Carson's survey of the research on pesticides opens in a most unscientific fashion with a tale about an American...
(The entire section is 1640 words.)
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Chapter 1 Summary
The book opens with a chapter titled “A Fable for Tomorrow”; the author intends to offer an instructive lesson. Beginning with a picturesque description of a small town in America, Chapter 1 abounds in detailed imagery. This town is tucked away in a countryside that is peppered with beautifully flourishing farmland.
The farms are teeming with life. Regional vegetation includes crops that are grown for food production and plants that decorate and enliven the landscape. Every season offers a varied yet thriving view for those who traverse the roadways. The area is both visually appealing and alluring. The animal life in the region exists in abundance. Animal life flourishes on the land, in the sky, and on the sea. Again, the life forms reflect animal species that coexist in natural habitats and those bred for human consumption. There is a superabundance of life in the town and the surrounding area.
Visitors to the region contentedly tour the area, stopping to hunt or fish. Others journey to the region for exploration. These visitors engage in sight seeing and appreciative observation. The mere vibrancy of life is magnetic for these travelers. In fact, the region seems so ideal that the reader is lulled into a false sense of security.
Abruptly, this paradisiacal view quickly shifts, and the author presents a vision that is in stark contrast to that of the unblemished town. All outward aspects of the town undergo a drastic and horrifying metamorphosis. The landscape becomes a dreary and dismal skeleton of the region described at the outset of the chapter. Gone are the glorious visions of life in abundance. They are replaced by visions of utter decay and destruction.
In this altered view of the town, animals simply die. Both livestock and wildlife perish with no apparent cause. People, too, begin to suffer from mystifyingly noxious diseases. Afflicted ones die within hours of falling ill. Death settles like a plague on the land. Moreover, even the animals that survive fail to reproduce. These animals are alive but their fecundity is replaced by utter sterility. The inhabitants of the town search for the origins of the lethal epidemic, but they discover nothing. Neither science nor superstition can explain the tragedy.
In the closing paragraph, the author explains that the depiction of the town is largely fictitious. Then she adds another clarification: although this actual town does not exist, the tale is based in reality. The portrayal of the town is a composite description of characteristics that exist in many towns. Like this town, there are actual locations that experience unexplained death, illness, and misery. Then she promises to offer an explanation for this freakish phenomenon.
Chapter 2 Summary
The author begins this chapter with a stunning observation. Within the past 100 years, man has gained the ability to alter the environment. Previously, the environment had a significant impact on plant and animal life, but there was no reciprocal ability for life forms to alter the Earth. Consequently, the human impact on the environment was relatively insignificant and benign.
Recently, humans have had an unquestionably malignant effect on the Earth, primarily through various forms of pollution and chemical contamination. Radiation, pesticides, and herbicides penetrate the soil, the water, the air, and human cells, prompting “irrecoverable” and “irreversible” changes in all forms of life on Earth. Apparently, though there are naturally occurring environmental contaminants and “hostile” elements that wreaked havoc over the course of time, they cannot compare to the scope and degree of damage caused by man-made elements.
In the natural environment, change takes place over the course of time, which allows plant and animal life to adapt, adjust, and find the means of survival. On the contrary, the human impact on the environment has recently become rapid and rampant. In this instance, nature has not been granted the time required to adjust to the changes. The time required for the environment to adequately and healthily absorb the “500 new chemicals” introduced into the environment each year can only be measured in generations. In short, these transformations are lasting and pervasive.
Pesticides are the primary source of these chemical threats. These pesticides are generally sold as “sprays, dusts, and aerosols.” Although they are applied with the sole purpose of destroying pests, these chemicals are often capable of destroying nearly all insects and plants. Therefore, rather than labeling the products insecticides, the author suggests using a broader term: biocides.
(The entire section is 651 words.)
Chapter 3 Summary
In today’s world, no human can avoid contact with chemicals. Water sources—both fresh water and salt water—are contaminated with chemicals. Likewise, chemicals are now found in soil and in the bodies of animals everywhere in the world. Regardless of the terrain or geographic region, the author insists that chemicals have permeated and tainted the environment. She lays particular blame for this contamination on the push to manufacture synthetic pesticides and insecticides following World War II. Moreover, she complains of the chemicals’ ability to modify body processes and alter the function of enzymes.
Chemical pesticides and insecticides yield millions of dollars in annual profit for the companies that...
(The entire section is 761 words.)
Chapter 4 Summary
Although the majority of the earth’s surface is covered by water and all human life depends upon it, this precious natural resource is in short supply. Most of the earth’s water contains too much salt to be used for drinking, so only a finite amount is available for human consumption. In fact, the quantity of safe drinking water is limited and rapidly decreasing. Some areas of the world already face critical water shortages while other areas will soon be confronted with a life-threatening depletion of potable water.
Rather than preserve and protect the earth’s water supply, however, mankind has contaminated it with pesticides and chemicals. According to the text, the culprits are many. Water pollution is the...
(The entire section is 515 words.)
Chapter 5 Summary
There exists a reciprocal and symbiotic relationship between the earth’s soil and earth’s life forms. The decay of all forms of matter continually contributes to soil production. Simultaneously, living organisms use the soil and the substance therein to perpetuate their lives. Moreover, a typical acre of soil contains thousands of pounds of life forms such as bacteria, fungi, and algae. These organisms are largely responsible for generating the decay of “animal and plant residues” in the soil. They are also credited with modifying nitrogen for absorption by plants and for the oxidation and reduction processes in minerals that are used by plants.
Often, soil contains incredible numbers of mites and “wingless...
(The entire section is 941 words.)
Chapter 6 Summary
Although humankind acknowledges dependence on plants for sustenance, we arbitrarily destroy plants that do not provide immediate benefits as food or decoration. Plants have intricate and often complex relationships with the earth, with other plants, and with animals—including humans. Therefore, destroying any plant can have long-term consequences for the earth, other plants, and animals including humans.
Still, the market for generic “weed killers” is an ever-expanding proposition. To illustrate the ill effects of eradicating particular plant species, consider the sage. This plant thrives in the west. However, humans have made a concerted effort to replace large areas of sagebrush with grasslands that can be used...
(The entire section is 848 words.)
Chapter 7 Summary
This chapter examines the collateral damage that ensues when communities and municipalities short-sightedly use chemicals to target unwanted pests. In an effort to rid the area of Japanese beetles, the state of Michigan enacted a spraying program that devastated some bird populations. Although the beetle population evidenced “no appreciable” increase during a thirty year period, an organized spraying program began to drizzle aldrin pellets from the air. The state of Michigan provided funding for “the manpower and supervising the operation,” while the federal government supplied the insecticide.
A documented record of natural controls had been proven effective. Still, a large-scale spraying campaign was begun...
(The entire section is 652 words.)
Chapter 9 Summary
Water moves in a never-ending cycle from creeks and streams to rivers, lakes, and oceans. Salmon are foremost among the species that rely on this circuitous course for successful reproductive cycles. The Miramachi River, located along the coast of News Brunswick, is a regularly visited site on the salmon’s journey to reproduction. In 1954, a spraying program, completed at the direction of the Canadian government, threatened to destroy the salmon population of the Miramachi. Of course, destruction of the salmon population was not the intended result of the spraying campaign. The program was designed for another purpose entirely.
The budworm, which poses a threat to evergreens, was attacking the forests near the...
(The entire section is 790 words.)
Chapter 10 Summary
According to the author, aerial spraying has been referred to as “an amazing rain of death.” Further, the mere fact that pesticides are dispensed from the air in large quantities represented a significant shift in attitudes. The author notes that public perception of the toxic chemicals used in pesticides were once considered so lethal that graphical illustrations hugged the containers' warning labels. By the late 1950s, however, hundreds of gallons of dangerous chemicals were literally showered from the sky over forests, fields of produce and personal dwellings. This chapter describes two illustrative examples of spraying run amok. The first was a campaign intended to eradicate the gypsy moth in northeastern states while the...
(The entire section is 837 words.)