René Marqués 1919–1979
Puerto Rican playwright, short story writer, novelist, essayist, and poet.
The following entry provides critical discussion of Marques's work through 1992.
Widely recognized as the dominant Puerto Rican literary figure of the 1950s and 1960s, Marqués was a prolific, charismatic advocate of Puerto Rican national sovereignty. He wrote numerous award-winning short stories, essays and two novels, but he is best known for his innovative dramas, exemplified by La carreta (1953; The Oxcart), Los soles truncos (1958; The Fanlights), and Un niño azul para esa sombra (1960; A Blue Boy for That Shadow)—considered by many critics his finest. Associated with the group of nationalistic Latin-American intellectuals known as the "Generation of the Forties," Marqués expressed forceful resistance to Western cultural and political influence, especially as exerted by the United States. His prophetic plays confront the pernicious effects of colonialism, industrialization, and the rapid erosion of traditional, rural island life. Through skillful adaptation of contemporary Western literature and his own experiments with theatrical device, Marqués introduced new standards of excellence to his own national literature and achieved an international reputation.
Born in Arecibo, Puerto Rico, Marqués received a rural upbringing on his grandparents' haciendas, where he learned the conservative values and agrarian life idealized in his writings. He earned a degree in agronomy at the College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts in 1942, and two years later resigned a position with the Department of Agriculture to publish Peregrinación (1944), his first and only book of poetry. In 1946 he departed for Spain to study literature at the University of Madrid, where he wrote his first drama, El hombre y sus sueños (1973; The Man and His Dreams). The next year he returned to Puerto Rico, founded a small theater group in Arecibo, and contributed regular literary reviews to several newspapers and journals in San Juan. With the aid of a Rockefeller Foundation scholarship, Marqués left for the United States in 1949 to study drama at Columbia University, where he wrote Palm Sunday (1953) in a workshop, his only English-language play. That year he also won the first of many Ateneo awards with his short story "El miedo" ("Fear"), included in the collection Otro dia nuestro (1955; Another Day of Ours). After a brief tour of experimental American theaters, Marqués returned to Puerto Rico in 1950 to begin his most significant creative period. He established the Experimental Theater of the Atheneum in 1951, then achieved critical acclaim with consecutive performances of The Oxcart in New York, San Juan, and Madrid. In 1957 he moved to the United States, this time with a Guggenheim Fellowship, to begin writing his semi-autobiographical first novel, La víspera del hombre (1959; The Eve of Man). Marqués eventually returned to his native land, where he continued to produce well-received works of fiction, plays, and essays, including his literary manifesto, Pesimismo literario y optimiso politico: Su coexistencia en el Puerto Rico actual (1959; Literary Pessimism and Political Optimism: Their Coexistence in Contemporary Puerto Rico). He served as editorial director with the Department of Public Instruction from 1953 to 1969, and as a professor of literature at the University of Puerto Rico from 1969 until his retirement in 1976.
Marqués's dramas consistently scrutinize the dissipation of Puerto Rican national identity, cultural heritage, and traditional values. Dominated by themes of guilt, betrayal and sacrificial redemption, his socio-political commentary is typically accentuated by complex symbolism and evocative dramatic technique. Such elements are evident in his earliest plays, from the allegorical characters and expressionistic setting of The Man and His Dreams, to the patriotic realism of Palm Sunday and his initial experiments with temporal juxtaposition in El sol y los MacDonald (1950; The Sun and the MacDonalds). The Oxcart represents his first popular success and marks the beginning of Marqués's artistic maturity. To a large extent this work embodies the salient characteristics of his most effective subsequent productions, especially the integration of lighting, sound effects, and the prominent recurring motif of cultural disorientation. The play traces the fortunes of a Puerto Rican peasant family lured from ancestral lands to seek economic prosperity in the city. Their circular route, suggested by the ominous offstage sound of cart wheels, leads them through the slums of San Juan, New York City, and finally back to their native land to recover from dejection and loss. The Fanlights similarly demonstrates the lethal effect of modern progress on an unprepared, agricultural society. Unlike the adventurous family of The Oxcart, this work features three reclusive sisters whose voluntary isolation comes to an abrupt end when one of them dies. Impoverished and faced with selling the family mansion, the two surviving sisters set fire to the house and perish inside rather than endure forced exposure to the detested outside world. More overtly political, La muerte no entrará en palacio (1959; Death Shall Not Enter the Palace) is a satire with tragic pretensions. The work, which is viewed as a denunciation of the American extension of Commonwealth status to Puerto Rico in 1952, features a main character who bears strong resemblance to real-life Puerto Rican governor Muñoz Marín. In this historical reinterpretation, a failed assassination attempt drives the national leader and his family into a fortified palace, where he becomes tyrannical and resorts to brutish self-preservation. His daughter ultimately ends the hopeless situation by murdering him as he is signing away his country's independence. Generally regarded as his consummate work, A Blue Boy for That Shadow explores the irreconcilable perception of illusion and reality in the mind of the child protagonist, Michelín. When his father abandons the family to pursue a political cause, the idealistic boy is left to his materialistic mother who comfortably subsists on a family fortune while enjoying effete entertainments. Her poisoning of a tree becomes the complex metaphor for lost security, the death of heroic ideals, and the betrayal of Puerto Rican freedom. As in The Fanlights, the convergence of past, present, and future is achieved through flashbacks and daydreams, creating multiple levels of reality and a temporal circularity reminiscent of The Oxcart. In the end, disparaged and unable to establish his own identity amid his parents' contradictory values, Michelín commits suicide and becomes a symbol of Puerto Rican sacrifice and self-destruction.
Consistently praised for his stylistic accomplishment and tireless innovation, Marqués was among the most gifted Hispanic writers of his generation. Though he emerged from the relative obscurity of his own country to achieve international recognition during the 1960s, his influence on younger writers had noticeably waned by the end of the decade. The nostalgic, conservative values and tenacious patriotism that once sustained his literary agenda was judged repetitious and anachronistic by some. Even at the height of his influence, Marqués was faulted for his melodramatic theatrics and overly complex symbolism. Despite his opposition to Western cultural hegemony, Marqués was not averse to assimilating the current literary forms of North America and Europe for his own purposes. Many of his dramas and prose works contain studied allusions to Greek mythology and feature existentialist underpinnings. Marqués remains an outstanding figure in Puerto Rican literature for his technical contributions to the theater of that land, his commitment to the writing profession, and his persistent efforts to draw attention to issues concerning Puerto Rican society and independence.
Peregrinación (poetry) 1944
El sol y los MacDonald [The Sun and the MacDonalds] (drama) 1950
La carreta [The Oxcart] (drama) 1953
Palm Sunday (drama) 1953
Otro día nuestro [Another Day of Ours] (short stories) 1955
Los soles truncos [The Fanlights] (drama) 1958
∗La muerte no entrará en palacio [Death Shall Not Enter the Palace] (drama) 1959
Pesimismo literario y optimiso politico: Su coexistencia en el Puerto Rico actual [Literary Pessimism and Political Optimism: Their Coexistence in Contemporary Puerto Rico] (essay) 1959
Teatro I (drama collection) 1959
La víspera del hombre [The Eve of Man] (novel) 1959
En una ciudad llamada San Juan (short stories) 1960
Un niño azul para esa sombra [A Blue Boy for That Shadow] (drama) 1960
La casa sin reloj [The House without a Clock] (drama) 1961
Carnaval afuera, carnaval adentro (drama) 1962
El apartamiento (drama) 1964
Mariana; o, El alba (drama) 1965
†Ensayos 1953–1966 (essays) 1966
David y Jonatán/Tito y Bernice: Dos dramas de amor, poder y desamor (drama) 1970
Sacrificio en el Monte Moriah [Sacrifice at Mount Moriah] (drama) 1970
Teatro II (drama collection) 1971
Teatro III (drama collection) 1971
El hombre y sus sueños [The Man and His Dreams] (drama)...
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SOURCE: "New Plays by René Marqués," in Hispania, Vol. XLIII, No. 3, September, 1960, pp. 451-52.
[In the following review, Dauster provides a concise evaluation of La muerte no entrará en palacio, Un niño azul para esa sombra, and Los soles truncos.]
Under the title Teatro, José Luis González' Ediciones Arrecife has just published three plays by the distinguished Puerto Rican playwright, best known as author of La carreta. The plays included are La muerte no entrará en palacio, Un niño azul para esa sombra (Premio del Certamen de Teatro de 1958 del Ateneo Puertorriqueño) and Los soles truncos (included in the volume Teatro puertorriqueño published by the Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña to commemorate its Primer Festival de Teatro Puertorriqueño). All three are complex works representing the author's concern for the loss of traditional values, and Los soles truncos, particularly requires several readings before its various levels of meaning are fully apparent. All three plays make heavy demands on the actors and full use of music and lighting effects, as well as complex staging. The measure of Marqués' skill is his ability to use all these resources without falling into sheer stage trickery and effect.
La muerte no entrará en palacio is an attack on demagoguery, with obvious reference to political situations in...
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SOURCE: "The Theater of René Marqués," in Symposium, Vol. XVIII, No. 1, Spring, 1964, pp. 35-45.
[In the following essay, Dauster offers a balanced survey of Marqués's major dramatic works, giving particular attention to the development of theme and theatrical device.]
Among Puerto Rican dramatists today, René Marqués occupies a unique place. Although widely known for his naturalistic and intensely nationalistic La carreta, he has consistently devoted himself to experimenting with dramatic techniques. La carreta and Palm Sunday are his only dramas in an overtly realistic framework; they are neither his best nor his most typical work, which is characterized by shifting temporal relationships and by extreme use of such devices as flashback, integrated offstage effects, and the extensive use of lighting for dramatic purposes. This characteristic technical orientation is clear in his earliest work, the one-act El hombre y sus sueños, which bears the subtitle "Esbozo intrascendente para un drama trascendental." A somewhat diffuse attack on materialism and the rejection of ideals, El hombre y sus sueños takes place on a stage bare except for a semicircle of large white columns against a black drop; a four-step platform in the center holds a monumental bed upon which lies the motionless figure of a man. Against this scene a series of characters enters: the three Friends...
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SOURCE: "Rene Marques' La muerte no entrará en palacio: An Analysis," in Latin American Theatre Review, Vol. II, No. 1, Fall, 1968, pp. 31-38.
[In the following essay, Shaw examines elements of social protest and tragedy in La muerte no entrará en palacio.]
Since the origins of the theatre in Latin America, playwrights there have struggled to conciliate two major ideals: to interpret the reality of their native environment and to remain abreast of innovations in the European theatre. Among the works by contemporary dramatists included in Carlos Solórzano's El teatro hispanoamericano contemporáneo (1964) is the Puerto Rican René Marqués' fifth play La muerte no entrará en palacio (1957) which attempts to do justice to both aspects of this dual imperative. It stands out in consequence from the mass of teatro de protesta which, if the recent history of the Latin American novel offers reliable indications, is a genre destined to date very rapidly as social change continues.
Three features of the play call for special comment. First, although this is a play of protest (against threats from abroad to the independence of Latin American countries and against arbitrary presidential power), it avoids oversimplification and even contains an element of analysis. Second, it is not only a play of ideas but aims at being also a drama of basically human conflict. Most...
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SOURCE: A review of The Docile Puerto Rican, translated by Barbara B. Aponte, in World Literature Today, Vol. LI, No. 1, Winter, 1977, p. 72.
[In the following review of The Docile Puerto Rican, Tatum praises the work for its historical and political insight.]
The Puerto Rican René Marqués is well known as a dramatist and prose fiction writer, but he has received little attention as an essayist. This volume of his essays thus constitutes a valuable contribution to our knowledge of this important Latin American writer as well as to our understanding of the Puerto Rican and his unique relationship to the United States.
In her introduction the translator wastes no time in going to the heart of Marqués's essays: the problem of the US's political, economic and cultural domination of Latin America in general and of Puerto Rico in particular. Throughout his literary career he has addressed himself to this relationship; in his popular play La carreta (1950) Marqués describes the cultural upheaval a jíbaro family undergoes when it emigrates from the Puerto Rican countryside to New York City. Long an exponent of Puerto Rican nationalism, in the essays included in this volume he expresses the urgency of retaining the Spanish language, of reviving and supporting interest in Puerto Rican folkways and traditions and, primarily, of resisting American efforts to...
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SOURCE: "René Marqués' La mirada: A Closer Look," in Latin American Literary Review, Vol. VIII, No. 16, Spring-Summer, 1980, pp. 196-212.
[In the following essay, Hortas examines mythological, Christian, and sexual metaphors in La mirada.]
René Marqués La mirada was published in an unexpurgated first edition in Puerto Rico in 1976, two years after Spanish censors had refused to grant it publication unless certain objectionable passages were either deleted or modified. The last major work of the widely acclaimed Puerto Rican writer before his death in 1979, La mirada has generally been dismissed by critics as an incoherent, disjointed piece of writing by an author past his prime. In the recent issue of the literary review, Sin Nombre, dedicated to René Marqués, La mirada commands very little attention and no praise at all. Arcadio Díaz Quiñones states flatly:
Over the last few years his literary output was a failure. The novel La mirada (1976) and some of his recent short stories were but a weak echo of his own work, a worn-out repetition, at times an involuntary parody of himself, or the recapitulation of a well-known literary agenda. The last texts that he published made one think that his creative reserves were prematurely exhausted.
In an essay entitled "René Marqués ¿escritor...
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SOURCE: "Woman's Triumph Over Man in René Marqués's Theater," in Hispania, Vol. 65, No. 2, May, 1982, pp. 187-93.
[In the following essay, Feeny examines the portrayal of female superiority in Marqués' drama and several short stories, especially in the context of Puerto Rican social and political subservience.]
One particularly interesting and rather neglected aspect of the late René Marqués's writing is the unique concept of woman that pervades much of his work. In examining Marqués's dramas, short stories, novels and essays, a literary achievement covering over three decades, we find the author's portrayal of the female consistently presents her as far more capable and effective than the male. Where the latter fails, woman succeeds. And although she at times may provide encouragement for foundering man, often Marqués's forceful woman ultimately causes him shame and even death.
A number of critics have already noted Marqués's insistence upon portraying woman as man's superior. What we have attempted here is a detailed study of the relationship between this particular view of woman and the author's dire concern both with his country's continued political subservience and with its newly emerged matriarchal society. We shall examine the crucial roles of many of the principal female characters in Marqués's dramas, as well as pertinent passages from his other writing. In addition...
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SOURCE: "Coetaneity: A Sign of Crisis in Un niño azul para esa sombra." in Latin American Theater Review, Vol. 17, No. 1, Fall 1983, pp. 37-45.
[In the following essay, Reynolds discusses the chronological presentation and psychological effect of Un niño azul para esa sombra.]
René Marqués' play, Un niño azul para esa sombra, written in 1958, won the "Eugenio Fernández Garcia" theatre prize that same year in the Ateneo Puertorriqueño's Christmas Festival. This play, produced two years later during the Third Theatre Festival sponsored by the Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña, is, according to Frank Dauster, "probably Marqués' best play" and "one of the best in Latin America." Like several of Marqués' plays, it is thematically based on previously-written short stories—in this case, "La sala," "El niño en el árbol" and, perhaps, "El juramento."
The play tells the story of the child Michelín, caught between the liberationist ideals of his father and the materialistic, North-Americanized world of his mother. Although the play's various elements can be dichotomized between the two sides, and Michelín undoubtedly belongs on the freedom side, his position is really much more complex than would appear on the surface. The liberty for which Michelín struggles is that of the individual's right to his own unique identity. This child, however, is prevented from...
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SOURCE: "The Puerto Rican Woman in René Marqués' Drama," in Revista Chicano-Riqueña, Vol. XI, Nos. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1983, pp. 169-76.
[In the following essay, Griffin explores the female characters in Marqués's major dramatic works, particularly as they relate to the theme of national salvation.]
René Marqués is probably, after Hostos, the best known of all Puerto Rican authors, and certainly his country's leading playwright. Profoundly concerned with the problems of Puerto Rico, he made them the substance of his dramas. He saw these problems arising from the abandonment of cultural traditions and values, and traced them to the industrialization and modernization that transformed the island under the domination of the United States. His work constantly affirms the need for self-respect and the assertion of identity; no where is this more evident than in the presentation of the Puerto Rican woman in his dramas.
Under "Operation Bootstrap" foreign businesses and investments were attracted to the island during the 1950s and 1960s by tax exemptions and the promise of cheap labor. Hundreds of factories were established, tens of thousands of industrial workers were employed, new roads, housing developments and shopping complexes were created; a tremendous increase in annual production, average income and standard of living were attained. The government thus changed the face of Puerto...
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SOURCE: "La carreta: Virtual Space and Broken Rhythm," in Critica Hispánica, Vol. VII, No. 1, 1985, pp. 75-83.
[In the following essay, Reynolds examines the temporal movement, tempo, and use of lighting and scenery to create illusory space in La carreta.]
La carreta was the first of René Marqués' dramatic creations to bring him enthusiastic critical acclaim. Indeed, the well-respected critic María Teresa Babín has said that this play "is worthy of figuring among the best works of all of Latin American theatre." The fact that La carreta is one of the most-often performed of Marqués' works, speaks to its dramatic appeal and universality. The three-act play depicts the story of a rural Puerto Rican family, who, at the insistence of the older son, leaves the traditional way of life to search for better social and economic conditions in the mechanized, industrial life of the city. Each act corresponds respectively in time and place to: 1) the poor country shack in the mountains; 2) the makeshift hut in the San Juan district of La Perla; and 3) the sixth-floor walk-up apartment in the Bronx, New York.
The play derives its dynamism from the creation of virtual space which, in combination with the treatment of tempo, rhythm and chronological time, determines the play's forward movement while creating the tension of conflict through which the play communicates to the...
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SOURCE: "Marqués' La muerte no entrará en palacio and Dionysianism," in Latin American Theatre Review, Vol. 26, No. 1, Fall, 1992, pp. 43-53.
[In the following essay, Callan analyzes the mytho-psychological theme and symbolism of La muerte no entrará en palacio, drawing parallels with elements of Greek religion and drama.]
The protagonist don José, long-time governor of an island largely dependent on a foreign power, has grown rigid and dictatorial, forsaking his original goal of emancipation for the people. An attempt to overthrow him, inspired by the exiled revolutionary don Rodrigo, fails. The ruler's friend Teresias, José's wife Isabel, their daughter Casandra, and others exhort him in the interest of freedom not to sign a treaty with the northern power which would perpetuate its dominance of their country. The play ends with the governor's death by the hand of his daughter.
La muerte is a livre a clèf portraying twentieth-century politics in Puerto Rico. José, idealistic in youth but now domineering, is a substitute for Luis Muñoz Marín, the country's governor from 1948 to 1964, and the treaty to be signed by José suggests the 1952 agreement between the United States and Puerto Rico which established the present Commonwealth status. The revolutionary Rodrigo parallels Pedro Albizu Campos, a Nationalist leader in the '30s who was imprisoned in...
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Giner, Oscar. "Exorcisms." Theater 9, No. 3 (Summer 1978): 75-81.
Examines the impact of colonialism on artistic expression through a comparison of William Butler Yeats's Purgatory and Marqués's The Fanlights.
Holzapfel, Tamara. "The Theater of René Marqués: In Search of Identity and Form." In Dramatists in Revolt: The New Latin American Theater, edited by Leon F. Lyday and George W. Woodyard, pp. 146-66. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1976.
Surveys Marqués's major dramatic works, focusing on theme, style, and content.
Marquez, Roberto. "The Stuff of Fiction." The Nation 223, No. 22 (25 December 1976): 696-8.
Reviews the English translation of several works by distinguished Latin-American authors, including Marqués's The Docile Puerto Rican.
Martin, Eleanor J. "Caligula and La muerte no entrará en palacio: A Study in Characterization." Latin American Theatre Review 9, No. 2 (Spring 1976): 21-30.
Provides comparative analysis of characterization in Albert Camus's Caligula and Marqués's La muerte no entrará en palacio.
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