Richard III (Dictionary of World Biography: Renaissance)
Article abstract: England’s most maligned monarch, Richard III, in his attempt to restore order and dynastic stability to a nation torn by three decades of civil war by first serving his brother, Edward IV, loyally and then by accepting the throne himself, fell victim to the intrigues of those who were jealous of his loyalty and abilities and who coveted the Crown.
Richard Plantagenet was born on October 2, 1452, at Fotheringay Castle, the youngest of nine children of Richard, Duke of York, and Cicely (née Neville), Duchess of York. He had two sisters—Anne, Duchess of Exeter, and Margaret (later Duchess of Burgundy)—and three brothers—Edmund, Earl of Rutland, Edward (later Edward IV), and George (later Duke of Clarence)—who survived to adulthood. Young Richard’s father had a claim to the throne, which was then occupied by the third king of the House of Lancaster, Henry VI. Although Richard, Duke of York, secretly aspired to the throne, he made no formal claim until 1459, four years after the outbreak of the dynastic struggle between the houses of York and Lancaster known as the Wars of the Roses. In the 1450’s, young Richard was nothing more than a junior cadet of a leading aristocratic family. None would have anticipated that within three decades he would become England’s most controversial monarch.
Richard’s attitudes and actions throughout his life were determined by the...
(The entire section is 4111 words.)
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Richard III (Magill’s Guide to Military History)
Article abstract: Military significance: Richard III’s army was defeated at the Battle of Bosworth by the forces of his opponent, Henry Tudor, who eventually became Henry VII.
Richard III, son of the duke of York and brother to King Edward IV, helped pierce the Lancastrian lines at Tewkesbury in 1471. He played a principal role in the successful English campaign in Scotland in 1481, although a settlement between the English and Scottish monarchs erased his conquests. When Edward IV died in 1483, Richard became protector of England. Although his mission was to guarantee the rule of his youthful nephew, Edward V, his true aim was the throne itself. Using the suspicion that Edward IV’s marriage to the unpopular queen dowager, Elizabeth Woodville, was illegal, Richard had Edward V and his younger brother declared illegitimate and consigned to the Tower of London. Most historians agree they were killed in the Tower under Richard’s orders.
It was Richard’s claim that, as a vigorous adult, his rule was preferable to a child’s, but when Henry Tudor, a peripheral member of the extended royal family, launched a claim to the throne, he generated wide support. The two armies met at Bosworth in 1485. When Henry’s troops stormed Richard’s advantageous hilltop position at Bosworth, the king died in the melee and his troops were defeated.
Hicks, Michael. Richard III: The Man...
(The entire section is 275 words.)