Samuel Foote 1721-1777
English playwright, actor, and theatrical manager.
As celebrated for his humor and wit as he was notorious for his scathing on-stage caricatures, Foote was hailed in his time as the “English Aristophanes.” He was considered one of the greatest character actors of his day, and the majority of his theatrical works feature a character written specifically for his own performance. While Foote's plays are seldom performed today, they enjoyed great popular success in the eighteenth century and routinely filled London theaters.
Samuel Foote was born in 1721 in Truro, Cornwall, to Samuel Foote—a politician who had served as a Member of Parliament, and as Mayor of Truro—and Eleanor Goodere, a moderately wealthy heiress. As a child Foote exhibited a talent for mimicry by entertaining his parents' guests with imitations of his father and his father's fellow politicians. In 1737 Foote was admitted to Worcester College at Oxford University, but three years later his scholarship was revoked as a result of his frequent absences from classes, and, reportedly, his disposition to wild pranks and disregard for authority. He left the college without taking a degree. Deeply in debt, Foote married Mary Hickes, who had a sizeable dowry. From all available evidence, their marriage was not a happy one, as Hickes was apparently often the victim of Foote's jokes, and he is known to have abandoned his wife when his financial situation had improved.
Foote's career was conducted amid a London theatrical scene governed by the British Licensing Act of 1737, which gave the Lord Chamberlain complete control over the licensing of plays, as well as the authority to restrict their performance to theaters holding Royal patents. When Foote began his career in the early 1740s, there were only two playhouses in London possessing patents, Covent Garden and Drury Lane, which therefore had an effective monopoly on theatrical performances. However, many producers and actors circumvented the Licensing Act by advertising their entertainments as puppet shows, concerts, or other types of performances. Foote made his acting debut in 1744, playing the title role in a production by Charles Macklin of Othello in the Little Theatre in the Haymarket. Macklin charged no admission in an attempt to avoid violating the Licensing Act, but the authorities soon ended the production. Foote was ill-suited to serious dramatic parts and was unsuccessful in the role. As he continued his acting career, he began to garner praise for his comic acting and his ability to mimic his fellow actors. In 1747 Foote wrote his first original play, entitled The Diversions of the Morning, and assembled a troupe to perform it at the Haymarket. The authorities initially forbade him to perform the work, but he evaded the Licensing Act by presenting the work at noon and advertising it alternately as a public breakfast, an art auction, and even as a boxing match. As with his subsequent works, the play featured characters tailored to showcase Foote's skills at mimicry. It was a great success, and Foote's comic “takes” on public figures soon became the talk of the town. He continued to write and produce comedies with his company of actors at the Haymarket until 1766. While his works increased in sophistication in terms of plot and structure, his satirical imitations of public personalities remained at the heart of Foote's popularity with theatergoers.
Throughout this period, Foote was continually in financial difficulties. He often squandered the proceeds of those of his plays that made a profit, or used the money to finance his next production. To comply with the Licensing Act, he staged plays during the summer months, when the patent houses were closed, or he mounted productions in Dublin or Edinburgh. In 1766 Foote was thrown from a horse owned by the duke of York and so shattered his leg that it had to be amputated. Undaunted, he was soon back on the stage, and a year later, with the assistance of the duke of York, who was distressed by his association with the accident, he received a patent for the Haymarket Theatre. Foote continued not only to write plays, but to create parts for himself that mocked his infirmity. In 1767 he bought the Haymarket. Foote wrote, performed, and produced plays until 1777, when, in poor health, he retired from the stage and sold his interest in the Haymarket. On October 21, 1777, as he was traveling to southern France for his health, Foote died in Dover; he was buried in Westminster Abbey six days later.
Foote's plays are typically loosely structured, filled with raucous humor, and designed to provide Foote ample opportunity to demonstrate his facility with mimicry and improvisation. These characteristics are evident in his first play, The Diversions of the Morning, an amorphous work that is little more than a series of sketches featuring Foote in a variety of roles, satirizing well-known figures. It continually evolved throughout its many revivals and gave rise to several other plays, including Taste (1752). This work about two con artists who trick wealthy art patrons of into buying worthless “antiquities” mocks the pretensions of the newly rich. The Minor (1760) targets members of the then-fledgling Methodist church. Foote acted in several roles, including Mother Cole, a convert to Methodism; his depiction of the character was clearly based on a well-known prostitute. The Orators (1762), advertised under the pretense of being a lecture on elocution, is in fact a lampoon of Thomas Sheridan, who had delivered a series of lectures on oratory. After the loss of his leg Foote created works that allowed him to use his disability to his advantage. He played the titular lame devil in The Devil upon Two Sticks (1768), a burlesque of the British medical profession as well as a parody of sentimental love stories. He also performed the title role in The Lame Lover (1770), a satire of the legal profession. One of Foote's greatest successes, The Nabob (1772) takes on those who made fortunes in India by exploiting the natives and, upon their return to Britain, maintained their wealth through unscrupulous means.
Foote's satire made his works very popular with audiences who relished his lampooning of notable public figures. It also made them controversial, and his career was marked by a continual series of conflicts and skirmishes. While Edward Gibbon, author of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire said “when I am tired of the Roman Empire I can laugh away the Evening at Foote's Theatre,” the targets of Foote's wit were often incensed. Foote considered other authors, actors, theater owners, and legal authorities suitable targets for ridicule. One quarrel with a fellow actor erupted in a riot that significantly damaged the Haymarket Theatre. Another actor won acclaim for his scathing portrayal of Foote himself. Henry Fielding, in reaction to Foote's burlesque of him in An Auction of Pictures (1748), declared that “you Samuel Fut be p-ssed upon, with Scorn and Contempt, as a low Buffoon; and I do, with the utmost Scorn and Contempt, p-ss upon you accordingly.” A wealthy Welshman named Apreece, who enjoyed Foote's plays immensely and encouraged the author to caricature him, was so outraged at the resulting depiction in The Author (1757) that he successfully got the play banned. The Minor, Foote's satire on the Methodist church, elicited an attack from a Methodist supporter, Martin Madan, in the pamphlet Christian and Critical Remarks On a Droll, or Interlude, called The Minor; Foote responded with A Letter from Mr. Foote, To The Reverend Author Of the Remarks, Critical and Christian, on The Minor (1760). In A Trip to Calais (1775) Foote lampooned a notorious noblewoman who was convicted of bigamy. A nasty battle ensued, during which the noblewoman successfully petitioned for the suppression of the play, and Foote was labeled a homosexual and tried for sodomy in 1776. He was acquitted, but the affair left him exhausted, and he died within a year. The very sources of the success of Foote's plays—their immersion in the society of his day, and their showcasing of Foote's particular acting talents—have conspired to make them rarely read or staged today. Modern critics have studied the nature of Foote's satire, investigated the relation of his works to the social and political events of the time, and examined his remarkable success in the difficult and precarious theatrical world of eighteenth-century London.
The genuine Memoirs of the life of Sir John Dinely Goodere, Bart, who was murder'd by the contrivance of his own brother, on board the Ruby Man of War, in King Road near Bristol, Jan. 19, 1740. Together with the Life, history, tryal and last dying words of his brother Capt. Samuel Goodere, who was executed at Bristol on Wednesday the 15th day of April 1741, for the horrid Murder of the said Sir John Dinely Goodere, Bart. (pamphlet) 1741?
*The Diversions of the Morning (play) 1747
An Auction of Pictures (play) 1748
The Knights (play) 1748
Taste (play) 1752
The Englishman in Paris (play) 1753
The Englishman return'd from Paris (play) 1756
The Author (play) 1757
The Minor (play) 1760
The Lyar (play) 1762
The Orators (play) 1762
Mayor of Garratt (play) 1763
The Patron (play) 1764
The Commissary (play) 1765
The Devil upon Two Sticks (play) 1768
The Lame Lover (play) 1770
The Maid of Bath (play) 1771
The Nabob (play) 1772
The Bankrupt (play) 1773
Piety in Pattens (play) 1773...
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SOURCE: Fitzgerald, Percy. “Foote's Comedies” and “Foote's Comedies—continued.” In Samuel Foote: A Biography, pp. 264-85; 286-300. London, Chatto & Windus, 1910.
[In the following essays, Fitzgerald conducts a close examination of the characters in Foote's major works and discusses Foote's ironic tone.]
Foote was a diligent dramatist, and wrote about a score of pieces, not all of equal merit; but, with the exception of three or four, all may be considered good, while at least two—The Minor and The Cozeners—stand out from the productions of the time. They might be called great plays, from their subjects and treatment, from the living characters introduced, the abuses that were mercilessly gibbeted or lashed, and the wholesome reform that followed. Here Foote might place his claim to the title of “English Aristophanes” on fair foundation; and his work seems akin to that of Charles Dickens when reforming social abuses.
Character is true drama, and it is followed in real life as well as in the theatre with an absorbing interest. The author himself claimed to have furnished no fewer than eighteen original characters to English drama, and there is much foundation for the claim. The worthy Genest is unbounded in his admiration. “Though having no plot,” he says, “his dialogue is superior to most other...
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SOURCE: Belden, Mary Megie. “Criticism.” In The Dramatic Work of Samuel Foote, pp. 167-93. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1929.
[In the essay which follows, Belden argues that, compared to the works of his contemporaries, many of Foote's works were a departure from the typical theatrical fare of the day.]
In his own day Foote was extravagantly praised. The Dramatic Censor1 declared that his ‘peculiarity of genius, strength of judgment, knowledge of life, selection of characters, application of satire, vivacity of sentiment, and terseness of dialogue, place him distinct from any other writer, past and present.’ For the Minor particularly extreme claims were made, as, for example, this: ‘It cannot be deemed an error of judgment, or partial favour, to pronounce this comedy, one of the most entertaining, original, and useful pieces, now in possession of the stage.’2 One of the foremost dramatists of the period, Richard Cumberland, went so far as to say, ‘I cannot recollect that scene in any play, or comic passage in any author, whose language I am master of, that I think comparable with that of Mrs. Cole in the first instance, and also with that of Smirk the auctioneer, in the second act.’3
Such views would not now be maintained by any one. Even when first written Foote's comedies were used at the two winter theatres...
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SOURCE: Wharton, Robert V. “The Divided Sensibility of Samuel Foote.” Educational Theatre Journal 17 (1965): 31-7.
[In the essay below, Wharton investigates “the bizarre blend of satire and sentimentalism which abounds” in Foote's plays.]
Samuel Foote, although little known today, was, during the Age of Garrick, one of the most popular personalities in the theatre. Manager of the Haymarket Theatre, writer of some thirty comedies, and star actor of his own company, he was dubbed “the English Aristophanes” by his contemporaries because of his reckless satirical thrusts at living individuals. In the twentieth century he has been of sufficient interest to inspire one biography, by Percy Fitzgerald, and a scholarly dissertation, by Professor M. M. Belden, as well as the brief notices in the standard histories of the eighteenth-century theatre.
Students of Foote have projected several images of their subject, all of them accurate as far as they go but failing in every instance to give due emphasis to one of the most interesting characteristics of his work. In general, they lead one to see Foote as a wit or a buffoon or, above all, as a highly successful mimic whose raucous satire was chiefly marked by its relevance to living personalities.
Surprisingly they all but overlook the sentimental strain in his comedies, partly no doubt because of the dust stirred up by...
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SOURCE: Trefman, Simon. “Foote's Establishment: The Golden Age, 1770-1774.” In Sam. Foote, Comedian, 1720-1777, pp. 189-223. New York: New York University Press, 1971.
[In the following essay, Trefman discusses Foote's most successful and productive period as a playwright and theater manager.]
Foote's theatre was becoming a summer institution, and he was even more popular than before his accident. Far from being a handicap, the false leg became the object of many of Foote's jokes, and the limp was accepted as part of the act. Tate Wilkinson, now a minor monarch of strolling players, found that he could no longer imitate his master as in the past. Once, when acting Major Sturgeon in Foote's manner, Wilkinson was hissed off the stage by the audience because he did not play the role with a limp.1 Even the historian Gibbon valued Foote's contributions that so enlivened the traditional dullness of a London summer. Responding to his sister's request that he leave the heat of the city, Gibbon declined, saying that he found London pleasing for its solitude in the summer and “when I am tired of the Roman Empire I can laugh away the Evening at Foote's Theatre.”2 That was indeed a testimonial!
Foote planned his 1770 campaign with a new three-act piece, the first new play he had written since The Devil upon Two Sticks in 1768.3 He retained Sparks and...
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SOURCE: Backscheider, Paula R. Introduction to The Plays of Samuel Foote, Volume I, edited by Paula R. Backscheider and Douglas Howard, pp. vii-xxii. New York: Garland Publishing, 1983.
[In the following essay, Backscheider explores Foote's works as instruments of satire with which to expose corruption and hypocrisy in British society.]
Samuel Foote's plays prove that the Age of Satire did not die with Alexander Pope in 1744. Foote's early plays mocked the acting styles of the Covent Garden and Drury Lane company members and the idiosyncrasies of the best-known citizens of London. When he began to write full-length comedies, he ridiculed his countrymen's fads and affectations and lashed the cheats and opportunists who used English laws and institutions for their own gain. Were his work more literary, he would be recognized as belonging firmly in the tradition of Pope and Fielding. He, like they, selected a widespread vice, concentrated upon it, introduced memorable (and often living) practitioners of it into the work, dealt out harsh punishments, and drew vitality from caustic humor, topicality, and unity. The subject matter and Foote's animus obviously came from the playwright's engagement with his society, and combined amusement and outrage are as present in his plays as Pope's are in his poetry.
Foote seems to have been destined to write satiric comedy. As a child, he was a superb...
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SOURCE: Lamb, Susan. “The Popular Theater of Samuel Foote and British National Identity.” Comparative Drama 30, no. 2 (1996): 245-65.
[In the essay below, Lamb discusses the works of Foote as they relate to Britain's emergence as a world power.]
For some time now it has been generally recognized that the relative neglect and conventional aesthetic and moral disapproval of the eighteenth-century London theater's most notorious figure, Samuel Foote, must give way to both formal and contextual re-evaluations. Much of the impetus behind this general call for re-evaluation lies in an appreciation of Foote's extraordinary success and popularity, for in his day he was as well-known and widely-discussed as David Garrick. Foote was the author of some thirty comedies and was a highly successful wit, actor, and theater manager.1 To dismiss him for reasons moral (he should not have made fun of people) or aesthetic (he wrote farce; his farce is possibly sentimental; his farce is usually topical; his farce is badly plotted) would appear to miss the point. To dismiss as ill-considered the good (if sometimes outraged) opinion of contemporaries ranging from Samuel Johnson to the large numbers of anonymous and semi-anonymous admirers who patronized his plays at the theater and who read his plays in print seems arrogant. Foote must have been doing something interesting—if only we could work out what it...
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SOURCE: Kinservik, Matthew J. “The Censorship of Samuel Foote's The Minor (1760): Stage Controversy in the Mid-Eighteenth Century” Studies in the Literary Imagination 32, no. 2 (1999) pp. 89-103.
[In the essay which follows, Kinservik examines the controversy surrounding a work by Foote in which he allegedly satirized particular religious figures. Kinservik also argues that Foote accepted the censorship of his play as a means of legitimizing his works in the public eye.]
Samuel Foote, known in his day as the “English Aristophanes,” profited from his talent for mimicking real people on the stage and presenting daring satiric plays within—and sometimes beyond—the bounds of the censorship imposed by the Stage Licensing Act of 1737. His anti-Methodist play, The Minor (1760), is rightly considered an important example of his satiric technique and as the occasion for an important instance of theatrical censorship. The play featured an epilogue in which Foote mimicked the cross-eyed Methodist evangelist, George Whitefield, whom Foote renamed Mr. Squintum. This impersonation caused an uproar and resulted in the publication of twenty-two books, pamphlets, plays, and poems that either condemned Foote or praised him. When Foote transferred The Minor from the Little Theatre in the Haymarket to Drury Lane in the fall of 1760, the epilogue and a few other speeches were omitted by order...
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Chatten, Elizabeth N. Samuel Foote. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1980, 161 p.
Extensive study of all of Foote's works, major and minor, including a survey of critical reception.
Conolly, L. W. “The ‘English Aristophanes’ and an Eighteenth Century Welshman: Samuel Foote's The Author.” The Anglo-Welsh Review 25, no. 56 (1976): 64-72.
Study of Foote's relationship to Mr. Apreece, whom he lampooned in his play The Author.
Hughes, Leo. “Theatre and the Art of Caricature.” In British Theatre and Other Arts, 1660-1800, pp. 230-32. Washington: Folger Books, 1984.
Brief study of some of Foote's characters and the targets who spawned them.
Murphy, Mary C. Introduction to Samuel Foote's Taste and The Orators: A Modern Edition with Five Essays, pp. i-lxii. Annapolis, Md.: United States Navy Press, 1982.
Examination of two of Foote's major works, with an investigation into his influences.
Scouten, Arthur A. “On the Origin of Foote's Matinees.” Theatre Notebook 7, no. 2 (1953): 28-31.
An account of Foote's methods of advertising his plays.
Additional coverage of Foote's life and career is contained in the following sources published by Thomson Gale:...
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