Study Guide


by Kurt Vonnegut Jr.

Slaughterhouse-Five Analysis

The Plot (Critical Survey of Science Fiction and Fantasy)

Slaughterhouse-Five: Or, The Children’s Crusade, A Duty-Dance with Death is a framed narrative in which Kurt Vonnegut himself appears in the first and last chapters, explaining how and why he wrote the novel. He also pops up occasionally in the action itself, because he was—like his protagonist Billy Pilgrim, as he tells readers in the frame chapters—a prisoner of war in Dresden, Germany, when Allied bombers incinerated the city on February 13, 1945.

The novel proper opens in 1944, when Billy, a chaplain’s assistant and inept foot soldier, is captured by the Germans. He and his fellow prisoners of war are taken by railroad boxcar to Dresden as forced laborers. Housed in a slaughterhouse bunker below the city streets, Billy is one of the only survivors when the city of Dresden is destroyed by incendiary bombs dropped in a ring around the ancient city, causing fires to burn toward its center. Billy emerges from the slaughterhouse to witness a moonscape.

The novel hardly moves in such a straight line; its structure rather mirrors Billy’s time travel. Chapter 2 opens with Billy coming “unstuck in time,” and thereafter the novel moves jerkily among its three plots: the story of Billy’s life, before and after the war; the bombing of Dresden; and life on Tralfamadore, a planet to which Billy was carried in 1967.

With the exception of World War II, Billy’s life is quite bland. Born in 1922 and drafted in 1940, after the war Billy marries the daughter of the founder of the Ilium School of Optometry he attends. He becomes a wealthy and conservative optometrist living in upstate New York. His imaginary life is much richer: Not only is he able to travel back and forth in time, but he claims he was kidnapped on the night of his daughter’s wedding and taken to a zoo on the planet Tralfamadore, where he and the voluptuous film star Montana Wildhack are representatives of the earthling species on view.

In 1968, Billy is the only survivor of the crash of a chartered flight of optometrists headed for a convention. His wife, Valencia, is killed in her car rushing to visit Billy in the hospital. Soon after these tragedies, Billy starts to write letters to the newspaper and appears on an all-night radio show in New York City detailing his interplanetary and time-travel experiences. His life will end, he claims, when one of his fellow prisoners of war, Paul Lazzaro, assassinates him, in the future of 1976. His life story ends in the novel, however, on the planet Tralfamadore with his beautiful lover Montana Wildhack nursing their new baby.

Slaughterhouse-Five (American Culture and Institutions Through Literature, 1960-1969)

The Work

Slaughterhouse-Five: Or, The Children’s Crusade, A Duty Dance with Death, highlights Billy Pilgrim, who, like Vonnegut, survived the firebombing of Dresden, Germany, by finding refuge in a meat locker under the slaughterhouse where he was employed as a prisoner of war. After the war, Pilgrim marries and becomes a successful optometrist in Ilium, New York; however, he cannot escape the horror and atrocity of war. Believing himself to be “unstuck in time,” Billy alternates among his memories of World War II, his life as a civilian in a world grown desensitized to violence and brutality, and a rich fantasy life on the planet Tralfamadore. On display in a Tralfamadorian zoo, Billy is mated with an Earthling named Montana Wildhack, a pornographic film star with whom, unlike with his real-life wife, Billy can share his memories of Dresden. While reliving his war experiences, Billy meets Roland Weary, a cruel and sadistic foot soldier who glorifies in the gruesome aspects of war and an ironic perception of himself as heroic, and Edgar Derby, a high school teacher who volunteered his service because he believed in the nobility of the Allied cause. Vonnegut’s brilliant characterization further adds to his picture of war as a brutal, dehumanizing force.


When Vonnegut dramatized his World War II experiences, including the February 13, 1945, firebombing of Dresden, then a cultural haven, by the Allied forces, he spoke to a nation torn, outraged, and struggling with its involvement in the Vietnam War. In chapters 1 and 10, Vonnegut directly addresses the reader and echoes the rallying cry of college students across the nation; he reminds us that nothing sensible can be made of war, no revelation, no absolution, nothing to further the evolution of humans. By presenting us with Billy Pilgrim, a man incapable of passion and who can no longer embrace life’s trivial joys or sorrows, Vonnegut mourns the annihilation of the human spirit by the brutal mechanisms of war. An instant success, Slaughterhouse-Five was praised by The New York Times and Time and Life magazines, forcing literary critics to reevaluate Vonnegut’s five earlier novels. While Vonnegut was signing contracts with the film industry, students all across the United States were touting the novel as evidence that U.S. involvement in Vietnam could result in nothing but senseless brutality, slaughter, and the ultimate death of hope or salvation.

Related Work

Slaughterhouse-Five, the 1972 film written by Stephen Geller, directed by George Roy Hill, and starring Michael Sacks as Billy Pilgrim, provides a Hollywood version of the novel.


Giannone, Richard. Vonnegut: A Preface to His Novels. Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1977. Astute reading of Slaughterhouse-Five, marking the biblical references and Vonnegut’s personal testimony. Devotes similar attention to other novels by Vonnegut.

Klinkowitz, Jerome. Kurt Vonnegut. New York: Methuen, 1982. Explains Slaughterhouse-Five as one of Vonnegut’s “personal” novels, as opposed to the earlier ones that adhere to the stricter forms of science fiction. Draws correlations among the Vonnegut novels.

Klinkowitz, Jerome. Slaughterhouse-Five: Reforming the Novel and the World. Boston: Twayne, 1990. A complete study of the novel. Criticism is taken from sources that reviewed Slaughterhouse-Five when it was published. Numerous passages of Slaughterhouse-Five are explained in depth, as well as Vonnegut’s philosophy as it was seen by the reviewers of his time.

Mayo, Clark. Kurt Vonnegut: The Gospel from Outer Space (or, Yes We Have No Nirvanas). San Bernardino, Calif.: Borgo Press, 1977. A short book with considerable insights into Slaughterhouse-Five and other novels by Vonnegut. The wit, sarcasm, and style of Vonnegut is prominent in the writing of this text.

Schatt, Stanley. Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. Boston: Twayne, 1976. Explores the construction, plot, and structure of Slaughterhouse-Five and considers Vonnegut’s sense of aesthetic distance from the work. Chapters include the contribution of Slaughterhouse-Five to the genre of science fiction and the Tralfamadorian philosophy.

Slaughterhouse-Five Places Discussed (Critical Guide to Settings and Places in Literature)

*Cape Cod

*Cape Cod. Massachusetts setting of the novel’s present-time autobiographical frame in the first and last chapters, Cape Cod is where author Kurt Vonnegut lived while writing the novel during the 1960’s.


Ilium. Fictional New York city where the main action unfolds. Modeled on New York’s upstate city of Schenectady, where Vonnegut once worked for General Electric, Ilium (after the Greek name for ancient Troy) is the place where protagonist Billy Pilgrim grows up, returns after serving in World War II, marries the daughter of the founder of his optometry college, and has a successful career as an optometrist.

The novel’s present-day setting of the late 1960’s is heavily middle-class and suburban and, in Vonnegut’s satirical prose, is revealed to be empty of such important American values as compassion and diversity. The novel’s loose plot turns on Billy’s waning enthusiasm for living. His sudden and inexplicable weeping episodes suggest that he is a victim of delayed stress syndrome, due to his horrific wartime experiences. His stress is manifested by his claim that in 1944 he became “unstuck in time.” Since then, he has traveled back and forth throughout time and interstellar space.

Vonnegut’s frame makes clear that the novel’s larger meaning applies to the late 1960’s, when Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King, Jr. were assassinated, riots were tearing cities apart, “and every day my Government gives me a count of corpses created by military science in Vietnam.” Scenes set in Ilium—such as Billy’s speaking at the Lions Club or driving through a black ghetto in his Cadillac with the windows rolled up tight—reveal an American city whose leading citizens seem oblivious to the country’s real problems.


*Dresden. German city destroyed by Allied bombing toward the end of World War II. The novel’s most intense action takes place during the war, in which Billy is captured by Germans and taken to Dresden and housed with other American prisoners in an abandoned slaughterhouse (which gives the novel its title)—a real place in which Vonnegut himself had been kept as a prisoner of war. While the city is leveled by an Allied firebomb attack that kills 135,000 inhabitants, both the prisoners and their guards are safely sheltered in a deep underground meat locker, which is “hollowed in living rock under the slaughterhouse.” The novel ends with Billy being freed. While the setting is the historical Germany of World War II, its action is clearly meant to remind readers of the war in Vietnam, where U.S. forces rained napalm firebombs on suspected enemies during the late 1960’s.


Tralfamadore (trahl-fahm-ah-DOHR). Imaginary distant planet that provides a setting for this and other Vonnegut novels. On the night of his daughter’s wedding in 1967, Billy is kidnapped by aliens and flown on a flying saucer to Tralfamadore. He is not missed on Earth, he explains, because the Tralfamadorians take him through a time warp that permits him to spend years on their planet, while being away from Earth “for only a microsecond.”

In contrast to his bland suburban life in Ilium and his horrific experiences in Dresden, Billy’s life on Tralfamadore is pleasant. The Tralfamadorians display him naked in a zoo they have built for him, and there he lives contentedly with another earthling, beautiful film star Montana Wildhack. On Tralfamadore Billy learns that “all moments, past, present, and future, always have existed, always will exist.” This relativistic philosophy apparently allows him to live perpetually in the present. His uncontrollable weeping, however, suggests that something is amiss beneath his surface. Perhaps the controlled “zoo” setting and human free will—which Tralfamadorians say is a notion that exists only on Earth—are incompatible.

Slaughterhouse-Five Historical Context

The Firebombing of Dresden
The most important historical event which informs Slaughterhouse-Five took place almost a...

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Slaughterhouse-Five Setting

For many years categorized strictly as a writer of science fiction, Vonnegut has a propensity for mixing the ordinary and the otherworldly in...

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Slaughterhouse-Five Quizzes

Chapter 1 Questions and Answers

Study Questions
1. What does Vonnegut say his breath smells like when he has been drinking?

2. What is strange about the set-up Mary O’Hare arranged for Vonnegut and her husband to talk about the war?

3. What does Vonnegut say World War II did for people?

4. Which previous occurrences of the destruction of cities does Vonnegut mention?

5. What is the only sound that disturbs the quiet following a massacre?

6. How does Vonnegut’s boss in Schenectady compare to the other veterans Vonnegut meets there?

7. How does Vonnegut describe the carp in the Hudson river?

8. Whose death sets off the first “so it goes?”

9. How many...

(The entire section is 280 words.)

Chapter 2 Questions and Answers

Study Questions
1. What is the name of the fighting group to which Weary imagines he belongs?

2. How does Billy later find one of his army practice maneuvers to provide a Tralfamadorian type of adventure?

3. Why was Billy not missed while he was in the Tralfamadorian zoo?

4. Why does Billy say he did not talk about his adventures before the plane accident?

5. How do Tralfamadorians perceive time?

6. How do Tralfamadorians understand death?

7. What phrase is the Tralfamadorian response to death?

8. How does Billy’s vocation parallel his purpose in propounding Tralfamadorian philosophy?

9. How does Billy’s first time...

(The entire section is 269 words.)

Chapter 3 Questions and Answers

Study Questions
1. In what context have the blue and white feet of this chapter’s corpses previously appeared?

2. What precise phrase describes the condition of Weary’s feet?

3. How do the actions of the teenaged German soldier toward Billy contrast to Weary’s treatment of him?

4. What underlying misconception fuels Wild Bob’s ranting?

5. How does Vonnegut humanize the German guards?

6. What heavenly visions does Billy have in this chapter?

7. What is ironic about Billy’s lack of discussion at the Lions Club meeting he attends in this chapter?

8. How does the adult Billy’s attitude toward his son’s profession differ from...

(The entire section is 341 words.)

Chapter 4 Questions and Answers

Study Questions
1. Where has the phrase “mustard gas and roses” previously appeared?

2. What promise does Paul Lazzaro make to Roland Weary before he dies?

3. Aside from crowding, what hardships do the Americans endure on their voyage to the prison camp?

4. How is Billy’s coat different from everyone else’s?

5. Give three details from this chapter that highlight the irony of Edgar Derby’s eventual execution.

6. Why is Billy not allowed to sleep on the floor with everyone else?

7. How does the Tralfamadorian say his kind sees time?

8. What two people die on the way to the prison?

9. For what purpose was the German...

(The entire section is 249 words.)

Chapter 5 Questions and Answers

Study Questions
1. What does Billy dream of when he is on morphine?

2. How does the scene with the punched prisoner parallel an experience Billy has with the Tralfamadorians?

3. What does Eliot Rosewater have to say about The Brothers Kamazarov?

4. While visiting Billy what does Valencia’s chosen topic of conversation say about her personality?

5. What is the problem with the Bible as it stands, according to The Gospel from Outer Space?

6. At what two points does Vonnegut insert himself into the narrative of this chapter?

7. How does the universe end, according to the Tralfamadorians?

8. How is Montana Wildhack’s body...

(The entire section is 296 words.)

Chapters 6-7 Questions and Answers

Study Questions
1. Does Billy get committed to an asylum after the incident in his optometry office?

2. What does Paul Lazarro say is the sweetest thing in life?

3. Why does Billy take Cinderella’s silver boots?

4. What animal disease is used to describe Paul Lazarro?

5. Why are the Dresdeners the color of putty?

6. What mistake does Billy make after the plane crash?

7. Which of the “millions of things” that Billy dreams after his operation are true?

8. What sarcastic comment does the cook in the communal kitchen of the slaughterhouse make to Billy, Derby, and their 16-year-old guard?

9. What benefit does working at...

(The entire section is 224 words.)

Chapter 8 Questions and Answers

Study Questions
1. What detail about the hog barn shows how intense the firestorm that engulfed Dresden must have been?

2. What is Campbell’s final argument in favor of fighting the Russians?

3. Who does Barbara blame for Billy’s problems?

4. How does Trout’s book “The Gutless Wonder” recall Billy’s son, Robert?

5. Why does the narrator claim there are few to no characters in this story?

6. How did the troop of Americans come to have only four guards?

7. What episode immediately follows Billy’s recollection of the painful memory of Dresden?

8. How does Billy’s response to the barbershop quartet reflect a conversation he...

(The entire section is 338 words.)

Chapters 9-10 Questions and Answers

Study Questions
1. How do the aliens from Zircon-212 manipulate their human captives?

2. When did Billy previously read The Big Board?

3. What does the wagon Billy rides in look like?

4. What is the topic of the panel Billy sneaks into?

5. What killed the Maori soldier?

6. Where has the message on Montana’s necklace previously appeared?

7. Why is Barbara glassy-eyed when she comes to visit her father in the hospital?

8. Why does Rumfoord say the Air Force wanted to cover up the bombing of Dresden?

9. Which historical personage do the Tralfamadorians find fascinating?

10. Where has the special picture the...

(The entire section is 230 words.)