Sassoon, Siegfried (Contemporary Literary Criticism)
Siegfried Sassoon 1886-1967
（Full name Siegfried Lorraine Sassoon） English poet, novelist, autobiographer, diarist, and critic.
The following entry presents an overview of Sassoon's career through 1994.
One of the most compelling soldier-poets of the First World War, Siegfried Sassoon is best known for his graphic, often shocking portrayal of trench warfare during World War I and the withering psychological distress it imposed upon its combatants. Along with poets Rupert Brooke, Robert Graves, and Wilfred Owen, who also documented their horrific wartime experiences, Sassoon drew attention to the agony and appalling human cost of the “Great War,” dismissing at once the popular image of the glorious warrior fighting for a noble cause. His bitterly realistic depictions of cynical soldiers railing against the war effort, particularly the ignorant citizenry, government, and religion that promoted it, contrasted sharply with contemporary literature characterizing battle as a chivalrous national duty.
Born in Brenchley, a county of Kent, England, Sassoon was the second of three sons of Alfred Sassoon, the scion of wealthy Jewish merchants, and Theresa Thornycroft, a member of a prominent landowning family distinguished by its artistic talent. Her grandfather, parents and brother were noted sculptors, another brother a prestigious architect, and Theresa and her sisters were artists. Despite the Thornycrofts' prominence, Alfred Sassoon's mother disowned him for marrying a gentile and refused to have anything to do with his wife and children for the rest of her life. Educated at home as a boy, Sassoon studied at Marlborough College for three years and attended Clare College, Cambridge University, where he first privately published his own poetry. Disinterested in his studies, Sassoon left Cambridge after only two years, returning to his family home in Kent to lead a country gentleman's life of leisure. He continued to write and publish his own poetry, receiving encouragement from his mother's friend, editor Sir Edmund Gosse. Sassoon first gained a measure of literary recognition with the publication of The Daffodil Murderer （1913）, a parody of John Masefield's narrative poem The Everlasting Mercy. Sassoon began to move in literary circles in London where he first met Rupert Brooke, a poet who influenced Sassoon's wartime work. Sassoon joined the army in 1914 and the next year was sent to the trenches as an infantry officer where he met Robert Graves, who became his friend and role model. In 1916 Sassoon was awarded the Military Cross for dragging a wounded man to safety under heavy fire and for single-handedly capturing a German trench during the Battle of the Somme. While convalescing in England after he was wounded in 1917, he encountered British pacifists Robert Ross, Lady Ottoline Morrell, and Bertrand Russell. These political connections combined with his war experience convinced Sassoon that the war was no longer justified and should end. He wrote a public letter of protest in which he refused to fight anymore and accused the British government of unnecessarily prolonging the war. The letter was read aloud in the House of Commons and widely distributed across Britain. Sassoon narrowly avoided court-marital through the intervention of Graves, who convinced military officials that Sassoon was suffering from shell-shock. He was conveyed to a military hospital in Craiglockhart, Scotland, where he received psychiatric treatment from Dr. William H. R. Rivers and wrote some of his most powerful war poems. However, overcome with guilt at leaving his comrades, Sassoon returned to the war in 1918 but was finally sent home later that year after receiving a serious head wound. After the war, Sassoon briefly worked as the literary editor of the leftist Daily Herald and campaigned for the Labour Party. The publication of Picture Show （1919） and The War Poems of Siegfried Sassoon （1919） brought him critical acclaim and additional public recognition. He was awarded the Hawthornden Prize and the James Tait Black Memorial Prize for Memoirs of a Fox-Hunting Man （1928）. In 1933 Sassoon married Hester Gatty, with whom he shared a son, George, before separating permanently a decade later. Sassoon converted to Catholicism in 1957 and spent the last decade of his life concerned with religious and spiritual matters.
Sassoon received the greatest attention for the shocking imagery, graphic language, and bitter satire that permeates his World War I poetry, the core of which is contained in The Old Huntsman and Other Poems （1917） and Counter-Attack and Other Poems （1918）. Much of Sassoon's lyrical, pre-war verse features romantic themes, pastoral imagery, and pagan iconography, linking him with other Georgian poets of the early twentieth century. In “The Daffodil Murderer” and “The Old Huntsman,” for example, the poet assumes the personae of English rustics speaking in colloquial blank verse. Characterized as his “Happy Warrior” stage, some of these poems exalt the virtues of patriotism and romanticize the camaraderie of combat soldiers. “To My Brother,” written after his younger brother was killed in action, extols death in battle as a grand sacrifice. Likewise, “Absolution” and “The Redeemer,” also from this period, celebrate the passion and glory of war. However, the tone and outlook of Sassoon's poetry changed dramatically after he witnessed action in the trenches. As he became well acquainted with the bleak reality of combat, his writing became a vehicle of trenchant protest against the war and its horrors. He used his verse to condemn the hypocrisy of the citizenry on the home front who, oblivious to the real suffering of the soldiers, continued to celebrate the war. “Blighters” satirizes a rousing, pro-war revue he watched while on leave in England, “Glory of Women” angrily mocks the women at home who urged their men to fight, and “They” condemns the patriotic benediction of the Anglican church. These poems are short, satirical, and often sarcastic. In “Stand-To: Good Friday Morning,” an exhausted, disillusioned soldier sardonically prays for a wound to deliver him from the peril and squalor of battle. The gruesome imagery of carnage and filth in his poetry underscores the unromantic reality of life in the trenches. Vivid, morbid images such as “sucking mud” and “clotted heads” appear in poems like “Counter-Attack,” while “Repression of War Experience” illustrates how war taints the soldier's perception of everything associated with happiness and peace. Sassoon also employed slang, oaths, and colloquial expressions to talk about serious issues, devices unusual in poetry at that time.
He eventually turned to other subject matter in Satirical Poems （1926） and the lyric collection The Heart's Journey （1927）, but his postwar poetry received little recognition. He returned to his wartime experiences in Memoirs of a Fox-Hunting Man, Memoirs of an Infantry Officer （1930） and Sherston's Progress （1936）, a fictional trilogy that chronicles the story of Sassoon alter-ego George Sherston, a country gentleman of leisure whose world is changed by fighting in the war. Sassoon focuses on the contrast between the pastoral estate life of his hero and the psychic journey he takes to a new world created by the war. Sassoon rewrote his story again in memoir form, producing a second trilogy consisting of The Old Country and Seven More Years （1938）, The Weald of Youth （1942）, and Siegfried's Journey, 1916-1920 （1945）. Sassoon continued to write poetry in the last decades of his life, focusing on religious and spiritual themes. “Alone” deals with duality of self, particularly the contrast between the social self and the isolated self. His religious poetry, from the earlier “A Last Judgement” and “Earth and Heaven” to later work such as “Lenten Illuminations,” features the imagery of angels and ponders creation and the after-life. Sassoon also published Meredith （1948）, a literary biography of George Meredith.
Sassoon's war poetry is generally regarded as the highlight of his career. His ability to capture in a few biting lines the nuances of emotion experienced by a whole generation of soldiers earned him admiration. Poems such as “Blighters” and “Counter-Attack” remain among his most famous. While some readers felt that his poetry was too ugly and graphic, and that its interest lay more in its ability to shock and discomfit the reader than in any real artistic merit, most critics regard his war poems as a powerful expression of the savagery and psychic costs of modern, mechanized combat. Though viewed as an antiwar poet, critics clarify that Sassoon's opposition to the First World War was not necessarily motivated by pacifism, but by his belief that the war was unduly protracted by those in power. Commentators frequently praise Sassoon's effective use of irony and potent distillation of fear and despair in his brief, incisive poems. However, his early Georgian verse and later attempts at longer, more sympathetic poems are often characterized as failures which caused him to overreach the bounds of his talents and become sentimental, particularly works that memorialize fallen comrades and family. Sassoon's autobiographical novels and memoirs are considered noteworthy for chronicling the pre-war estate life of the English upper class, a way of life which changed drastically during and after the war, and for the universality of the World War I experience which changed his generation. His later poetry never received the attention or praise accorded to that written during and about the war. For his contribution to the literature of the First World War, Sassoon is considered among the most influential wartime poets.
The Daffodil Murderer [as Saul Kain] （poetry） 1913
Morning-Glory （poetry） 1916
The Redeemer （poetry） 1916
To Any Dead Officer （poetry） 1917
The Old Huntsman and Other Poems （poetry） 1917
Counter-Attack and Other Poems （poetry） 1918
Picture Show [enlarged and reprinted as Picture-Show, 1920] （poetry） 1919
The War Poems of Siegfried Sassoon （poetry） 1919
Satirical Poems （poetry） 1926
The Heart's Journey （poetry） 1927
Memoirs of a Fox-Hunting Man （novel） 1928
Memoirs of an Infantry Officer （novel） 1930
Vigils （poetry） 1934
Sherston's Progress （novel） 1936
The Complete Memoirs of George Sherston [includes Memoirs of a Fox-Hunting Man, Memoirs of an Infantry Officer, and Sherston's Progress] （novels） 1937
The Old Country and Seven More Years （autobiography） 1938
Rhymed Ruminations （poetry） 1939
The Flower Show Match and Other Pieces （poetry） 1941
The Weald of Youth （autobiography） 1942
(The entire section is 139 words.)
SOURCE: “Some Soldier Poets,” in Edinburgh Review, Vol. 226, No. 4, October, 1917, pp. 296-316.
[In the following excerpt, Gosse discusses Sassoon's place among the British war poets and offers tempered review of The Old Huntsman and Other Poems.]
The two years which preceded the outbreak of the war were marked in this country by a revival of public interest in the art of poetry. To this movement coherence was given and organisation introduced by Mr. Edward Marsh's now-famous volume entitled Georgian Poetry. The effect of this collection—for it is hardly correct to call it an anthology—of the best poems written by the youngest poets since 1911 was two-fold: it acquainted readers with work few had the ‘leisure or the zeal to investigate,’ and it brought the writers themselves together in a corporate and selected relation. I do not recollect that this had been done—except prematurely and partially by ‘The Germ’ of 1850—since the ‘England's Parnassus’ and ‘England's Helicon’ of 1600. In point of fact the only real precursor of Mr. Marsh's venture in our whole literature is the ‘Songs and Sonnettes’ of 1557, commonly known as ‘Tottel's Miscellany.’ Tottel brought together, for the first time, the lyrics of Wyatt, Surrey, Churchyard Vaux, and Bryan, exactly as Mr. Marsh called public attention to Rupert Brooke, James Elroy Flecker and the rest of the Georgians, and...
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SOURCE: “Absolution,” in New Republic, April 13, 1918, pp. 330-1.
[In the following review, Hackett offers qualified praise for The Old Huntsman and Other Poems.]
When John Masefield returned here some months ago he brought praise of Mr. Sassoon's war-poetry. It was a surprise to him that this poetry, published in London in May, 1917, and dedicated to Thomas Hardy, should not yet have reached Americans. Here is the book now, issued in the handsome war-forgetful style conferred on it by Mr. Heinemann; and only a year late.
It is not all war-poetry. Half of the volume contains verse that Mr. Sassoon must have written in the England that is gone. This part of the volume might by itself have made some reputation if there had never been a long war, and if it had been published with peace-time additions—but it is a thin companion to the verse that its author has added in France. Its anæmia is no evidence that its author is thin-blooded, it is merely a proof that poetry had largely become a function of book-fed human beings in the traditional sphere where Mr. Sassoon resided before the war. It is distinguished verse, some of it quite charming and all of it beyond sentimentality, but it is definitely moon-luminous and pale. The Old Huntsman is a boyish attempt to secure a quavering sporting reminiscence. “Haunted”, “Goblin Revel” and “Night-Piece” show the kind of...
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SOURCE: “Mr. Sassoon Continues His Autobiography,” in New York Times Book Review, March 24, 1946, p. 4.
[In the following review, Edman offers favorable review of Siegfried's Journey.]
The quality of Siegfried Sassoon's prose writing has by this time become an established and unique mode in contemporary English letters. Where else is the note of reminiscence, half-lyric and half-humorous realism, so delicately sounded? Who else evokes with such combined detachment and nostalgia the atmosphere of a vanished quarter-of-a-century ago, or the ardors and endurances of a poetic and （to use Mr. Sassoon's own phrase about his own early manhood） chuckle-headed youth? Where else can one find so precise and yet passionate an evocation of the very texture of the English sky and the English landscape, or where find so much good sense and freshening insight into so many figures, famous and obscure, in English society, politics and literature?
Mr. Sassoon has exhibited these delicious excellences in a now considerable series of memoirs with the same subject: himself. There were semi-fictional personal histories, told in a thinly-disguised third person, some of them well known a generation ago on both sides of the Atlantic: Memoirs of a Fox-Hunting Man, Memoirs of an Infantry Officer, and Sherston's Progress. There is the now frankly first-personal story begun in The Old...
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SOURCE: “The Happy Warrior,” in Nation, April 20, 1946, pp. 478-9.
[In the following review, Humphries offers positive assessment of Siegfried's Journey, which he describes as the work of a “dilettante.”]
How pleasant, one is tempted to reflect on reading these memoirs, how pleasant to be born in the leisure class, with a sense of aristocratic tradition, including the medieval, in the blood and bone; to be a welcome guest, for as long as one liked, at great houses with names and ivy and lawns with ilex trees; to have friends, male, like Robbie Ross, who would sympathetically draw out of you every impulse you had toward creativeness; or friends, female, like Lady Ottoline Morrell, a little over-enthusiastic, perhaps, but given to “innumerable acts of generosity and affection.” How pleasant to circulate freely, with just the proper amount of diffidence, among the respected writers and artists of one's time; to have the entrée to drawing-rooms where Bach was played for enjoyment; or to go, if one felt in a simpleminded mood, for a jolly canter with the Acting Master of the Southdown Hunt! How pleasant to know the right people, so that after the recovery from wounds the leave could be extended ever so little; so that the pacifism could be diagnosed as shell shock; so that the objector to war could be lectured, benevolently if sincerely, by no less a Dutch uncle than Winston Churchill...
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SOURCE: “Effective Protest,” in Siegfried Sassoon: A Critical Study, pp. 15-38. London: Oxford University Press, 1966.
[In the following essay, Thorpe examines Sassoon's bitter anti-war sentiment, conflicted feelings of betrayal, inglorious depiction of combat experience, and use of brutal satire in his war poetry.]
As if the soldier died without a wound; As if the fibres of this godlike frame Were gored without a pang; as if the wretch, Who fell in battle, doing bloody deeds, Passed off to Heaven, translated and not killed;
(Coleridge, ‘Fears in Solitude’ (1.117–121)
… this sudden, stern ecstatic sense of unification, of peace, wrought by the stress of a great call … It is like the wakening of a new chivalry.
(The Athenaeum, June 19, 1915)
It must be remembered that in 1914 our conception of war was completely unreal. We had vague childish memories of the Boer War, and from these and from a general diffusion of Kiplingesque sentiments, we managed to infuse into war a decided element of adventurous romance. War still appealed to the imagination.
(Sir Herbert Read, The Contrary Experience, 1963)
1 HAPPY WARRIOR
Of the 35 poems in The Old Huntsman, about one third were...
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SOURCE: “Siegfried Sassoon and Georgian Realism,” in Twentieth Century Literature, Vol. 14, No. 4, January, 1969, pp. 199-209.
[In the following essay, Moore discusses the striking quality of Sassoon's war poetry as a fusion of Georgian poetics and realism.]
The judgment that Siegfried Sassoon's pre-war poetry is pale, conventional, cloyingly romantic, and weakly derivative—in short, that it epitomizes what is today slightingly called “Georgian” verse—has become a critical commonplace. A corollary to this view assumes that the powerful war poetry of The Old Huntsman （1917） and Counter-Attack （1918） sprang full blown from his head, a result of the trauma of trench warfare. Robert Graves appears to be the first to have foisted this view upon us in his desire to praise the more exciting war verse. He claims in Goodbye to All That that Sassoon before the war had published only a few “pastoral pieces of eighteen-ninetyish flavour, and a satire on Masefield which, half-way through, had forgotten to be a satire and turned into rather good Masefield.” As Graves saw it, Edward Marsh, the publisher of Georgian Poetry, and Edmund Gosse had retarded Sassoon's poetic development by keeping him to his “moons and nightingales and things.” David Daiches, later, agreed with Graves' estimate of the early verse: Sassoon began, he believes, as “a faded romantic,”...
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SOURCE: “The Memoirs of George Sherston: Sassoon's Perpetual Pilgrimage,” in Figures of Autobiography: The Language of Self-Writing in Victorian and Modern England, University of California Press, 1983, pp. 337-53.
[In the following essay, Fleishman examines the recurring motifs of spiritual journey and transformation in Sassoon's autobiographic writings.]
“I told him that I was a Pilgrim going to the Celestial City.” When the reader of the Complete Memoirs reaches the epigraph to the final volume, Sherston's Progress, the impression is confirmed that he has been accompanying a spiritual wayfarer. All his long, meditative life, Siegfried Sassoon maintained the dual role of action and rumination under the aspect of pilgrim allegory. Throughout his extended autobiographical career—from The Heart's Journey poems of 1927 to the final volume of his propria persona autobiographical trilogy, Siegfried's Journey （1945）—Sassoon was governed by the figure of quest, though his active life diminished and his ruminations increased in inverse proportion. With the benefit of hindsight and with varied degrees of satisfaction in his conversion to Catholicism in 1957, his critics have mapped his religious path in closed or handsome curves, but the view from the road his books report is unencumbered by claims to distance and direction. To apply the phrase with which...
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SOURCE: “Neither Worthy Nor Capable: The War Memoirs of Graves, Blunden, and Sassoon,” in Modernism Reconsidered, edited by Robert Kiely, Harvard University Press, 1983, pp. 101- 21.
[In the following excerpt, Hildebidle discusses the lasting trauma and guilt experienced by World War I veterans. According to Hildebidle, Sassoon's memoirs, as well as those by Robert Graves and Edmund Blunden, reflect his effort to come to terms with the horrors of war and his own survival.]
Those of the modernist generations who experienced at first hand the apocalypse of the Western Front faced unusual difficulty in achieving that “impersonality” variously prescribed by Eliot and by Stephen Dedalus. By those who had lived through 1914-1918 at some greater distance from Ypres and the Somme, the war could be used as the substance or material of great, if harsh, art—the no-man's-landscape of The Waste Land, for instance, or the history that Virginia Woolf borrows for Septimus Smith. One can trace in the war poets an attempt to find or to make a form and language that could control the immediate and shocking experience of the trenches, an effort all too often cut short by death. The survivors of the war did not necessarily prosper as a result of their apparent good fortune; for it fell to them to devise a way to recall the war both fairly and usefully. To many it seemed, as Erich Maria Remarque insisted in...
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SOURCE: “The Great War and Sassoon's Memory,” in Modernism Reconsidered, edited by Robert Kiely, Harvard University Press, 1983, pp. 81-99.
[In the following essay, Mallon provides an overview of Sassoon's literary career and examines the lasting impact of his war experiences on his writing.]
The stage nerves Siegfried Sassoon may have experienced before addressing the Poetry Club at the Harvard Union in the spring of 1920 were mitigated by the formidable assurances of Miss Amy Lowell, who had recently written to tell him that he “was the one man whom the Harvard undergraduates wanted to hear.” Such assurances were more necessary than might be supposed; Sassoon had discovered upon arriving in New York in January that, little more than a year after the Armistice, more than enough British authors were touring America to fill the already slackening desire to hear from and about the soldier-poets. In fact, the war was sufficiently receding in people's minds that Sassoon had to rely on himself, rather than the Pond Lyceum Bureau, to scare up most of his engagements. But at Harvard Sassoon did find a receptive audience for the last of his pleas against militarism, and he finished his tour feeling that his “diminutive attempt to make known to Americans an interpretation of the war as seen by the fighting men” had been “not altogether ineffective.”
In some respects the Harvard...
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SOURCE: “Rivers and Sassoon: The Inscription of Male Gender Anxieties,” in Behind the Lines: Gender and the Two World Wars, edited by Margaret Randolph Higonnet, Jane Jenson, Sonya Michel, and Margaret Collins Weitz, Yale University Press, 1987, pp. 61-9.
[In the following essay, Showalter examines the psychological effect of shell shock on male sexual identity and Sassoon's hospitalization under the care of psychiatrist William H. R. Rivers.]
On July 23, 1917, 2d Lt. Siegfried Sassoon arrived at Craiglockhart War Hospital near Edinburgh to be treated for war neurosis by Royal Army Military Corps psychiatrist Capt. William H. R. Rivers. Their three-month-long therapeutic relationship, intensified by the urgency of the war, exerted a powerful influence on each man's life and ideas. The record of this encounter is one of the best sources we have for studying the inscription of male gender anxieties during the war, anxieties that manifested themselves in the body language of neurotic symptoms and in the structures of writing, both memoir and psychiatric text.
“Dottyville,” as the hospital was called by Sassoon and his friends Robert Graves and Lt. Wilfred Owen, also a patient, was a former hydropathic hotel for the nervous or alcoholic rich, which boasted extensive facilities for gardening, tennis, swimming, and other games. Yet Sassoon—who had been ordered by a military review...
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SOURCE: “Satire and Protest,” in British Poets of the Great War, Susquehanna University Press, 1988, pp. 119-38.
[In the following excerpt, Crawford discusses Sassoon's outspoken antiwar sentiment, realistic evocation of combat conditions, and targets of satire and condemnation in his war poetry.]
Siegfried Sassoon （1886-1967） was the first soldier poet to achieve public notoriety as an opponent not only of the war, but also of those whose complicity allowed it to continue. His satiric targets included virtually everyone except fighting soldiers of both sides—civilians content to accept the casualties of the war as inevitable, staff officers whose incompetence contributed to the carnage, churchmen who abetted efforts to prolong the war, and profiteers who combined insensibility and greed to become “hard-faced men who did well out of the war.” During the war, Sassoon's The Old Huntsman and Other Poems （1917）, “A Soldier's Declaration” （July 1917）, and Counter-Attack and Other Poems （1918） drew attention to the war's effects.
Nothing in Sassoon's prewar life suggested he would become a public spokesman. Born in Kent, Sassoon was the second of three sons of Alfred Sassoon, who separated from his wife when Sassoon was five, and Theresa Thornycroft, whose family included several distinguished Victorian sculptors. Sassoon's connections were various....
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SOURCE: “‘Golgotha’: World War I Poems,” in Siegfried Sassoon, Twayne, 1993, pp. 30-61.
[In the following excerpt, Sternlicht examines the dominant themes, subjects, and style of Sassoon's verse in Counter-Attack, which Sternlicht identifies as Sassoon's “most memorable and powerful collection of poetry.”]
From a literary critic's viewpoint, one of the outstanding aspects of World War I is the amount of excellent poetry it inspired. What is perhaps the greatest body of war poetry ever written was produced by British poets from 1914 to 1918. Indeed those few bloody years spawned two “generations” of war poets: the first caught up in the awful and blind patriotism of the hour, among them Rupert Brooke, Julian Grenfell, Robert Nichols, Charles Sorley, and the pre-Somme Sassoon, and the second “composed of” antiwar satirists and soldier-poets of pity and disillusionment, among them Sassoon, Wilfred Owen, Isaac Rosenberg, Robert Graves, and Edmund Blunden.
Bernard Bergonzi, in Heroes' Twilight: A Study of the Literature of the Great War, notes that the prewar Sassoon “typified an echt-Georgian state of mind. Whatever radicalism he manifested during the war was forced upon him by events.” Self-trained by years of writing poetry, Sassoon had developed a good ear and eye for detail. Most of all he knew that
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SOURCE: “In Defense of the Realm: Sassoon's Memoirs,” in Raritan, Vol. XIV, No. 1, Summer, 1994, pp. 89-108.
[In the following essay, Lane interprets Sassoon's autobiographic writings as an embodiment of his conflicted self-identity and masculinity as a dutiful English soldier, antiwar dissenter, and repressed homosexual.]
The war is outside of life, and I'm in the war.
There is a way of referring to the generation of First World War poets that is still popular in Britain today. According to this myth, a group of men set out to chronicle the nation's experience of combat for those back home oblivious of its meaning. By capturing the elegiac testament of a “lost generation,” their poetry is presumed to record a nation's suffering.
In line with all myth, an element of truth to this reading cannot be ignored: the task of writing the war was taken up by many soldiers in a spirit of grief and protest. Many of these poets were incensed by the discrepancy between their experience of war and Britain's rhetorical denial of horror and suffering. This was a war in which several million people died, a war that continues to illustrate its historical pointlessness.
Although the large number of killed and maimed in the war cannot be discounted, I propose that the meaning of war is...
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Barth, R. L. “Sassoon's ‘Counter-Attack.’” Explicator 49, No. 2 （Winter 1991）: 117-8.
Offers brief critical analysis of the poem “Counter-Attack.”
Caesar, Adrian. “Siegfried Sassoon.” In his Taking it Like a Man: Suffering Sexuality, and the War Poets Brooke, Sassoon, Owen, Graves, pp. 60-114. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1993.
Reexamines Sassoon's intellectual development, military experiences, and attitudes concerning warfare and suffering as reflected in his World War I poetry.
Campbell, Patrick. “Sassoon's ‘Blighters.’” Explicator 53, No. 3 （Spring 1995）: 170-1.
Offers brief critical analysis of the poem “Blighters.”
Corrigan, D. Felicitas. “Introduction.” In Siegfried Sassoon: Poet's Pilgrimage, edited by D. Felicitas Corrigan, pp. 15-42. London: Victor Gollancz, 1973.
Provides an overview of Sassoon's literary career, artistic development, and religious sensibility.
Drinkwater, John. “Two ‘New Poets’ and Their War Poems as Mr. Drinkwater Sees Them.” New York Times Review of Books （9 May 1920）: 235, 246.
A positive review of Picture Show.
Hibberd, Dominic. “Some Notes on Sassoon's Counter-Attack and...
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