The Poem (Masterplots II: Poetry, Revised Edition)
“I Saw in Louisiana a Live-Oak Growing” is a short lyric poem made up of thirteen lines of free verse (verse written in no traditional meter). The speaker of the poem may be identified with the poet or at least with “Walt Whitman,” as the reader comes to know him in Leaves of Grass, the book in which this poem appears. The poem begins with a memory: The poet remembers the live oak tree he saw standing by itself in Louisiana, whose “rude” and “lusty” look reminded the poet of himself. In one important respect, however, the tree was very different from the poet, for the tree was “uttering joyous leaves” even though it stood without another of its kind (a “companion”) nearby, and this is something that the poet knew he could never do. That the tree was in Louisiana may have some autobiographical significance: Whitman, who lived most of his life in New York and New Jersey, spent some time in Louisiana. In any case, the live oak flourishes in Louisiana, and the geographical reference grounds the poem in fact. The poet is speaking of a real tree he actually saw rather than of a metaphor for his feelings.
In speaking of the tree as “uttering” its leaves, Whitman uses a word that is perfectly appropriate on a literal level. In this context, “utter” can simply mean to “put forth” or “sprout.” However, since the word is more commonly used to describe human speech and since Whitman habitually refers to his poems as...
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Forms and Devices (Masterplots II: Poetry, Revised Edition)
Whitman was a pioneer in the development of free verse, but, as any experienced reader knows, successful free verse is never really free. Free of meter (the regular distribution of stresses across a line that dominated English verse from the Renaissance to Whitman’s time and beyond), free verse must find its own principles of rhythm. A number of qualities contribute to the overall rhythm of Whitman’s verse. Two of these are line length and syntax. Using the syllable as the unit of measurement, the reader can find in the poem a rhythm of expansion and contraction. The first line is shorter than any other line except for the last. The longest lines, the fifth and sixth, are followed by three relatively short lines of fifteen syllables each. Line 10 expands to twenty syllables, line 11 to twenty-five. Line 12 contracts to seventeen syllables, leading to the eight syllables of the eloquently concise last line.
Syntax also contributes to rhythm. Each line is capable of standing alone as at least a complete sentence, and line 11 could be written as two sentences. Yet only line 11 ends with a full stop of any kind, and the first period appears only at the end of the poem. The result is a rhythmically significant tension between sense and sound as the punctuation forbids the major pause at the end of the line that the sense would seem to call for. Syntactical subtleties also produce effects beyond the rhythmic. An air of straightforward simplicity is...
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Bibliography (Masterplots II: Poetry, Revised Edition)
Allen, Gay Wilson. A Reader’s Guide to Walt Whitman. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1970.
Allen, Gay Wilson. The Solitary Singer: A Critical Biography of Walt Whitman. Rev. ed. New York: New York University Press, 1967.
Asselineau, Roger. The Evolution of Walt Whitman. Expanded ed. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1999.
Gold, Arthur, comp. Walt Whitman: A Collection of Criticism. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1974.
Greenspan, Ezra, ed. Walt Whitman’s “Song of Myself”: A Sourcebook and Critical Edition. New York: Routledge, 2005.
Kaplan, Justin. Walt Whitman: A Life. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1980.
Miller, James E., Jr. Walt Whitman. Rev. ed. Boston: Twayne, 1990.
Pearce, Roy Harvey, ed. Whitman: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1962.
Reynolds, David S., ed. Walt Whitman. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Sowder, Michael. Whitman’s Ecstatic Union: Conversion and Ideology in “Leaves of Grass.” New York: Routledge, 2005.
Woodress, James, ed. Critical Essays on Walt Whitman. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1983....
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