Burns, Robert (Vol. 40)
Robert Burns 1759–1796
(Born Robert Burnes) Scottish poet and lyricist.
The following entry contains critical essays on Burns's relationship to Preromanticism. For further information on Burns, see LC, vols. 3 and 29.
The national poet of Scotland, Burns is revered as the "heaven-taught ploughman" who expressed the soul of a nation in the language of the common man and sang of universal humanity. Burns worked on more than three hundred songs, and it is largely due to his revival of the lyric that he is considered a Preromantic. He made the Scots dialect acceptable in elevated, serious poetry, and his depiction of rural Scottish life and manners marked a radical departure from the stately and decorous subjects typical of eighteenth-century poetry. His frank expression of his love for women, drink, and bawdy lyrics contributed to his image as a natural man, honest and spontaneous. Burns is admired for his compassion, which extended even to the lowliest animals, his humor, his patriotism, and his fervent championship of the innate freedom and dignity of humanity. In present times Burns's works remain an important part of the popular culture of Scotland, and his "Auld Lang Syne" is sung around the world every New Year's Eve.
Burns was born in Alloway, near Ayr in southwestern Scotland, to an impoverished tenant farmer and his illiterate wife. Although Burns was largely self-taught, he was not in reality the "noble savage" some later biographers made him out to be. Burns received formal schooling whenever possible, and it was during a three-year period of regular attendance in a one-room schoolhouse, as a student of John Murdock, that Burns was exposed to a large body of English literature which included William Shakespeare, John Milton, the Augustans John Dryden, Joseph Addison, and Alexander Pope (including his translation of Homer), and the Preromantics James Thomson, Thomas Gray, and William Shenstone. Further, Burns's father, William Burnes (whose famous son later altered the spelling of the family name), instructed him at home, and Burns ardently read any book he could borrow. Burns's family moved from one rented farm to another during his childhood, at each place enduring the hard work of farming in poor soil and suffering the extreme financial
difficulties exacerbated by high rents. Excessive toil during his childhood is blamed in part for Burns's eventual early death. At fifteen, Burns fell in love with a girl with whom he was working, and it was this love that caused Burns to first write a lyric. He later recalled this episode: "Among her other loveinspiring qualifications, she sung sweetly; and 'twas her favorite reel to which I attempted giving an embodied vehicle in rhyme." Burns was to follow this method for his writing for the rest of his life. He would always hear a melody in his head while creating lyrics; never would the lyrics be set down first. Some of his poetry began to circulate in manuscript form in the early 1780s. By 1785 and 1786 Burns had written nearly all of his best poems, all of them in Scots. Burns credited the creation of his finest poetry, that dealing with country life, to the inspiration he gained from reading the Scottish vernacular poets Allan Ramsay and Robert Fergusson. In 1786, with aid from friends, he published Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect. Published in the town of Kilmarnock, the edition was an overnight sensation and quickly sold out. The second edition, published in Edinburgh the following year, brought critical acclaim and fame to Burns. It was in this city that, for a season, Burns was feted and much admired by the literati and the doctors, lawyers, and dignitaries of the city. Some scholars argue that Burns's reputation as a self-taught peasant led him to a dead end; Burns could not grow while attempting to match the image expected of him. It is only "Tarn o' Shanter," his later narrative masterpiece, that makes this argument difficult. The latter part of Burns's creative career was devoted to collecting and revising the vast body of Scottish folk songs transmitted orally from generation to generation—work that continued, legend has it, to the last moments of his life. Although Burns was badly in need of money, he refused any payment for his work, considering his efforts to be his patriotic duty to Scotland. In 1796, at the age of 37, Burns died from rheumatic heart disease.
While the theme of freedom—political, religious, personal, and sexual—dominates Burns's poetry and songs, the themes of love and fellowship also recur. The poem "For A' That and A' That" is an implicitly political assertion of Burns's beliefs in equality and freedom. His outrage over what he considered the false and restricting doctrine of the Scottish church is clear in such satirical poems as "Holy Willie's Prayer" and "The Holy Fair." "Holy Willie's Prayer" concerns a self-professed member of the elect who, through his own narration, inadvertently exposes his hypocrisy and ethical deficiencies. "The Holy Fair," a lively, highly descriptive account of a religious gathering, contrasts the dour, threatening view of life espoused by the Calvinist preachers with the reality of life as it is actually lived. The simple celebrants, after dutifully and respectfully attending to the sermons, continue their pleasurable everyday pursuits—the enjoyment of conviviality, drink, and romance—which are ever present in Burns's work. Burns's many love poems and songs touchingly express the human experience of love in all its phases: the sexual love of "The Fornicator"; the more mature love of "A Red, Red Rose"; the happiness of a couple grown old together in "John Anderson, My Jo." Whatever the subject, critics find in Burns's verses a riotous celebration of life, an irrepressible joy in living. Burns's characters are invariably humble, their stories told against the background of the Scottish rural countryside. Although natural surroundings figure prominently in his work, Burns differed from the succeeding Romantic poets in that he had little interest in nature itself, which in his poetry serves but to set the scene for human activity and emotion. In 1787 Burns met James Johnson, the editor of The Scots Musical Museum. This meeting set off Burns's enthusiasm (he referred to himself as "absolutely craz'd" over the prospect) for restoring, recovering, and collecting old folk songs of Scotland, an ambitious task that was to occupy Burns for the rest of his life. According to James Kinsley, Burns "assimilated the whole musical tradition of Scotland, going over the airs till he discovered their character, their mood, and their potentiality as settings for songs." Burns also wrote many verse epistles. Although each was addressed to only one correspondent, it was understood that members of a select circle would hear at least some of the content, and that much of this content would also reach Burns's opponents. Thus these writings were both private and semi-public. Not collected until after Burns's death, the verse epistles are invaluable for their revelations of Burns's innermost hopes and fears and for their wide range of expression.
Although the initial publication of Burns's poems in 1786 was immensely successful, critics were soon to write more on what they considered to be Burns's moral defects (he had been arrested as a fornicator) than on his verses. In 1808 Francis Jeffrey attacked Burns as being contemptuous of prudence and decency, although he continued in the same review to assert that Burns was a "great and original genius." Sentimental poems such as "The Cotter's Saturday Night" and "To a Mountain Daisy" received the most favorable attention; Burns's earthier pieces, when not actually repressed, were tactfully ignored. "The Jolly Beggars," now considered one of his best poems, was rejected for years on the ground that it was coarse and contained low subject matter. Although these assessments held sway until well into the nineteenth century, more recent critics have taken opposing views, with some of Burns's more sentimental writings being taken as bathetic and false. Burns's English and primarily-English verses have long been found disappointing, with many critics calling them badly imitative and urging that they be completely ignored. Burns himself acknowledged that he lacked the command of English that he had for his native tongue. Other critics find that Burns's combination of two dialects results in an intriguing synthesis as many times two different meanings for a given word add depth to the poem in question. Burns spelled many words in English to reflect Scots pronunciation, and this can lead to confusion over the exact proportion of the two dialects. Although the epistles are not Burns's most important works, G. Scott Wilson has asserted that: "The verse-epistles which Burns wrote between 1784 and 1786 are, with the possible exception of Pope's Horatian epistles, the finest examples of the style in Scots or English." Stopford A. Brooke has written that Burns's intellectual genius was most displayed in his outspoken wit. "In satire of this kind—the fierce, stinging, witty, merciless satire, the naked mockery, the indignant lash—he stands alone. No one has ever done the same kind of thing so well—and those who felt the whip deserved it." In addition to lauding Burns as a poet, Ralph Waldo Emerson praised him as having struck more telling blows against false theology than Martin Luther.
Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect (poetry) 1786
* The Scots Musical Museum. 6 vols, (songs) 1787-1803
** A Select Collection of Original Scottish Airs for the Voice. 8 vols, (songs) 1793-1818
The Works of Robert Burns (poetry) 1800
The Poems and Songs of Robert Burns. 3 vols, (poetry, songs) 1968
The Letters of Robert Burns 2 vols. (letters) 1985
The Songs of Robert Burns (songs) 1993
* This collection contains some two hundred songs and fragments written or edited by Burns.
** This collection contains some seventy songs by Burns, most altered by later editors.
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SOURCE: "Robert Burns," in Naturalism in English Poetry, E. P. Dutton & Company, 1920, pp. 113-34.
[In the following essay Brooke praises Burns as the first writer to achieve naturalism in his Scottish poems, the restorer of passion to poetry, and the master of sincerity, pathos, and stinging satire.]
Robert Burns, of whom Scotland is justly proud, was the child of his own country, and his poetic ancestors were not English, but Scottish. When I say that—and I shall enlarge on it afterwards—I exclude the poetry he wrote in ordinary English, in which he did not use his native dialect. These poems, in verse, diction and manner, are full of English echoes, and derive from Shenstone, Gray and others of that time. The only distinctive element they have is that now and then the irrepressible genius of the man, his rustic, national individuality, bursts, like a sudden gush of clear water, for a line or two, out of the dull expanse of his imitative verse. He should have done, with all impulses on his own part to write in English, and with all requests from others to do so, what David did with Saul's armour, put it off when he had worn it once and said, "I cannot go with these—I have not proved them."
Poets should cling to their natural vehicle, to their native song. When Burns put on English dress, his singing robes slipped off him, his genius moved in fetters, he lost his distinction,...
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SOURCE: "The Background of Burns: Eighteenth-Century Scotland," in The Russet Coat: A Critical Study of Burns's Poetry and of Its Background, Robert Hale & Company, 1956, pp. 7-27.
[In the following excerpt Keith describes Scotland's Golden Age, a time of nationalism and rich intellectual life; Edinburgh's reception of and influence on Burns; and why Burns's limited reading and self-education caused him to focus on satire and song.]
The eighteenth century, into which Burns had the amazing good fortune to be born, was Scotland's Golden Age, when everywhere her latent talents were unfolding, and the sun rose towards the high meridian of her literary achievement. Not only that—it was the bright breathing-space between two centuries of religious intolerance—in different ways, both equally repellent. With the close of the nightmare seventeenth century, the Killing Times were over. No longer did the Edinburgh crowds mill round the gallows in the Grass-market for a sight of the latest Convenanter sent there 'to glorify God'. No longer were the dragoons out riding the Ayrshire mosses after hunted men. The era of the Covenant was over…. And the nineteenth century of materialism and Disruption, rending the land from the Solway to the Pentland with legalistic disputes, had not yet begun so that, in this Golden Age, Scotland had a breathing-space to think, for once, of other things than religion. It...
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SOURCE: "The 'Annus Mirabilis,' 1785," in Robert Burns and the 18th-Century Revival of Scottish Vernacular Poetry, Aberdeen University Press, 1969, pp. 169-89.
[In the following excerpt Angus-Butterworth examines the histories and inspirations of several of Burns's famous poems.]
The Cottar's Saturday Night
It has often been noticed that Burns drew his inspiration for The Cottar's Saturday Night from Fergusson's poem The Farmer's Ingle, and this as a bare statement may give the impression that one is derived from the other. Actually the connection between the two is so slight that little more than the general idea was borrowed.
We can imagine the impact made on Burns's mind by the descriptions which the earlier poet gives of the farmer's home life, and how his imagination must have been fired by the depiction of scenes which he knew much better than Fergusson. Here, indeed, was a theme so intimately within his experience that none specially designed for him could have been more fitting. But what the prentice hand of Fergusson had attempted, Burns was able to transform by his master touch.
The opening verse of The Cottar's Saturday Night, addressed to Robert Aiken,1 is thought by Chambers and others to have been added after the rest of the poem was written, but forms a very appropriate introduction. The poet sets the scene,...
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SOURCE: Light from Heaven: Love in British Romantic Literature, Northern Illinois University Press, 1971, 288 p.
[In the excerpt below Beaty analyzes Burns's use of humor in his writings about romantic love.]
Robert Burns's distinction as a love poet stems chiefly from his ability to perceive the comic aspects of what he considered a very serious emotion. The eighteenth-century adaptation of sentiment to comedy, as well as the Scottish vernacular tradition, afforded him ample precedent for this seemingly paradoxical combination. As random comments in his letters indicate, he was obviously interested in examining the comic spirit; yet he apparently elaborated no critical manifesto of his own to explain his practice. Perhaps because he was often regarded as an inspired but untaught genius who succeeded without conscious artistry, influential critics of the early nineteenth century usually looked not to him for illustrations of their comic theories but rather to Jean Paul Richter, who had obligingly translated his own precepts into concrete examples. Not until after many of the speculations about humor had crystallized into definite concepts could Burns's achievement be fully analyzed.1 Just as his poetry had unwittingly sanctioned in advance many of the tenets enunciated in Wordsworth's preface to Lyrical Ballads (1800), so too his portrayals of comic love anticipated theories of...
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SOURCE: "The Language of Burns," in Critical Essays on Robert Burns, edited by Donald A. Low, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1975, pp. 54–70.
[In the following essay Murison outlines the history of the Scots dialect and examines the relationship between Scots and English in Burns's writing.]
No small part of a poet's business is the manipulation of words, and the great poets have usually been great creators also in the use of language. But even the greatest have to work within the general limits of the language they begin with, its vocabulary, its idiom and its rhythms, and Burns is no exception. In his case the picture is complicated by the fact that for historical reasons he had two languages at his disposal, whose relations to one another have to be understood before we can appreciate his technique and achievement.
Scots and English are essentially dialects of the same original language, Anglo-Saxon, and the differences between them are far outweighed by their similarities, and, for reasons that will appear, the differences, once marked and predictable, are becoming more and more blurred as far as Scots is concerned. But differences there are, not only purely linguistic but also stylistic and thematic. There is of course a large common vocabulary, but Scots has a considerable Norse element and some Dutch, French and Gaelic not shared with English; the vowel and to a lesser extent the...
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SOURCE: "The Early Period: Burns's Conscious Collecting of Folksongs," in Burns and Tradition, Macmillan Press, 1984, pp. 1–26, 147–50.
[Here, Brown describes Burns as a transitional figure bridging the two spheres of oral and literate composition.]
(That Bards are second-sighted is nae joke,
And ken the lingo of the sp'ritual folk;
Fays, Spunkies, Kelpies, a', they can explain them,
An ev'n the vera deils they brawly ken them.)
'The Brigs of Ayr, a Poem'
Robert Burns is remembered as much for his personality and character as for his poetry and songs. It is rather ironic that as an individual his roots in a peasant class are extolled, even emphasised; however, as a creative artist his debts to written, élite precedents are principally cited. Both are probably somewhat extreme positions: as an individual Burns both represented and transcended his class; as a poet and songwright he followed the example of earlier writers while being simultaneously influenced by the oral literary forms which flourished in the milieu of his birth.
The stress on Burns' literary sources is a natural and explicable one: those who study Burns as literary historians and critics see him and his work through the dimension of time and often in comparison with other written work—the tangible records of the...
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SOURCE: "Burns and Philosophy," in A Burns Companion, Macmillan, 1991, pp. 109–15, 391–99.
[In the following excerpt Bold considers Burns's familiarity with the works and ideas of John Locke, David Hume, and other philosophers.]
As a result of the obsequious Preface to the Kilmarnock Edition and Henry Mackenzie's influential description of the poet as a 'Heaven-taught ploughman' (CH, 70) Burns was regarded, by his early readers, as an ignorant man able, by some miracle, to produce poetry. An unsigned notice in the General Magazine and Impartial Review (1787) summed up the position: 'By general report we learn, that R. B. is a ploughboy, of small education' (CH, 88). In fact, by the time the Kilmarnock Edition was published, Burns had read not only the poetry of Pope and Shenstone, not only the fiction of Richardson and Fielding, but the philosophy of John Locke and Adam Smith. Before he left Lochlea in 1784, Burns had read Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690), a work regarded as the foundation of British empiricism.
The impact of Locke's Essay on Burns must have been profound, stimulating his insights into human nature and reinforcing his critical attitude to the kirk (religious dogmatists were disturbed by Locke's implication that reasonable discourse depended on 'determined ideas', not obscurantist religious dogma). Briefly, the Essay...
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SOURCE: "Robert Burns: 'Heaven-taught ploughman'?," in Burns Now, edited by Kenneth Simpson, Canongate Academic, 1994, pp. 70–91.
[In the following excerpt Simpson examines the myth of Burns as an uneducated peasant and the benefits and limitations such an image held for Burns.]
It was Henry Mackenzie who, in December 1786, wrote admiringly of Burns as 'this Heaven-taught ploughman'.1 Within a few decades Scott was claim ing, 'Burns … had an education not much worse than the sons of many gentlemen in Scotland'.2 Scott's version is probably closer to the mark than Mackenzie's, but each had his reasons for forming a very specific conception of Burns, just as each had a specific conception of Scotland (and the two are closely interrelated).
Mackenzie's essay in The Lounger was headed 'Surprising Effects of Original Genius, exemplified in the Poetical Productions of Robert Burns, An Ayrshire Ploughman'. Mackenzie, whose values epitomise the polite taste of the Edinburgh literati, laments Burns's use of 'provincial dialect' as a 'bar … to his fame' but notes enthusiastically 'with what uncommon penetration and sagacity this Heaven-taught ploughman, from his humble and unlettered station, has looked upon men and manners'. Mackenzie's enthusiasm is symptomatic of the desire of Scottish writers and thinkers that Scotland should lead the response to Rousseau's...
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SOURCE: "Apotheosis," in Dirt & Deity: A Life of Robert Burns, HarperCollins Publishers, 1995, pp. 413–44.
[Here, Mclntyre presents a survey of critical and public reaction to Burns over the span of two hundred years.]
… The critics had continued to give as much attention to the defects of Burns's moral character as to the qualities of his poetry. The publication of Cromek's Reliques of Robert Burns in 1808 had occasioned two influential unsigned reviews—that by Francis Jeffrey in the Whig Edinburgh Review, and that by Walter Scott in the first issue of the Quarterly Review, recently established as a rival Tory voice. Jeffrey, who was later to begin his demolition of Wordsworth's The Excursion with the notorious 'This will never do!' was alive to the value of a provocative opening:
Burns is certainly by far the greatest of our poetical prodigies—from Stephen Duck down to Thomas Dermody. They are forgotten already; or only remembered for derision. But the name of Burns, if we are not mistaken, has not yet 'gathered all its fame'; and will endure long after those circumstances are forgotten which contributed to its first notoriety …
Burnsians who succumbed to apoplexy at this early point missed much that was judicious and discriminating, because it was Jeffrey's contention that to...
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Egerer, J. W. A Bibliography of Robert Burns. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1965, 396 p.
Impressive list documents first appearances of Burns's poetry and prose up to 1802, and most editions of his works up to 1953.
Reid, J. B., ed. A Complete Word and Phrase Concordance to the Poems and Songs of Robert Burns. 1889. Reprint. New York: B. Franklin, 1968, 568 p.
With glossary of Scottish words, notes, index, and appendix of readings.
Carswell, Catherine. The Life of Robert Burns. London: Chatto & Windus, 1930, 467 p.
Often scorned for its lack of documentation, a sympathetic and highly readable account of Burns's life.
Daiches, David. Robert Burns and His World. London: Thames and Hudson, 1971, 128 p.
Lavishly illustrated work treats Burns's life and career; bibliography and chronology included.
Douglas, Hugh. Robert Burns: The Tinder Heart. Gloucestershire: Alan Sutton Publishing Ltd, 1996, 299 p.
Biography with index of poems and songs and bibliography.
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