Biography (Magill's Survey of American Literature, Revised Edition)
Robert Trail Spence Lowell, Jr., was born into the well-known Lowell family of Boston. His father, however, was not a distinguished member of that family, being a commander in the United States Navy and later an unsuccessful businessman. At the time of Robert’s birth, his mother’s family, the Winslows, had more money and more prestige, and his mother smothered her son with affection, while denigrating her husband’s incompetence. Lowell’s memoir “91 Revere Street” in Life Studies (1959) shows a sensitive child caught in the perpetual conflict of his parents.
Lowell attended a fashionable prep school, St. Mark’s, from 1930 to 1935 and Harvard University until 1937. He rebelled against his respectable parents in 1937 and left Harvard to pursue a possible career as a poet by going to live with the established poet Allen Tate in Clarksville, Tennessee. In 1937, Lowell entered Kenyon College to study with the poet John Crowe Ransom; he graduated summa cum laude in 1940. Lowell also met such lifelong friends at Kenyon as Randall Jarrell and Peter Taylor; he would often write about them in his later poetry.
Lowell was attempting to become a modern American poet by absorbing the ideas and techniques of Tate and Ransom; both poets exemplified and supported the New Criticism. The New Criticism focused on the poem rather than the poet, and it used as models such seventeenth century poets as John Donne. A proper poem, in the New Critics’ view, was complex, with rich imagery, and filled with recondite allusions.
In 1940, Lowell married his first wife, the fiction writer Jean Stafford. The marriage was stormy. Each writer was producing significant work at the time, although Stafford was more financially successful than was Lowell. Lowell’s political beliefs added to the complexities of his life. He became a conscientious objector in the early 1940’s when he learned about the bombing of the civilian population in Germany. In 1943, he was sentenced to a year in prison for refusing to be inducted into the military. He wrote a letter to President Franklin Roosevelt stating his position, his “manic statement/ telling off the state and president.” During this period, Lowell converted to Catholicism; this provided the subject matter for many of his early poems. He was later to reject Catholicism as the answer to his quest for a higher authority.
In 1944, Lowell’s first book of poetry, Land of Unlikeness, was published. It was in the complex and allusive style that the New Critics favored, and the reviews, while not extensive, were favorable. The true breakthrough volume...
(The entire section is 1120 words.)
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Biography (Magill's Survey of American Literature, Revised Edition)
Lowell is perhaps the most important American poet of the last half of the twentieth century. He expanded the range and possibilities of poetry’s subject matter with his confessional and political poems; no longer would poets have to write in the prescribed New Critical fashion. He also altered the way in which readers look at such traditional forms as the elegy and the sonnet.
Lowell’s style was also innovative. Those “words meat-hooked from the living steer” in his later poems showed that letters, diaries, and advertisements could become forceful entities in poetry. Above all, Lowell’s voice added an intensity and power to American poetry that had been lacking.
Robert Lowell was born into an established family of influential but unhappy New England Protestants. His mother’s neurotic personality and his father’s professional failure gave rise to frequent family tensions that may account for Lowell’s later depressions and his feelings of spiritual homelessness. Inspired by Allen Tate’s idea that poetry expresses experienced revelations of larger, impersonal ideas, Lowell transferred from Harvard to Kenyon College, where John Crowe Ransom taught him to use poetry as a craft with which to structure experience. After graduation in 1940 and conversion to Roman Catholicism, Lowell opposed America’s involvement in World War II. His refusal to be drafted into the army earned him a year’s confinement in jail described in “Memories of West Street and Lepke” in Life Studies. In 1965, Lowell publicly rejected President Lyndon B. Johnson’s invitation to the White House Festival of the Arts—to Lowell, the idea of Americans killing innocent Vietnamese civilians echoed the Indian wars of earlier American history. Lowell’s political activism reached its peak when he accompanied Senator Eugene McCarthy during the Democratic primaries in 1968.
Later in Lowell’s life, his depressions, which were serious to the point that he at times was hospitalized, began to recur annually. Lowell’s poetry became...
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Biography (Critical Survey of Poetry: American Poets)
Robert Traill Spence Lowell, Jr., the only child of Commander Robert Traill Spence Lowell, a naval officer, and Charlotte Winslow Lowell, was joined by birth to a number of figures variously prominent in the early history of Massachusetts Bay and in the cultural life of Boston. On his mother’s side, he was descended from Edward Winslow, who came to America on the Mayflower in 1620. His Lowell ancestors included a Harvard president, A. Lawrence Lowell, and the astronomer, Percival Lowell, as well as the poets James Russell Lowell and Amy Lowell. His ancestors’ prominent roles in the early history of Massachusetts and its culture made him feel implicated in the shameful events of that history—such as the massacre of the native Indians—and the failings of the Puritan culture that became the ground out of which a money-centered American industrial society grew. His sense of his family’s direct involvement in the shaping of American history and culture was conducive to the conflation of the personal and the public that is one of the distinguishing features of his poetry.
The poet had a childhood of outward gentility and inner turmoil. He attended Brimmer School in Boston and St. Mark’s Boarding School in Southborough, Massachusetts. His parents had limited means relative to their inherited social position, and his ineffectual father and domineering mother filled the home with their contention. Richard Eberhart, then at the beginning of his poetic career, was one of Lowell’s English teachers at St. Mark’s, and at Eberhart’s encouragement, Lowell began to write poetry, some of which was published in the school magazine. In 1935, Lowell entered Harvard, intent on preparing himself for a career as a poet. He was disheartened by the approach to poetry of his Harvard professors, however, and frustrated in his search for a mentor. He was at a nadir of confidence, thrashing about for direction and desperate for encouragement, when an invitation to visit Ford Madox Ford, whom he had met at a cocktail party at the Tennessee home of Allen Tate, brought him to Tate’s poetry and to Tate himself, who was to be a formative influence. Lowell was then torn between traditional metrical forms and free verse, and Tate brought him down, for the time being, on the side of the former. What Tate advocated was not bland mechanics but rather an intense struggle to apprehend and concentrate experience within the confines of form, depersonalizing and universalizing experience and revitalizing traditional forms.
His intimacy with Tate led to Lowell’s immersion in the world and values of the traditionalist Southern Agrarian poets who constituted the Fugitive group. After spending the summer of 1937 at the Tates’ home, Lowell transferred from Harvard to Kenyon College to study with John Crowe Ransom, who had just been hired at Kenyon, which he would turn into a center of the New Criticism. At Kenyon, Lowell met Randall Jarrell, with whom he began a personal and literary friendship that ended only with Jarrell’s suicide in 1965. While apprenticing himself as a poet, Lowell studied classics, graduating summa cum laude in 1940.
Also in that year, he married the young Catholic novelist Jean Stafford and converted to Roman Catholicism. He did a...
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Biography (Cyclopedia of World Authors, Fourth Revised Edition)
Robert Lowell (LOH-uhl) is among the most important American poets of the post-World War II period. He grew up in Boston as a member of the famous Lowell family. He attended St. Marks preparatory school and began his university studies at Harvard University. After a bitter quarrel with his parents, he left Harvard and followed John Crowe Ransom from Vanderbilt University to Kenyon University.
In 1943, he produced an early book of poems, Land of Unlikeness. However, the first important book of poems by Lowell was Lord Weary’s Castle, published in 1946, which received the Pulitzer Prize in poetry....
(The entire section is 368 words.)