Sarah Scott 1723–1795
(Also wrote under the pseudonym of Henry Augustus Raymond, Esq.) English novelist and biographer.
Scott was an English novelist and biographer whose life and works reveal an engagement with charity, social reform, and the condition of women in society. Scott did not overtly challenge the existing social order, but rather depicted and attempted to create alternative female communities in which women could reach their true intellectual and moral potential.
Scott was born in Yorkshire in 1723, one of nine surviving children of twelve. In 1751 she married George Lewis Scott, a mathematician in the service of the Prince of Wales. The couple separated within a year. The reason for their separation is not known, but family letters suggest that they were simply incompatible. For the next several years Scott traveled and lived with friends and relatives. She eventually settled in Bath. In 1754 Scott and her friend Lady Barbara Montagu established a household in Batheaston and became partners in developing a charity attending to the needs of poor women. They encouraged selfsufficiency through education and the learning of practical skills. Scott and Montagu also established a school for children. After Montagu's death in 1765 Scott encountered financial difficulties. She spent the last years of her life in Catton, near Norwich, until her own death in 1795.
Scott's books are for the most part traditional sentimental novels in which characters struggle to maintain their virtue in the face of overwhelming odds. Her first novel, The History of Cornelia (1750), recounts the repeated trials of a young orphan in her quest for true love and happiness. Scott's next project, An Agreeable Ugliness; or, The Triumph of the Graces (1754), is a translation of Pierre-Antoine de La Place's La Laideur, et les dangers de la beauté. This morality tale of two sisters—one beautiful but vain, and the other plain but virtuous—reveals the superiority of the latter sister and concludes with her triumph. Scott's first bio-graphy, The History of Gustavus Ericson (1761), published under the pseudonym Henry Augustus Raymond, Esq., was a life of Gustavus Vasa, King of Sweden during the sixteenth century. In her preface to that work, Scott argued the merits of biography over narrative history, believing that they provide more insight into the character and motivations of people. Her most well-known novel, Millenium Hall (1762), is largely a fictionalized recreation of the charitable community run by Scott and Montagu at Bath. The women who inhabit the Eden-like confines of Millennium Hall are all disfigured physically, emblematic of the psychic scarring they received within exploitive relationships. In The History of Sir George Ellison (1766), a sequel to Millenium Hall, Scott addressed her text primarily to the class of English planters and slave owners. Her novel did not advocate abolition outright, but urged humanitarian and educational reforms within the slave system.
Scott's six novels and three historical biographies were all published either anonymously or pseudonymously, and received only limited critical attention during her lifetime. Yet at the end of the twentieth century, Scott, as a member of the early class of professional female writers, is receiving increased scholarly attention. Scott's work has received the attention of feminist and gender scholars, who focus on the extent to which Scott's writings reflect a developing feminist viewpoint. Scott's work has also been studied in the context of Utopian literature.
The History of Cornelia (novel) 1750
Agreeable Ugliness; or, The Triumph of the Graces (translation) 1754
A Journey Through Every Stage of Life, Described in a Variety of Interesting Scenes, Drawn from Real Characters (novel) 1754
The History of Gustavas Ericson, King of Sweden. With an Introductory History of Sweden from the Middle of the Twelfth Century (history) 1761
A Description of Millenium Hall, and the Country Adjacent, by a Gentleman on His Travels (novel) 1762
The History of Mecklenburgh from the First Settlement of the Vandals in that Country to the Present Time (history) 1762
The History of Sir George Ellison (novel) 1766
The Life of Theodore Agrippa D'Aubigne, Containing a Succinct Account of the Most Remarkable Occurences during the Civil Wars of France in the Reigns of Charles IX, Henry III, Henry IV, and in the Minority of Lewis XIII (history) 1772
The Test of Filial Duty, in and Series of Letters between Miss Emilia Leonard and Miss Charlotte Arlington (novel) 1772
SOURCE: "Sarah Scott: A Reconsideration," in Coranto, 1973, pp. 9–15.
[In the following essay, the critic contrasts Scott's writing style in her letters with that found in her novels, maintaining that the qualities of eloquence and wit displayed in her voluminous correspondence are missing from her fiction.]
The twentieth-century reader who happens upon the eighteenth-century novel A Description of Millenium Hall (1762) is apt to be put off quickly by its unremitting tendentiousness.1 Without compensating artistic beauties, such as strong characterization or eloquent style, the book is easy to lay aside long before one reaches the end. In large part this must be attributed to the inability of the author to transcend the common-place, to invoke the artistic imagination necessary for first-rate work. As Walter Crittenden has said:
It is as a gentlewoman, alert to the intellectual and social tendencies of the day, yet guided by a native dignity and strict religious zeal which gave a moral tone to all her writings and made her assiduously avoid all notoriety, that Mrs. Scott must be looked upon as a representative author. She is, indeed, a typical product of the century's sentimental and didactic ideals.2
Still, to some extent she was representative rather than original by conscious choice. As Professor Crittenden further observes,
Had the materials which were not only at hand but which she utilized in her correspondence, been used in her novels, Fannie Burney would not have been counted by Macaulay as the first of the female novelists in England.3
As it is, Sarah (Robinson) Scott remains an obscure though not insignificant figure in the development of the English novel. She was one of the first women to publish a novel in modern form, leading the way for numerous other female writers in the latter half of the eighteenth century.
Like her sister, the "bluestocking" Lady Elizabeth Montagu, she maintained a firm belief in the importance of education for young women; and this interest led Sarah, along with her closest friend, Lady Barbara Montagu (no direct relation to her sister's husband, Edward Montagu), to establish a partly charitable, partly educational, project for poor girls.4 It is this effort, idealized and otherwise somewhat altered, which forms the basis for Millenium Hall.
Although her philanthropic, educational, and literary interests found an important voice in her novels, she expressed them in other ways as well. She wrote three historical works of some merit.5 She also produced a considerable correspondence, full of serious reflections as well as the typically trivial news of personal communication. Most of her extant letters were written to her sister, Lady Montagu, and are now part of the Elizabeth Montagu Collection in the Huntington Library, with whose kind permission the following portions are transcribed.
These letters include passages of incisive comment on people and events and at times the style in which she describes them is masterful. Here she employs devices conspicuously absent from her fiction: humor, figurative language, and the beginnings of satire.
The P of W has been at Sr Harry Featherstones, he staid three days, during which they had races of all sorts,—fine horses—Poneys—Cart horses,—Women—& Men in sacks, with various other Divertimenti fit for children of six foot high. I hear he was much delighted, & said that New market races were dull in comparison. They were within three or four miles of us, but no one except Servants went from hence, nor do I find that any Ladies of fashion in the Country were at them. Poor Lady Featherstone, Sr Harrys Mother, fled from the Riot to Mr Iremongers. These pretty sports attracted a very great Mob who were charm'd with a P so familiarly affable to them all. [A]t Brighthemston he did not give quite so much satisfaction, to see him come drunk to the Balls, walk arm in arm with Weltjie, & sit in the Gallery at the Play with a Woman of the Town gave no great delight to the Spectators. It is however allowed that when he is so drunk he can scarcely stand he dances better, bating a fall now & then, than any other Man, even when sober. [August 23, 1784]6
Political and military occurrences were among the topics in which Mrs. Scott was interested. She seldom betrayed party bias, choosing rather to focus upon individuals affected by political events:
People seem now to think Lord Shelburne will not get into the Ministry, it was talked of, & that Coll. Barré was to succeed Lord Barrington, but now it is supposed the person will be Lord Beauchamp. Lord Barringtons vacating his seat was assigned to his being [forced] to quit his place, but I can not see how those two matters were connected; except he is seized with so very strong a desire for retirement & quiet that as his interests no longer require his being in the House, he is determin'd to free himself even from the trouble of attendance. Some intimate that the Parliament was prorogued somewhat sooner than it wou'd otherwise have been because Burgoyne & Fitzpatrick were likely to render it a more troublesome scene of action than ever, & that the arrival of Gen'l Howe, daily expected, wou'd still increase the flame. However the Season of the year made a recess desirable, & the Parliament was not likely to be of much use to the state of public affairs. Determinations are more quietly made in the Cabinet, & shou'd the sanction of Parl[iamen]t be wanted it will be easily assembled. Besides Militia duty wou'd carry off great part of the Members, more Particularly of such as are most agreable to the M[inistr]y. 7
While political and military affairs were of course often closely allied, Mrs. Scott demonstrated a lively interest in the tactical side, as well as the broader strategic implications, of the engagements of her day.
[A] poor simple Woman at Land must fight a Sea battle judiciously, but I shou'd think as the nights are now very light their motions might have been discern'd, & considerable damage done them by our pursuing them when their order must be disorder'd by their round about course. But perhaps the state of our Ships might be an impediment to any Such measure if there was no other good reason against it. Our Fleet is returning to Plymouth to be repair'd. An Engagement wou'd sooner have happen'd if the French had not had the wind of Kepple, which they were not inclined to use in attacking us. Once the Two Fleets were very near & the wind in our Favor, but it was then Four in the afternoon, & Kepple being desirous I suppose to make a good day's work of it, & not suspecting the wind of so shameless an inconstancy as to change before morning, nor apprehending that the polite French would take advantage of the same wind that he design'd should carry him to them, to get away from him delay'd engaging till he had more time before him; but so perversely did things turn out that in the morning the wind was changed, & the French fleet gone. [August 3, 1778]8
Clearly, Sarah Scott had both the wide scope and the penetrating focus of observation to qualify her for more distinguished work.
The letters which Mrs. Scott wrote to her sister Elizabeth also contain artistic devices unfortunately absent from her novels. Perhaps the most surprising, considering the grimly serious nature of her books, is an occasional touch of humor:
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SOURCE: "A Paradise Like Eve's: Three Eighteenth Century English Female Utopias," in Women's Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Vol. 9, 1982, pp. 263–73.
[In the following essay, Schnorrenberg contrasts Scott's Millenium Hall with other utopian novels written by women in the eighteenth century.]
There is general agreement on what utopias are and why they are written. They all share certain characteristics, though one aspect may be dominant in any particular work. Utopias are satires of current conditions, blueprints for how a society might be better formed, or descriptions of a dreamland that can never really be achieved. All however share a desire for...
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SOURCE: "Making and Rethinking the Canon: General Introduction and the Case of Millenium Hall," in Modern language Studies, Vol. XVIII, No. 1, Winter, 1988, p. 3.
[In the excerpt below, Rabb argues for inclusion of Scott's Millenium Hall in the canon of eighteenth-century literature.]
One of the most famous literary representations of a library—one that serves as a scene of dispute over traditional literary hierarchies—occurs in Jonathan Swift's Battle of the Books. In Swift's apt metaphor for the processes by which works from the past endure the changes wrought by time, the stately "treasure house of literature" is also a field of war. Recent...
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SOURCE: "Utopia Limited: Sarah Scott's Millenium Hall and The History of Sir George Ellison," in Age of Johnson: A Scholarly Annual, Vol. 5, 1992, pp. 303-25.
[In the essay below, Carretta discusses Scott's use of male narrators in her texts. She maintains that this practice underscores Scott's essential conservatism and her belief that preserving the existing social hierarchy was a requisite of orderly reform.]
In her introduction to the Penguin edition of Sarah Scott's Millenium Hall, Jane Spencer suggests that the novel "aims to educate men. The first indication of this is on the title page." Without disputing her identification of...
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SOURCE: '"Romantic Friendship' and Patriarchal Narrative in Sarah Scott's Millenium Hall," in Genders, Vol. 13, Spring, 1992, pp. 108-22.
[Below, Haggerty suggests that Scott's Millenium Hall offers a narrative in which women escape the subjugated role assigned to them in eighteenth-century patriarchal literature and society.]
The emergence of the novel as an outlet for female creativity in the middle of the eighteenth century has been richly and justifiably celebrated.1 In addition to its obvious value as an educative and socializing tool, the novel, especially in its guise as "romance," offered women who were rigidly controlled in their...
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SOURCE: "Sarah Scott and The Sweet Excess of Paternal Love," in Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900, Vol. 32, No. 3, Summer, 1992, pp. 511-35.
[In the essay below, Gonda examines the theme of father-daughter relationships in Scott's Agreeable Ugliness, a translation of La Place's La Laideur, as well as in Scott's own fiction.]
You must take it well to be prun'd by so kind a Hand as that of a Father…. Some inward resistance there will be, where Power and not Choice maketh us move. But when a Father layeth aside his Authority, and persuadeth only by his Kindness, you will never answer it to Good Nature,...
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SOURCE: "The Politics of Sentiment: Sarah Scott's Millenium Hall," in Transactions of the Eighth International Congress of the Enlightment, 1992, pp. 795-98.
[Below, Stoddard argues that Sir George Ellison and Millenium Hall are texts that criticize the subordination of women and function as an indictment of other social and economic inequities resulting from the emerging capitalist order in the eighteenth century.]
In a review of Janet Todd's book on Sensibility, Claudia Johnson refers to the 'question of whether the ostensibly moralistic and feminine cult of sensibility serves or resists the social conditions that cause the suffering it...
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SOURCE: "Mothers and Monsters in Sarah Robinson Scott's Millenium Hall," in Utopian and Science Fiction by Women: Worlds of Difference, edited by Jane L. Donawerth and Carol A. Kolmerten, Syracuse University Press, 1994, pp. 54-72.
[Below, Dunne argues that in Scott's utopian novel, Millenium Hall, healthy mother-daughter relationships are the paradigm for the most nurturing kinds of human relationships, while the monster motif in the text represents women's actual plight in patriarchal society.]
As the feminist project of recovery and reevaluation of women's writing advances, certain key texts are emerging that contain elements that make them especially...
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SOURCE: "Sarah Scott's Millenium Hall and Female Philanthropy," in Studies in English Literature, 1500–1900, Vol. 35, No. 3, Summer, 1995, pp. 535–54.
[In the essay below, Elliott suggests that in Millenium Hall, Scott is trying to reclaim for women a public role that had been eclipsed by eighteenth-century reforms making charity work primarily the province of men. Elliott suggests that Scott was especially concerned with finding roles for unmarried women in a culture that valued marriage and motherhood more highly.]
In 1766 Newton Ogle, Deputy Clerk of the Closet to His Majesty George III, summarized the achievements of mid-eighteenth-century English...
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SOURCE: "A Serious Proposal for Slavery Reform: Sarah Scott's Sir George Ellison" in Eighteenth-Century Studies, Vol. 28, Summer, 1995, pp. 379–96.
[In the following essay, Stoddard argues that Sir George Ellison is a pre-abolition text in which Enlightenment principles and Christian morality are the basis for Scott's entreaty, addressed primarily to the planter class, petitioning for more humane treatment of slaves, but not the eradication of slavery itself.]
In mid-eighteenth century Britain, prior to the start of the Abolition Movement, proposals for regulating and reforming slavery began to appear from writers on both sides of the issue. The British...
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SOURCE: Introduction to The History of Sir George Ellison, The University Press of Kentucky, 1996, pp. ix–xlii.
[In the following essay, Rizzo provides an overview of Scott's life and literary career, suggesting that her personal history is essential to understanding Scott's works.]
Sarah Robinson Scott was born to many advantages of education and upbringing that made her a writer, but if she had not needed the money, she would scarcely have turned out the nine books (at least) that made her a professional author.
In 1712 her father, Matthew Robinson (1694–1778), of Edgeley and West Layton Hall in Yorkshire and of a younger branch of a respectable...
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