Other literary forms

(Survey of Novels and Novellas)

With the exception of the novel A.M.D.G., the major writings of Ramón Pérez de Ayala (PAY-rayz day ah-YAH-lah) are compiled in the four volumes of his Obras completas (1964), edited by J. García Mercadel. Pérez de Ayala’scanon shows that he was an author of varied talents and interests. Although he is best known for his novels, Pérez de Ayala began his career with the publication of a volume of poems, La paz del sendero (1904; the peace of the path). This was followed by two more poetry collections, El sendero innumerable (1916; the path of infinite variations) and El sendero andante (1921; the flowing path).

Pérez de Ayala was also a prolific essayist, contributing about one thousand articles to newspapers on topics ranging from literary criticism to politics and travel. Most of these essays were subsequently compiled and published.

Ramón Pérez de Ayala Achievements

(Survey of Novels and Novellas)

Ramón Pérez de Ayala’s accomplishments can best be summarized in terms of the attributes of the famed generación del 1898, or Generation of ’98, of which he is generally considered a member. Like most of the leading writers of this generation, he was active in the political as well as the literary arenas of his time, seeking radical changes in both and hoping to effect a cultural and literary renaissance in Spain. Accordingly, he excelled in writing essays on current political and cultural topics together with novels that had no less a goal than the improvement of the world. In these novels, he was able both to express and to transcend the circumstances of his time and place. Combining an intensely regional viewpoint with universal human concerns, Pérez de Ayala fused invention and philosophy in an artful rendering of reality. His greatest achievements in the novel derive from the classical vision that informs his work, transforming individuals into archetypes, local politics into universal motifs.

It is undoubtedly as a result of this vision that Pérez de Ayala’s novels have been translated into English, German, Japanese, Italian, French, Portuguese, and Swedish. Many of them have received a great deal of international critical attention and acclaim, particularly Belarmino and Apolonio, widely regarded as his best. Critics of Pérez de Ayala may note that he exposes the fictionality of his characters with the aplomb of Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo, ironically invites the reader to skip “superfluous” sections with no less technical dexterity than Julio Cortázar, and explores the boundary between dream and reality with the eloquence of Jorge Luis Borges. Pérez de Ayala received considerable recognition during his lifetime. He was awarded the Spanish National Prize for Literature for Tiger Juan in 1926, was elected to the Royal Spanish Academy in 1928, and was spoken of in that same year as a candidate for the Nobel Prize.

Ramón Pérez de Ayala Bibliography

(Survey of Novels and Novellas)

Best, Marigold. Ramón Pérez de Ayala: An Annotated Bibliography of Criticism. London: Grant & Cutler, 1980. A dated but useful resource for finding critical analyses of Pérez de Ayala’s work. Includes indexes.

Johnson, Roberta. “From the Generation of 1898 to the Vanguard.” In The Cambridge Companion to the Spanish Novel: From 1600 to the Present, edited by Harriet Turner and Adelaida López de Martínez. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Johnson includes a discussion of several of Pérez de Ayala’s novels in her analysis of Spanish literature in the early years of the twentieth century.

Longhurst, C. A. “Modernist Narrative in the 1920’s.” In The Cambridge History of Spanish Literature, edited by David T. Gies. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004. The novels of Pérez de Ayala are among the works examined in Longhurst’s discussion of modernist literature; this article places Pérez de Ayala within the broader context of Spanish literary history.

Macklin, John. “Constructing the ’98: Peréz de Ayala’s 1942 Prologue to Troteras y danzaderas.” In Spain’s 1898 Crisis: Regenerationism, Modernism, Post-Colonialism, edited by Joseph Harrison and Alan Hoyle. New York: Manchester University Press, 2000. In 1898, Spain was defeated in the Spanish...

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