Other literary forms
Simone de Beauvoir (duh boh-VWAHR) is best known for her social and political philosophy, especially her contributions to feminism. Foremost among her nonfiction works is her four-volume autobiography, Mémoires d’une jeune fille rangée (1958; Memoirs of a Dutiful Daughter, 1959), La Force de l’âge (1960; The Prime of Life, 1962), La Force des choses (1963; Force of Circumstance, 1964), and Tout compte fait (1972; All Said and Done, 1974). Equally important is her monumental sociological study on women, Le Deuxième Sexe (1949; The Second Sex, 1953). Two other sociological works follow The Second Sex, the first on China, La Longue Marche (1957; The Long March, 1958), and the second on the aged, La Vieillesse (1970; The Coming of Age, 1972). Les Bouches inutiles (1945), her only play, has not been translated into English. She also published two collections of short stories, La Femme rompue (1967; The Woman Destroyed, 1968) and Quand prime le spirituel (1979; When Things of the Spirit Come First: Five Early Tales, 1982). Her most important philosophical essays include Pyrrhus et Cinéas (1944), Pour une morale de l’ambiguïté (1947; The Ethics of Ambiguity, 1948), L’Existentialisme et la sagesse des nations (1948), and Privilèges (1955; partial translation “Must We Burn Sade?,” 1953). A number of her other essays appeared in newspapers and journals. She also wrote a chronicle of her travels in the United States, L’Amérique au jour le jour (1948; America Day by Day, 1953); a powerful account of her mother’s illness and death, Une Mort très douce (1964; A Very Easy Death, 1966); and a tribute to Jean-Paul Sartre, La Cérémonie des adieux (1981; Adieux: A Farewell to Sartre, 1984).