Biography (Cyclopedia of World Authors, Fourth Revised Edition)
The prominent German publisher Siegfried Unseld called Robert Walser (VAHL-sur) “the greatest unknown author in the German language in [the twentieth] century.” This prolific, dedicated, but very independent writer of short prose, novels, playlets, and poems gained considerable recognition early in his career, most notably from Franz Kafka and Christian Morgenstern, Hugo von Hofmannsthal and Hermann Hesse. As time went on, however, his unconventional works failed to appeal to a broader audience. Virtually forgotten for several decades, he was rediscovered in the 1960’s and is viewed not only as a leading Swiss author of the twentieth century but also as one of the first modernist writers of self-conscious fiction.
Robert Otto Walser was the second-youngest of eight children. His father, Adolf Walser, was a congenial man who tried his hand, unsuccessfully, at a number of business ventures. His mother, Elisa Marti Walser, and two of his brothers suffered from mental instability. Robert was closest to his sister Lisa, a schoolteacher, and his successful brother Karl, who illustrated several of his books. At the age of fourteen, Walser left school and learned the banking trade. For some time he toyed with the idea of becoming an actor but eventually turned to literature instead.
In 1896 Walser moved to Zurich, where he remained until 1905, constantly changing residences and clerical jobs, which was to become a pattern in his life. It was there that his first works, six poems, were published in the Swiss newspaper Der Bund, which in turn led to an invitation to publish additional poems, prose pieces, and playlets in the new literary journal Die Insel in Munich. Walser’s breakthrough came in 1904, when the publishing house Insel in Leipzig published his first book, Fritz Kochers Aufsätze (Fritz Kocher’s essays), supposedly the compositions of a gifted young schoolboy. This early work contains many of the themes, motifs, and narrative techniques that became Walser’s trademark. Although the slim volume with its amusing drawings by his brother Karl received high critical praise, it sold so poorly that the publisher reneged on his commitment to a second book of poems and dramas. This was the first of a number of similar occasions where one of Walser’s works was received with initial enthusiasm but then failed to sell, which invariably led to the publishers’ dropping Walser from their lists. In the spring of 1905, still convinced that his first book could be a commercial success, Walser joined his brother Karl in cosmopolitan Berlin to embark on a career as a freelance writer. Soon after, however, he enrolled in a school for domestic servants, an experience he later fictionalized in his novel Jakob von Gunten, and worked in a castle in Upper Silesia as a footman. For most of his life he was obsessed with the role of the servant.
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Biography (Critical Survey of Short Fiction, Second Revised Edition)
Robert Otto Walser was born in Biel, Switzerland, on April 15, 1878. His father, Adolf Walser, a bookbinder by trade, was, by all accounts, a convivial individual, if a rather lackluster businessman. His mother, whose maiden name was Elisa Marti, was socially ambitious but psychically labile. She died in 1894, when Robert was sixteen.
Walser spent his active years as a writer in four cities: Zurich (1896-1905), Berlin (1905-1913), then his native Biel (1913-1921), and, finally, Bern (1921-1929). His work falls into four phases, which coincide with the periods he spent in those cities. Frequently switching both jobs and addresses, he lived on what he himself described as “the periphery of bourgeois existences.” He sold much of his short fiction to newspapers and reviews, some of which he later published in book form. He supplemented this meager income mostly through menial clerical jobs. While in Berlin, he attended a school for servants. For a brief period he was employed as a butler at Dambrau Castle in Upper Silesia.
The years in Berlin were crucial for his artistic development. Through his brother Karl, a painter and illustrator, he came into contact with leading intellectual figures. Yet, although cosmopolitan Berlin left its mark on his increasingly sophisticated prose, he never lost the outsider’s contempt for the established order. His relations with the writers Hugo von Hofmannsthal and Frank Wedekind and the industrialist and...
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