Biography (Dictionary of World Biography: Twentieth Century)
Article abstract: Fuller heightened Americans’ awareness of how to employ natural resources to full advantage—a principle exemplified in his design of the geodesic dome.
Richard Buckminster Fuller was born on July 12, 1895, in Milton, Massachusetts. His parents were Richard Buckminster and Caroline Wolcott Andrews Fuller, both of prominent New England families. Mrs. Fuller’s ancestors included Roger Wolcott, a royal governor of Connecticut. Mr. Fuller’s family had arrived from England in the 1630’s; his aunt was the feminist and Transcendentalist, Margaret Fuller.
Buckminster Fuller’s father was a successful merchant of leather and tea. Young Fuller, or “Bucky” as the family called him, was one of four children. They enjoyed a comfortable childhood in Newton, Massachusetts, in a large house with servants. Fuller, however, had very poor eyesight; he was fitted with powerful glasses at age four and for the first time in his life saw clearly. He claimed to have been delighted at his wonderful new sense (he maintained that sense of delight throughout his life).
One of the boy’s early triumphs occurred when he was six and a kindergarten student. Given dried peas and toothpicks with which to sculpt, he constructed three squares that combined into eight triangles to complete his first tetrahedronal octet truss. He entered Milton Academy as a day student and did well in his studies, but not outstandingly so. His tenure at the academy was from 1904 to 1913.
Next, the young scholar entered Harvard, where he did not fare well. The snobbery of the all-important university clubs upset Fuller, more so because they had not accepted him. One of the reasons that the Harvard clubmen did not embrace Fuller was his unusual physical appearance. He was five feet, two inches tall with a head too large for his body. In addition, he wore extremely thick-lensed glasses, and because one leg was shorter than the other, he walked with a pronounced limp. He rebelled against his peers at Harvard by withdrawing his tuition money from his account while still in his first year; he spent it all in one night in New York City. His exploits that night included a lavish dinner for the cast of the Ziegfeld Follies. Fuller may have impressed his fellow students with this caper, but the Harvard administration was not amused, and he was expelled.
The Fuller family decided in 1914 to send him for several months to work in a relative’s textile mill in Sherbrooke, Canada. There, the young man served as an apprentice mechanic, gained the respect of his fellow workers, and was happy. His mother (his father was by then deceased) decided, however, that her son should have a formal university education, and so, he was sent back to Harvard. His second stay there was also a failure, and he was expelled for good in 1915.
Not all of Fuller’s early years were full of disappointments. His extended family summered each year at Bear Island, Maine, where he fell in love with boats and sailing. One of his first inventions was a push-pole to help propel his rowboat more efficiently than oars did. In 1917, when American involvement in World War I seemed imminent, Fuller entered the United States Naval Academy; there, he successfully completed an accelerated, three-month training period and was commissioned an ensign. This was an era during which the navy first began to fly airplanes into combat. In working with these new machines, Fuller was again inspired to invention. Seeing pilots drown in their cockpits when the airplanes flipped over in the water, Fuller devised a grappling hook, which hoisted downed airplanes quickly above the water while the pilot was pulled free.
Fuller was married to Anne Hewlett, the daughter of a prominent architect, on Rock Hall, Long Island, on July 12, 1917. Fuller then worked for a time for the Armour Meat Company and then the Kelly-Springfield Truck Company, but when his job was eliminated during the firm’s reorganization, Fuller was offered a position by his father-in-law, J. Monroe Hewlett. Hewlett had invented a new building material filled with fibrous centers and put it to commercial use, creating the Stockade Building System Company. In order to accept his job of managing his father-in-law’s company, Fuller, with his wife, moved to Chicago. Fuller did well in this firm from 1922 to 1927, until he ran into difficulty with the stockholders. Never interested in achieving high profits, Fuller had earned the distrust of the company hierarchy. His interest during these years had been in refining the product, but his superiors did not agree with his inclinations. Fuller’s lack of interest in accumulating wealth continued throughout his life; he usually requested that people hiring his architectural and engineering services only pay him the cost of erecting the structure.
Fuller and Anne suffered a tragedy during their early life together. After a series of grave illnesses, their firstborn child, Alexandra, died at age four. Grief-stricken by the girl’s death and by his business failure, Fuller fell into a period of heavy drinking and depression. He so despaired over the course of his life that he contemplated suicide. Instead, he began a two-year period of silence, seclusion, and meditation, during which he read widely and slept little.
From this period of intense contemplation, Fuller later claimed, he began to see the universe in new ways. He decided that he had to reeducate himself completely, that he would reject that which he could not prove to himself was true. He rejected traditional geometry, which concentrated on rectangles and planes, and substituted his own, which concentrated on triangles. From this new geometry, Fuller developed his geodesic dome—his best-known and most widely used invention. The geodesic dome has as its base numerous adjoining tetrahedrons. The alloy metals used to build the domes have high tensile strength by which force is dispersed away from the dome’s surface; the result is a maximum-strength...
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Biography (Cyclopedia of World Authors, Fourth Revised Edition)
Richard Buckminster Fuller, a self-described “design scientist,” believed that human beings, by using technology to transform the environment, could do anything they needed to do and become whatever they wanted to be. A descendant of a distinguished New England family, Fuller was born in the Boston suburb of Milton, Massachusetts, in 1895. The glasses that corrected his badly defective vision when he was four years old imbued him with positive feelings about technology that lasted a lifetime. For nine years he attended Milton Academy, where he excelled in science and mathematics but did poorly in such humanistic subjects as English and Latin. After his graduation in 1915, he, like five generations of Fullers before him, entered Harvard University, but unlike those men, who had become ministers, merchants, and politicians, he found his classes “chores” that crushed his spirit. He cut classes and deliberately got into trouble; consequently, he was expelled.
The Fuller family sent their son to work at a Canadian factory, and so successful was he as an apprentice mechanic that he got a second chance at Harvard, but he fell again into his maverick role and was “fired” (his word) in 1915. After working in a variety of jobs and after several unsuccessful attempts to enlist, Fuller was finally accepted into the Navy and sent to the Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland. Here he enthusiastically absorbed the practical scientific and technological education that Harvard had failed to provide. In the Navy he invented a seaplane rescue device that later earned him a special award. While in the Navy he also met and married Anne Hewlett, the eldest daughter of James Monroe Hewlett, a distinguished architect, mural painter, and stage designer.
Following his discharge in 1919, he rejoined the Armour meat-packing company, for whom he had worked before World War I. After three years with Armour, he became a sales manager for the Kelly-Springfield Trucking Company. Its bankruptcy led him into business with his father-in-law, who had invented a new kind of fibrous concrete building block. In 1922, not long after the start of the Stockdale Building Block Company, the Fullers’ four-year-old daughter, Alexandra, died of influenza. Devastated and despondent, Fuller developed a drinking problem, though he continued to work for his father-in-law’s company, whose success resulted in the construction of factories in the East and Midwest. When the fourth plant was built in Joliet, Illinois, in 1926, Fuller and his wife moved to Chicago, where Allegra, their second daughter, was born in 1927. Unfortunately, not long after this move, Hewlett lost control of his company and was forced to sell his shares of stock to a large business firm. Fuller, now jobless and with a wife and child to care for, hit what he later called the “rock-bottom point” of his life. Believing that he was ruined, he contemplated suicide one night on the shores of Lake Michigan, but he concluded that he had no right to eliminate himself, since he belonged to the universe, not to himself. He resolved to discover the basic principles of the universe and give them to his fellow human beings. During the “silent year” of 1928 that followed these deliberations, he stopped drinking and developed a program (called 4-D for four-dimensional) that promoted thinking in time instead of only in space—thinking of consequences for humanity instead of immediate personal gain. In his personal notes he reminded himself never to express his theoretical ideas in public until he had developed an actual invention to concretize them. Ultimately, he believed, machines could take over most work and humans could then devote themselves to devising ways of doing more with less.
In the middle period of Fuller’s life, from 1927 to 1946, he...
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Bibliography (Cyclopedia of World Authors, Fourth Revised Edition)
Close, G. W. R. Buckminster Fuller. Monticello, Ill.: Council of Planning Librarians, 1977. A comprehensive bibliography and an analytic introduction.
Hatch, Alden. Buckminster Fuller: At Home in the Universe. New York: Hatch, 1974. A personal biography by a longtime friend.
Kenner, Hugh. Bucky: A Guided Tour of Buckminster Fuller. New York: Morrow, 1973. Uses drawings, anecdotes, biographical analysis, and the tools of the literary critic to explain Fuller’s ideas to an audience untrained in technology.
McHale, John. R. Buckminster Fuller. New York: G. Braziller,...
(The entire section is 215 words.)