Qi Jiguang (Magill’s Guide to Military History)
Article abstract: Military significance: Helped stem the threat of piracy in the wake of the trade controls of 1523.
Born in Shandong, Qi Jiguang rose through the officer ranks with several successful actions against Japanese pirate forces, which were ravaging the coastal areas of China. His successes were noteworthy in a period of Chinese military decline, with simultaneous threats from the Portuguese, who established a base in Macao, in 1557; Japanese pirates, who attacked Nanjing, in 1555; the Mongols, who frequently threatened the great bend area of the Hwang Ho, in the 1540’s; and the Manchus, who began to consolidate their power in Manchuria after 1560. Forced into early retirement by illness, Qi wrote the classic Jixiao Xinshu (1571; practical guide to military training), which provided instruction on military organization, tactics, and the use of firearms. It also suggested a theory of military leadership known as the “military law of collective responsibility,” employed by Chiang Kai-shek in the twentieth century.
Goodrich, L. Carrington, and Chaoying Fang, eds. A Dictionary of Ming Biography: 1368-1644. New York: Columbia University Press, 1976.
Kierman, Frank A., Jr., and John K. Fairbank. Chinese Ways in Warfare. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1974.
So, Kwan-wai. Japanese Piracy in Ming China During the...
(The entire section is 228 words.)
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