Saliva (Forensic Science)
Saliva contains water, electrolytes, mucus (consisting of mucopolysaccharides and glycoproteins), various enzymes, and opiorphin, a pain-killing substance. Saliva has many functions in the human body. It aids digestion by moistening food, binding it together so that it may be more effectively chewed. It also lubricates food, permitting swallowing and easy passage of food down the esophagus, thereby minimizing irritation of the lining of the oral cavity. The salivary enzyme amylase initiates digestion of carbohydrates such as starch, and the mix of saliva with molecules in food and liquid aids tasting, as the molecules more readily interact with taste buds located on the tongue.
Saliva aids oral hygiene by flushing food debris from the mouth. It contains the enzyme lysozyme, which destroys many bacteria, thereby acting as a disinfectant; however, many pathogenic bacteria can thrive in the mouths of humans and other animals. Saliva also functions as a protective barrier, as when nausea reflexively triggers saliva flow, which coats the oral lining and teeth before vomiting occurs so that acidity is minimized.
The amount and type of saliva secretion is controlled by the autonomic nervous system. Increased stimulation leads to increased blood flow to the salivary glands, which stimulates production and release of saliva. Sympathetic stimulation results in an increased amount of mucus in the saliva, and parasympathetic stimulation results...
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Further Reading (Forensic Science)
Idowu, O. R., and B. Caddy. “A Review of the Use of Saliva in the Forensic Detection of Drugs and Other Chemicals. Journal of the Forensic Science Society 22 (1982): 123-135.
Mandel, I. D. “The Diagnostic Uses of Saliva.” Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 19 (1990): 119-125.
Sweet, D., and D. Hildebrand. “Saliva from Cheese Bite Yields DNA Profile of Burglar: A Case Report.” International Journal of Legal Medicine 112 (April, 1999): 201-203.
Walsh, D. J., et al. “Isolation of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) from Saliva and Forensic Science Samples Containing Saliva.” Journal of Forensic Sciences 37 (1992): 387-395.
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Saliva (World of Forensic Science)
A forensic investigation can involve the analysis of body fluids, including saliva, for evidence of toxins and both prescription and illicit drugs. Obtaining a saliva sample is far less obtrusive and
Saliva is a clear liquid that is made and is present in the mouth, where it has a number of functions. It wets food and makes the food easier to swallow. As well, specialized proteins that are present in saliva trigger chemical reactions that begin to break apart chemical bonds in the food (the proteins are generically termed enzymes). This begins the process of digestion, whereby the food is converted to a form that can be utilized by the body to provide energy. For example, the salivary enzyme alpha-amylase initiates the breakdown of starch into its constituent maltose sub-units.
In addition to wetting the food, saliva also wets the tongue, which aids the various receptors on the surface of the tongue in differentiating the different tastes of foods. Washing of saliva over the surface of teeth, and the presence of antibacterial enzymes, helps keep teeth clean and helps lessen the chance of infections.
Saliva production lessens during sleep. The resulting build-up of bacteria on the teeth and in the mouth produces the characteristic objectionable morning breath. Even though production lessens during sleep, the production of saliva is a round-the-clock affair. Every day, 2 pints (approximately 1 liters) of saliva are produced. This large volume is secreted by three pairs of salivary glands located in the mouth.
Within each gland a cluster of cells called the acinus secrete the salivary fluid. The fluid contains water, electrolytes (minerals such as sodium, potassium, and calcium that are present in body fluids and cells, and whose concentrations are important in maintaining proper body function), mucus (a slippery, jelly-like substance that helps coat and protect cells) and the aforementioned enzymes.
From the acinus, the fluid collects in ducts within each salivary gland. Here, the composition of the fluid is changed. Most of the sodium is reabsorbed and potassium and bicarbonate ions are added. The latter is particularly important in ruminant animals like cows, since, when swallowed, it helps counteract the corrosive action of the large quantity of acid that is produced in the forestomachs.
From the collecting ducts, the saliva passes to larger ducts, which ultimately merge to form a single large duct, from which the saliva empties into the mouth.
Most animals, including humans, have three pairs of salivary glands that are located on either side of the mouth in three different locations. They differ in the nature of the saliva that is produced.
The parotid glands are located near the upper teeth, in a broad area underneath the earlobe. The secreted saliva is watery and reminiscent of the serum portion of blood; indeed, it is described as being serous. Submaxillary (or submandibular) glands are located on the floor of the mouth, underneath the back portion of the tongue. The saliva produced by these glands is a mixture of serous and mucus portions. Finally, the sublingual glands are located on the floor of the mouth in the region of the chin. Sublingual saliva is predominantly mucous in composition.
In addition to the three pairs of glands, hundreds of small glands called minor salivary glands are located in the lips, inside of the cheeks, and throughout the remainder of the mouth and throat.
Saliva can be of forensic significance because traces of drugs that are circulating in the body can be present in saliva. The composition of the saliva accurately mirrors the proteins that are present in both the blood and the urine. Thus, testing of saliva, which is easier and less obtrusive than obtaining a blood or urine sample, can be used to reveal the presence of prescription and illicit drugs.
Similar tests are being refined that will enable the detection of viral and bacterial infections as well as diseases such as cancer. These tests are based on the presence of signature proteins that are unique to the maladies, such as antibodies, from the microorganism or cancerous cells.
For example, an antibody-based saliva test for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; the accepted cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is available for clinical use. No home-use tests are officially approved as of yet, although a number of nonsanctioned and independently evaluated tests are available through Internet-based companies.
Promising preliminary research results published in February 2005 have shown that aberrant genetic material (deoxyribonucleic acid; DNA) and the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) that helps process the genetic information into a protein from cancerous cells can also be detected in saliva. In the future, forensic analysis of saliva may help determine if the subject has (or did have) cancer.
SEE ALSO Barbiturates; Illicit drugs.
Saliva (Contemporary Musicians)
Veterans of the Memphis, Tennessee, rock scene, the members of Saliva came together in September of 1996. Within months the group had won an important local talent competition and took off for the semifinals of the Grammy Talent Showcase, sponsored by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. Although the group had only been together for a short time, it put on an impressive set that took it to the final round of competition. Despite losing out on the grand prize, the exposure brought the band to the attention of several major record labels. After releasing its self-titled debut in 1997 on its own label, the band signed with Island Records. Saliva's major-label debut, Every Six Seconds, appeared in 2001. Led by the modern rock hit track "Your Disease," the album earned a gold record for sales in the year after its release.
The members of Saliva had played in various Memphis-area bands for several years before singer Josey Scott and guitarist Chris D'abaldo decided to form a new venture in the summer of 1996. Scott hailed from a musical family that included gospel and country singers and musicians at least three generations back. "My dad was a country gospel artist when I was a kid," Scott explained in an interview with MTV.com, "and he taught me how to play the guitar and taught me about how to sing and about harmony and everything like that. And I hated it when I was a kid, but I ended up loving it and appreciating what he had taught me because he had taught me how to become familiar with my own voice, and he taught me about layering and the harmonies My dad was a big musical influence on my life earlier on."
D'abaldo's influences included more straight-ahead rock 'n' roll bands such as Mley Crüe and Black Sabbath. The duo added Paul Crosby on drums and Dave Novotny on bass; another crucial addition was guitarist Wayne Swinny, who also provided rap vocals to the group's sound. As Scott related on the Island Records website, "I couldn't believe what came out of this guy [Swinny]. The beauty is that for all of his ability to rap and his hard edge and his looke looks really aggressive and scary, almosthen I saw him sit down with an acoustic [guitar] and play this beautiful, melodic stuff with great hooks and melodies and incredible vocals, that really did it for me. I knew this was a band that could do something really special."
Scott and D'abaldo had already agreed upon the name for the band. They wanted something that was simple, yet distinctive, that would convey the emotional meaning that permeated the songs they were writing. As Scott recalled in an interview with Christopher J. Kelter for Roughedge.com, "We started to come up with different ideas geared for the next project that we were going to be working on. As far as the name Saliva was concerned, I was specifically trying to think of a name that was already a household word, that was a human truth, and had something to do with sexuality." He added, "I'm really pleased with the way Saliva rolls off the tongueo pun intended. That it was sexual and provocative was even better as opposed to something political."
Just a few weeks after Saliva came together in September of 1996, it faced its first major challenge when it entered the Grammy Talent Showcase sponsored by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. Playing against four other Memphis bands at the New Daisy on famous Beale Street, the group did not think it had a chance at winning the first round of the competition. In addition to its unusual name, the band was essentially making its debut as a new act on the Memphis scene. "We figured hometown politics alone would keep us out of the running," Scott told MTV.com, "and the other bands were really good bands and we were just starting out. We didn't take it really seriouslye just thought of it as a good opportunity to play and get our chops up live." The band focused on putting together a tight set of original songs it had written in just a few months and added some prerecorded radio tracks to play between songs.
Much to its members' surprise, Saliva won the Memphis competition and went to Austin, Texas, for the regionals. Once again the group considered itself the underdog of the lineup, which included bands from Atlanta, Nashville, and Dallas. "I thought we didn't have a chance," Scott admitted to Kelter. "I thought we were done, finished; I could see it comin'." As in Memphis, however, the band's theatrical stage show won over the crowd in Austin. "The situation was like a story-book," Scott recalled. "The Nashville band played first, the Atlanta band played second, and then the Austin band played to a packed house. It was a 'hometown show' classic 'hometown show.' Then it was our turn They had to call in police officers because the pit got out of hand. It was pretty cool."
Saliva won the regional competition, but at the final round in New York City it was defeated for the grand prize. The exposure of the series was invaluable, however, with several record labels expressing interest in signing the band. Despite the pressure to sign with a major label, the band decided to put out its own independent release first. Saliva, a 13-track collection, appeared in 1997. A mix of rock, rap, gothic, and industrial sounds, the album confirmed Saliva's place among contemporary alternative metal bands such as Staind, Helmet, and Korn. It became a regional favorite and sold about 10,000 copies.
After signing with Island Records, the band went into the studio to record its major-label debut. Every Six Seconds was released in March of 2001. Scott wrote the lyrics to all 12 tracks on the album; as he told Billboard, "I had an opportunity in all the different songs to say everything I wanted to say about life, about truth, about love and relationshipsust all of the human conditions from death and mourning to the complex sort of burdens that life had to offer, and how to rise above that and dust yourself off." Scott's approach received mixed reviews from critics. A writer for Mega-KungFu.com called the album "a rockin' good time" and the group "one of the few bands that make it that has a clue about how to write a song!" Alyce Wilson of the Wild Violet website took another view of the album. "You can almost hear the agent behind the scenes, crying for a marketable hit And that's the problem. This album screams, 'Make me famous.' Even the album art features a preteen Saliva fan, who can be seen sporting such merchandise as a Saliva necklace, mini-backpack, and a Saliva poster in various photos."
In addition to the radio-friendly "Click Click Boom," the single "Your Disease" became a breakout hit from Every Six Seconds and hit Billboard's Modern Rock Tracks top 20. The track details "how things can go bad real fast when there is manipulation and sex involved," Scott told Billboard. "People's emotions can get pretty tangled. I'd say a lot of our songs are relationship-oriented, and not just because everybody can identify with it, either. It's about being honest." Based on the strength of "Your Disease" and the accompanying video, Every Six Seconds earned a gold record for its sales a year after its release.
The band has continued to build its fan base through its energetic live shows. "It's our secret weapon, man," Scott told Voxonline, "We want to give fans their due I want people to come away saying, 'Damn! That was worth my $7.00!'I want to give them a live show that sounds a lot like the record as well. I hate going to shows and the band plays some way-out version of their hits, when what you want is a really good, rockin' version of what's on the album! With Saliva, that's what they'll get."
Saliva, Rocking Chair, 1997.
(Contributor) Dracula 2000 (soundtrack), Sony, 2000.
Every Six Seconds, Island, 2001.
Billboard, March 10, 2001, p. 34; May 5, 2001, p. 95.
"Hot Spit: Interview with Josey Scott of Saliva," Roughedge.com, (April 14, 2002).
MegaKungFu.com, http://megakungfu.com/cdreviews/saliva.shtml (April 14, 2002).
"Saliva," Island Records, http://www.islandrecords.com/saliva/html/bio.html (April 14, 2002).
"Saliva: The Cure for Your Disease," MTV.com, http://www.mtv.com/bands/archive/s/saliva01/index2.jhtml (April 14, 2002).
Voxonline, (April 14, 2002).
Wild Violet, http://www.wildviolet.net/saliva.html (April 14, 2002).