Ryūnosuke Niihara Biography


(Great Authors of World Literature, Critical Edition)

Rynosuke Akutagawa (ahk-ew-tah-gah-wah) was the leading short-fiction writer of the Taish period (1912-1926). He was born in Tokyo’s Tsukiji foreign settlement. His original surname was Niihara, after his father, Toshiz Niihara, owner of dairy farms serving Tsukiji’s foreign residents, and his given name was Rynosuke, commemorating his birth in the year of the dragon. Because his parents, according to Japanese superstition, were at ill-omened ages when he was born, Akutagawa, to avoid bad luck, was “abandoned” and handed over to his father’s friend and then accepted back into the Niihara family as a “foundling.” His mother, Fuku, blaming herself for the death of her eldest daughter from meningitis eight months after her son was born, became mentally ill, an affliction which Rynosuke later believed he had inherited. After his mother became incapable of caring for him, he was reared by his mother’s elder brother, Michiaki Akutagawa. Two years after his mother’s death, he was formally adopted by Michiaki and took the Akutagawa surname. These complicated events left the impressionable child scarred by shame and distrustful of others.nosuke[Akutagawa, Ryunosuke]}{$S[A]Niihara, Ry{umacr}nosuke[Niihara, Ryunosuke];Akutagawa, Ry{umacr}nosuke}nosuke[Akutagawa, Ryunosuke]}nosuke[Akutagawa, Ryunosuke]}

In his youth, much of it spent in the care of his unmarried aunt, Fuki, Akutagawa was encouraged in his interests in literature and the arts and avidly read traditional literature, especially illustrated storybooks (kusazshi) of the Ed period (1600-1868) featuring ghost tales. A sickly child prone to convulsions, he nevertheless excelled at school and started writing stories and poems in primary school. In middle school, he was reading widely in Japanese and Chinese literature and among translated European authors. During his years at the Tokyo First High School, where he majored in English literature, his friends thought him kind and considerate, while outsiders considered him aloof. He graduated second in his class in 1913 and entered the English literature department of Tokyo Imperial University. He published translations from English and his first original piece, “Rnen” (old age), in the student magazine Shinshicho (new thought tides). In 1914 a literary periodical published his stories “Hyottoko” (the comic mask) and “Rashmon,” the tale of a twelfth century Kyoto underling who degenerates into a criminal by stealing the clothes off an old woman. As a university student, he became acquainted with the novelist Natsume Sseki and attended Thursday Club meetings at his home. Akutagawa first received wide recognition for the humorous 1916 story “The Nose,” about a Buddhist priest’s preoccupation with the unusual length of his nose.

His student successes caught the eyes of publishers, and established writers such as Sseki praised his talent. In 1916, the...

(The entire section is 1191 words.)

Ryūnosuke Niihara Biography

(Masterpieces of World Literature, Critical Edition)

Rynosuke Akutagawa (ahk-ew-tah-gah-wah)—or Akutagawa Rynosuke, in the surname-first Japanese custom—was the pen name of Niihara Shinhara, who was born on March 1, 1892, in the Kyobashi district of Tokyo, Japan. Born into an educated family that once had a centuries-old tradition of service in the imperial court’s tea ceremonies, he was the son of dairy owner Toshizo “Binzo” Shinhara. His mother, Fuku Niihara, became mentally ill soon after her son’s birth; she died, insane, in 1902. His father, unable to provide for the infant, put his son into the care of a maternal uncle, Michiaki “Dosho” Akutagawa, from whom the future author’s surname was derived. The author later adopted the familiar name of Rynosuke (dragon son), claiming he was born in the hour, month, day, and year of the dragon, according to the Chinese calendar.

A lonely child with few friends, Akutagawa became absorbed in classical Chinese literature and popular Japanese fiction, particularly the work of Japanese authors Mori gai and Sseki Natsume. Akutagawa also was an avid reader of Western fiction. Beginning in 1910, he attended First High School, where he cultivated friendships with classmates Kan Kikuchi, Yz Yamamoto, Kume Masao, and Tsuchiya Bunmei—all of whom would become well-respected writers in Japan.

In 1913, Akutagawa, who would prove to be a brilliant student, was admitted to Tokyo Imperial University, where he majored in English literature. He concentrated on such authors as Edgar Allan Poe, William Morris, Jonathan Swift, Robert Browning, and Ambrose Bierce, many of whom would influence his work. He began writing soon after entering the university, where he and some high school friends published a literary magazine, Shinshicho (new currents of thought), featuring translations of English-language poems and fiction, as well as original works. Akutagawa’s first published writings in Shinshicho were his translations of works by William Butler Yeats and Anatole France. During his tenure at the university, Akutagawa proposed to a childhood sweetheart, Yayoi Yoshida. His adoptive parents, however, disapproved of his choice of mate, and the two did not...

(The entire section is 894 words.)

Ryūnosuke Niihara Biography

(Literary Essentials: Short Fiction Masterpieces)

Rynosuke Akutagawa was the son of a dairyman named Niihara Toshizo. Akutagawa’s mother went insane seven months after his birth, and she remained so until her death in 1902. At a time when insanity was assumed to be hereditary, Akutagawa feared it most of his life. In fact, he referred to his mother in his suicide note in 1927. Akutagawa was adopted by his mother’s brother and reared by his foster mother and a maiden aunt. He was a good student, well read in both Japanese and European literature, including Guy de Maupassant, Anatole France, August Strindberg , and Fyodor Dostoevski.

In 1913, Akutagawa entered the English Literature Department at Tokyo Imperial University, where he published his writing in a university literary magazine. His first important short story, “Rashmon,” appeared in November of 1915, and other modern versions of ancient Japanese tales followed. Akutagawa was graduated in 1916 and briefly held a teaching job, but he soon quit to devote his full time to writing the short stories which already had given him fame.

Akutagawa married Tsukamoto Fumiko in 1918, and in the next few years, well established as a writer, he wrote some of his best stories. These stories were based on old tales from Chinese, Japanese, and Western literature. In 1922, however, he left this genre behind him. It may be that his literary transition and the psychological problems he had were related to his seeming loss of imagination in the...

(The entire section is 568 words.)