section of the story (as in Bierce's model) is a description of the arrival of the airplane and its ascent to the top of Kilimanjaro: "great, high, and unbelievably white in the sun." Then the story flashes back to the dead Harry discovered by...
(The entire section is 1486 words.)
SOURCE: "Woman or Wife?" in Hemingway on Love, Haskell House Publishers, 1973, pp. 97-110.
[In the following essay, originally published in 1965, Lewis explores the relationship between Helen and Harry, concluding Harry is portrayed as a tragic romantic]
"The Snows of Kilimanjaro" is in some ways similar to "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber." It was published a month before the Macomber story, and both are set in East Africa while an American couple is on safari. On the surface, "The Snows" seems to have as its theme the corruption of the American writer, but although this approach to the story is a profitable one, the fact that Harry is a writer is not of great consequence. Harry's role transcends his particular profession, and his story may also be read as one of the corruption of love. As Carlos Baker has said about the Macomber and Kilimanjaro stories:
Both deal . . . with the achievement and loss of moral manhood. Both look further into the now familiar men-without-women theme. The focal point in each is the corrupting power of women and money, two of the forces aggressively mentioned in Green Hills of Africa as impediments to American writing men.
Aside from the obvious differences in the action of the two stories, "The Snows" differs from "Macomber" chiefly in the variations of the men and women's...
(The entire section is 5384 words.)
SOURCE: "The Slopes of Kilimanjaro: A Biographical Perspective," in Novel: A Forum on Fiction, Vol. I, No. 1, Fall, 1967, pp.19-23.
[In the following essay, Baker identifies the various influences on "The Snows of Kilimanjaro."]
This much is known, moreover, that at times people ascend the mountain, and descend again in safety, if they but choose the right season; of which, indeed, they are mostly ignorant, and hence many have perished in the attempt.
—John Rebmann's Diary of a Journey to Kilimanjaro, 1849.
In August, 1935, Ernest Hemingway completed the first draft of a story about a writer who died of gangrene on a hunting trip in what was then Tanganyika. The nonfiction "novel," Green Hills of Africa, was already in press and due for publication in October. But the book had not used up all the material which Hemingway had accumulated in the course of his shooting safari of January and February 1934. The new story was an attempt to present some more of what he knew, or could imagine, in fictional form. As was his custom, he put the handwritten sheets away in his desk to settle and objectify. Eight months later, on a fishing-trip to Cuba, he re-examined his first draft, modified it somewhat, got it typed, and gave the typescript one final working over. Then he mailed it to Arnold Gingrich for publication in...
(The entire section is 2771 words.)
SOURCE: "The Snows of Kilimanjaro': Harry's Second Chance," in Studies in Short Fiction, Vol. V, No. 1, Fall, 1967, pp. 54-9.
[In the following essay, Dussinger emphasizes the significance of the final death scene of "The Snows of Kilimanjaro, " concluding that this scene validates the protagonist's quest for truth and identity.]
The similarity of Harry's memories in "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" to those of Hemingway in A Moveable Feast reveals the autobiographical intensity of this short story. When Hemingway speaks through his protagonist, "He had seen the world change. . . . He had been in it and he had watched it and it was his duty to write of it. . .," he makes clear that Harry's story is his professional manifesto. In his narration of the experiences of a dying man, Hemingway proves by example the one thing needful to the writer's pursuit of his hallowed calling. Hemingway embodies in "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" his idea of the writer's vocation, the artistic form giving it a validity that public, non-fictional statements lack.
If "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" expresses Hemingway's artistic credo, why has the story been so variously interpreted and even rejected by Hemingway critics? An obvious answer lies in the symbolism; Hemingway, with uncharacteristic directness, included the symbols of the mountain and the leopard in an epigraph, where they cannot be ignored. Most...
(The entire section is 1733 words.)
SOURCE: "The Short Stories," in The Narrative Pattern in Ernest Hemingway's Fiction, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1971, pp. 80-120.
[In the following excerpt, Nahal examines the tension between life and death in "The Snows of Kilimanjaro"]
"The Snows of Kilimanjaro" was first published in 1936. By then Hemingway was moving slowly to the realization that the larger life of the universe must include an intuitive awareness of the mystery of Death; as early as 1932, in Death in the Afternoon he had commented on it. For the cosmic order of the universe could be maintained only through as powerful a balancing force on the other side as life on this one. Here Hemingway goes very close to the Christian mysticism of Boehme, where duality is seen at the center of everything. In the latter half of his creative career, Hemingway concerned himself with death in an increasingly intense fashion. Across the River and Into the Trees and The Old Man and the Sea are fine studies of death and are powerful, creative reconstructions of the force of death. But in "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" we have a good foretaste of this.
The systolic-diastolic rhythm is most consummately presented in "The Snows," so much so that, by giving some of the passages in the story in a different type face, in italics, Hemingway himself seems to be subscribing to the theory. There is hardly any physical...
(The entire section is 2970 words.)
SOURCE: "Hemingway's 'The Snows of Kilimanjaro': Three Critical Problems," in Studies in Short Fiction, Vol. II, No. 1, Winter, 1974, pp. 67-74.
[In the following essay, MacDonald offers a stylistic and thematic analysis of "The Snows of Kilimanjaro, " contending that contrary to other critical interpretations, the protagonist does not transcend artistic failure.]
In spite of the unusually large amount of criticism that has been devoted to "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" during the last thirty-five years, several of the most fundamental critical problems posed by the story remain unsolved. Recent criticism indicates that there is still no adequate general understanding of the significance of Harry's imagined flight to Kilimanjaro near the end of the story, of the specific reasons for Hemingway's extensive use of italics, or of the exact implications of the brief epigraph of the story.
The flight to Kilimanjaro which Harry dreams he takes near the end of Hemingway's story has been interpreted in a number of different ways. The majority of critics, however, have seen Harry's journey as a kind of spiritual elevation, as Hemingway's method of indicating that at least at the moment of his death, Harry has become a superior man. The only widespread disagreement on this point, in fact, has resulted from varying opinions as to whether Hemingway's elevation of his protagonist is justified by Harry's...
(The entire section is 3347 words.)
SOURCE: "The Snows of Kilimanjaro': An African Purge," in Studies in Short Fiction, Vol. XXI, No. 3, Summer, 1984, pp. 223-27.
[In the following essay, Johnston perceives Hemingway's story as an attempt to confront fears of literary failure.]
The ethics of writing are fairly simple but very confusing to the public. The fact that a man lies, is cruel, betrays his wife, gets drunk, betrays his friends, has this or that odd or ugly sexual habit does not mean that he is not as honest in his writing as any Sir Galahad. No matter what lies he tells in his life he is an honest writer as long as he does not lie to or deceive the innermost self which writes.
When Hemingway returned from his African safari in April 1934, he told reporters in New York that he planned to return to Africa as soon as he had earned enough money. A wealthy woman read the remark in the papers, invited him to tea, and offered to finance the trip. Hemingway politely refused. When he got back to Key West, he started "to think what would happen to a character like me whose defects I know, if I had accepted that offer. . . . So I invent how someone I know who cannot sue me—that is me—would turn out, and put into one short story things you would use in, say, four novels if you were a careful and not a spender. I throw everything I had been...
(The entire section is 2346 words.)
SOURCE: "Voice Out of Africa: A Possible Oral Source for Hemingway's 'The Snows of Kilimanjaro'," in The Hemingway Review, Vol. IV, No. 2, Spring, 1985, pp. 7-11.
[In the following essay, Petry uncovers a link between Hemingway 's story and the reminscences of an early female aviator.]
Ever since it was first published in Esquire in August of 1936, Ernest Hemingway's "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" has consistently enjoyed popular acclaim and scholarly attention. A generous portion of the interest which the story continues to generate focuses on its possible sources—more precisely, the sources of the epigraph and the various elements within it (such as the frozen leopard). But the long-running epigraph controversy has tended to overshadow an equally fundamental critical problem in "The Snows": the source of the dramatic situation Hemingway depicts of a woman attempting to comfort a dying, delirious man. Is this purely Hemingway's imaginative rendering of his fate with the anonymous woman who offered to finance another safari for him in April of 1934? Or does it owe something to sources—written or oral—outside of his imagination? It is possible that an important unrecognized source of "The Snows" is the orally-transmitted stories of Beryl Clutterbuck Markham (b. 1902), a Kenya-based flying ace who had met Hemingway during his African safari of 1933-34.
Until now, one of the few...
(The entire section is 2027 words.)
SOURCE: "Tolstoy and Hemingway: The Death of Ivan Ilych' and 'The Snows of Kilimanjaro'," in Disease and the Novel, 1880-1960, Macmillan, 1985, pp. 19-29.
[In the following essay, Meyers compares "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" to Tolstoy's "The Death of Ivan Ilych," maintaining that it is a modern, non-religious version of Tolstoy's tale.]
The unexamined life is not worth living.
Tolstoy was Hemingway's literary hero, for both men had fought in battles and written a great novel about war and love. Despite his apparent deference, Hemingway matched his own short story masterpiece against Tolstoy's finest work in that genre when he consciously imitated and transformed "The Death of Ivan Ilych" (1886) in "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" (1936). In both stories the heroes are dying in early middle age of a smelly disease, which has trivial origins (a knock on the side, a scratch from a thorn) and symbolizes the corruption of their personal and professional lives. Both stories employ a suffocating symbol (the black sack and the hyena) to represent encroaching death. Both Ivan and Harry betrayed themselves for security, comfort and material success. Both never loved and now hate their wives, who encouraged their corruption and remain attached to the values their husbands have renounced. Both...
(The entire section is 4218 words.)
SOURCE: "The Snows of Kilimanjaro': Another Look at Theme and Point of View," in The South Atlantic Quarterly, Vol. LXXXV, No. 4, Autumn, 1986, pp. 351-59.
[In the following essay, Herndon reevaluates thematic and structural aspects of "The Snows of Kilimanjaro, " asserting that Harry does achieve moral redemption at the conclusion of the story.]
In the long-running critical debate about the resolution of Hemingway's "The Snows of Kilimanjaro," a number of critics have maintained that Harry's dream of flight at the end of the story—at the end of his story, at any rate—is the self-indulgent delusion of a failure. Others, like Max Westbrook, for instance, insist that the dream flight to Kilimanjaro, the Masai "House of God," signifies a moral triumph [in the Texas Quarterly, Winter 1966]. Westbrook sees Kilimanjaro as "an appropriate image of Harry's moral achievement," which consists in his coming to an honest awareness of his moral corruption and of his "apartness from the permanence symbolized by Kilimanjaro." His self-awareness, in Westbrook's view, purges Harry of "the sickness of temporal rot," and, in conjunction with his "redemptive knowledge of the real," prepares him for death.
I am in agreement with Max Westbrook and the other critics—Oliver Evans, for example, who see the dream-flight as a vision of redemption. I propose to reexamine some elements in the...
(The entire section is 3680 words.)
SOURCE: "The Silly Wasters: Tzara and the Poet in 'The Snows of Kilimanjaro'," in The Hemingway Review, Vol. VIII, No. 1, Fall, 1988, pp. 50-6.
[In the following essay, Johnston discusses Hemingway's treatment of Dadaism—particularly its most important figure Tristan Tzara—in "The Snows of Kilimanjaro."]
When Ernest Hemingway arrived in Paris at the end of 1921 to launch his writing career, another expatriate, Tristan Tzara, was already there making a circus of the literary scene. It would be hard to imagine two more disparate artists: the quiet, unknown American, shy and serious, totally dedicated to his craft, slowly and meticulously shaping his "true sentences" in the solitude of a rented room; the brash, notorious Romanian, bold and mischievous, totally dedicated to the demolition of traditional art and literature, chanting his Dada sense and nonsense in the streets and at public soirees.
The antics and manifestoes of the Dadaists were bound to arouse the suspicions of any aspiring, serious young writer. "We are circus directors," Tzara announced in his first manifesto, "whistling amid the winds of carnivals convents bawdy houses theatres realities sentiments restaurants HoHiHoHo Bang." And what a circus it was! The Dadaists created "poems" by picking words at random out of a hat: they shouted others—often nonsense verbal collages—to the deafening accompaniment...
(The entire section is 3450 words.)
Bache, William B. "Nostromo and 'The Snows of Kilimanjaro' ." In Modern Language Notes LXXII, No. 1 (January 1957): 32-4.
Finds parallel systems of realistic symbolism in Conrad's novel and Hemingway's story.
Elia, Richard L. "Three Symbols in Hemingway's The Snows of Kilimanjaro'." In Revues des Langues Vivantes XXXXI, No. 3 (1975): 282-85.
Discusses the symbols of the leopard, the hyena, and the mountain in Hemingway's story.
Howell, John M. "Hemingway's Riddle and Kilimanjaro's Reusch." In Studies in Short Fiction VIII, No. 3 (Summer 1971): 469-70.
Briefly comments on the origins of the leopard symbol in "The Snows of Kilimanjaro."
Kolb, Alfred. "Symbolic Structure in Hemingway's The Snows of Kilimanjaro'." In NMAL: Notes on Modern American Literature I, No. 1 (Winter 1976): np.
Claims that Hemingway deliberately contrasts Afro-Arabian and Judeo-Christian mythologies in his story.
Lewis, Robert W., and Max Westbrook. "The Texas Manuscript of The Snows of Kilimanjaro'." In Texas Quarterly IX, No. 4 (Winter 1966): 66-101.
Provides a full account of Hemingway's creative process in writing "The Snows of Kilimanjaro."
Stephens, Robert O. "Hemingway's Riddle of Kilimanjaro: Idea and Image." In...
(The entire section is 329 words.)