The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia
The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia
The following entry presents criticism of Johnson's novel The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia (1759).
Rasselas remains one of the most popular works by the esteemed and prolific Johnson. Supposedly written in just seven days, Rasselas is alternately considered a novelistic rendering of the pessimism evinced in his poem The Vanity of Human Wishes (1749) or as an optimistic philosophical argument for the limitless potential of humankind. The ambiguous genre and tone of Rasselas, neither novel nor essay, neither moral tale nor satire, make it a crucial text in the history of both prose fiction and Enlightenment philosophy.
Johnson was born in Lichfield in 1709 to Sarah Ford and Michael Johnson, a bookseller. Though the young Johnson's formal schooling was cut short by his family's poverty, he continued to read extensively in his father's bookshop. He eventually developed a reputation in literary circles as a translator, commended by one of the greatest poets of the day, Alexander Pope. Johnson's first book, published anonymously in 1735, was a translation of the French Voyage to Abyssinia, by Father Jerome Lobo, an important historical source for Rasselas. That same year Johnson married, and with money from the marriage settlement opened a boarding school. When the school failed Johnson went to London, accompanied by a former student, David Garrick, who would soon become the most important actor of the eighteenth century. For the next twenty-five years Johnson worked as a journalist, initially writing for Gentleman's Magazine, and eventually launching his own publication, The Rambler, for which he wrote several essays exploring themes he would develop at greater length in Rasselas.
When Johnson's wife died in 1752, he ceased publishing The Rambler, working on his Dictionary, a project that firmly established his contemporary reputation. He also contributed essays to such periodicals as The Adventurer and The Universal Chronicle, the latter of which published his series of essays as "The Idler." In 1759, Johnson published Rasselas. His biographer James Boswell reported that Johnson wrote it hurriedly in the hope "that with the profits he might defray the expense of his mother's funeral and pay some little debts that she had left." Johnson requested that the book be published anonymously, although he assumed that its authorship would eventually be known. In 1764, he became a member of what would later be known as The Literary Club; other illustrious members included Edmund Burke, Oliver Goldsmith, Edward Gibbon, and Boswell. Johnson spent much of the last part of his life traveling, documented in A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland and other travel essays. In 1777, Johnson began writing biographical prefaces for editions of English poets; these were published together in 1781 as the ten-volume Lives of the English Poets, an important resource for scholars and, according to Johnson himself, one of his favorite writing projects. He died in 1784.
Johnson's literary output is substantial and encompasses a wide variety of genres. His first major poems were imitations of classical satire, a genre popular at the time, especially after Alexander Pope's imitations of Horatian epistles. London, an imitation of Juvenal's third satire, was a modest success in 1738. In it Johnson attacked the prime minister Horace Walpole and denounced the poverty and corruption that afflicted lower-class Londoners, such as Johnson himself Though his work was favorably compared with that of Pope, Johnson did not continue writing poetry; instead, he turned to journalism and essays, not publishing his second major poem until 1749. Entitled The Vanity of Human Wishes (in Imitation of the Tenth Satire of Juvenal), the popular, well-received poem details the futility of human pursuits, deflating the hopes and ambitions of monarchs, soldiers, and scholars alike, and points toward the miserable deaths of those most successful in life. The year 1749 also saw the production of Johnson's only drama, Irene. His former student Garrick produced the play as the manager of the Drury Lane theatre, but by most accounts the production was not a great success. In 1747, Johnson had proposed to the Earl of Chesterfield the necessity of a dictionary of the English language; Johnson subsequently spent the early part of the 1750s working on the project, finally completing the forty-thousand-word volume in 1755. Such authors as John Dryden, Jonathan Swift, and Pope himself had long complained about the rapid, uncontrolled innovations in English grammar and vocabulary; Johnson's attempt to gather together the many variances in the language and to bend the lexicon to the authority of classical precedent made him an instant literary hero. He also continued writing his moral essays for The Adventurer, The Literary Magazine, and The Universal Chronicle; his review of Soame Jenyns' A Free Inquiry into the Nature and Origin of Evil, published in 1757, is among his most famous. Two years later, when Rasselas was published, it was virtually assured success based on the identity of its popular author. The book went through several editions in its first year and eventually inspired a sequel, penned by the daughter of one of Johnson's friends, entitled Dinarbas (1790), which enjoyed short-term popularity and eight printings due to its connection to Johnson's highly esteemed work. Rasselas tells the story of the title character, the eponymous prince of Abyssinia (or Ethiopia), and his growing dissatisfaction with the unceasing pleasures of his utopian home in the Happy Valley. According to Ethiopian tradition, the children of royalty were confined to an edenic valley, secluded from the harsh realities of the outside world. Happy Valley, though, rather than being seen as a paradise by Rasselas, is instead considered by him to be a prison, harboring boredom and tediousness. So Rasselas, accompanied by his teacher Imlac, his sister Nekayah, and her lady-in-waiting Pekuah, escapes his idyllic homeland to experience the outside world and search out the one way of life most likely to lead to lasting happiness on earth. After a series of comic misadventures, brushes with danger, and repeated disappointments, the travelers determine that, in the words of Nekayah, "the choice of life is become less important; I hope hereafter to think only on the choice of eternity."
Johnson's next major project was an edition of Shakespeare's plays (1765), generally considered by critics as the best edition of Shakespeare that had yet been published, and distinguished by Johnson's prior work as a lexicographer and his very personal, opinionated commentary on the plays. Johnson also remained a staunch critic of English politics, publishing a series of controversial essays, many supporting the policies of his friend M. P. Henry Thrale, Hester Thrale's husband before Piozzi. Johnson's attack on American colonists in Taxation No Tyranny (1775) is especially blistering; in it he mocked their pretensions to "freedom of conscience" and condemned the hypocrisy of slave-holders fighting for "liberty." The pamphlet won him an honorary doctorate from Oxford. His last major work published during his lifetime was the impressive biographical scholarship in Lives of the English Poets, published collectively in 1781. His Prayers and Meditations, a reflection of his sincere and searching practice of Christianity, was published in 1785, within a year of his death.
Rasselas was published to general acclaim: although it must be acknowledged that many early reviewers were friends and admirers of Johnson, their praise is validated by the generations of later critics who have also held the book in high esteem. Early commentary, particularly from Johnson's first biographers, focused on the work's reflection of Johnson's personal life and beliefs; Boswell, for example, noted that the "gloomy picture" Johnson painted in Rasselas was possibly a result of Johnson's own "melancholy constitution." Sir Walter Raleigh, too, called the work "the most melancholy of fables." The dark nature of Rasselas is a point of concern even for those who admire the book, and the debate over whether the work is finally optimistic or pessimistic has continued throughout its entire critical history. Closely linked to this argument is the debate over the moral value of Rasselas. Boswell, for instance, stated that Johnson emphasized the vanity of life on earth in order to instruct mankind to look to eternal life for happiness. In this way, according to Boswell, Johnson offered his readers hope that, rather than like "beasts who perish," humankind could achieve everlasting happiness through their immortality. Indeed, in the view of many commentators, Rasselas presents an essentially moral and Christian outlook, with its emphasis on the afterlife rather than on temporal concerns. Many modern critics, however, have seen Rasselas as neither moral nor optimistic but simply as a form of entertainment. Claiming that Johnson himself did not direct his readers to consider the moral value of his work, Duane H. Smith has asserted that the author knowingly offered Rasselas as merely a form of amusement for his audience. Commenting also on Rasselas as a form of diversion, Catherine N. Parke has focused on the "psychology of boredom" as evidenced in the piece. According to Parke, Johnson saw "historical thinking"—the ability to look beyond the immediate present to the past—as a way for a bored mind to express and stimulate itself. Looking at the power of the human imagination in the work, Walter Jackson Bate, too, has studied how Rasselas exhibits a typical Johnsonian investigation into the "human craving for 'novelty'." According to Bate, the title character, though all his wants and needs are fulfilled in Happy Valley, desires a life where unsatisfied needs would force him into activity to stimulate his unoccupied mind.
The style and genre of Rasselas has also remained a point of critical contention. Raleigh included it in his history of the English novel, despite its distinctly unnovel-like characterization and structure; Sheridan Baker has called it an ironic adaptation of oriental romance; and more recent critics, such as James F. Woodruff, have considered it a variation on classical satire. Other modem critics have labeled it a philosophical discourse, a comedy, a philosophical romance, and a quest romance, among other classifications. The structure of Rasselas has also prompted critical discussions. Refuting the claims of many earlier critics who found Rasselas "structureless" with no beginning, middle, or end, Gwin J. Kolb has argued that the structure of Rasselas, in the form of a tale, is vital to its message, or "thesis"—that happiness is not achievable in earthly life but is attainable in eternal life. Other twentieth-century critics have continued this focus on Rasselas as a literary achievement. Commenting on Rasselas as a work of art rather than as a philosophical piece, Emrys Jones has maintained that Rasselas shows Johnson's wit and artistic power, particularly in its "inconclusive conclusion." In Jones's view, there can be no ending to the work because life itself cannot be contained within a neat literary piece. Critics have been virtually unanimous, however, in acknowledging Johnson's acute perception of the nature of life andthe capacity of the human soul in Rasselas. Marlene R. Hansen has praised Johnson's positive, progressive portrayal of the equality of women, and several scholars—including J. P. Hardy, Carey McIntosh, and Robert Walker—have noted Johnson's emphasis on the need for hope.
SOURCE: "The Novels of the Eighteenth Century," in The English Novel: A Short Sketch of Its History from the Earliest Times to the Appearance of "Waverly", John Murray, 1894, pp. 180-215.
[In the following excerpt, Raleigh considers whether Rasselas belongs to the novel genre.]
The contributions of Johnson and Goldsmith to prose fiction are examples of pure eighteenth-century work. It was in the year 1759, some months before the publication of the earliest instalment of Tristram Shandy, that the great Cham descended into the arena of the novelists with his moral apologue called The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia. His immediate object in writing it was, as the printer told Boswell, "that with the profits he might defray the expense of his mother's funeral and pay some little debts that she had left." There could be no doubt that a novel by the great lexicographer would be eagerly bought by the public, and, in seeking for a framework for his story, it is possible that Johnson was directed to Abyssinia by the memory of his labours, twenty-five years earlier, on the translation of Father Lobo's Voyage to Abyssinia. However this may be, the theme of the story was all his own. The natural gloom of his temperament, deepened by the sadness of the occasion, finds fuller and stronger expression in Rasselas than in the poem that treats the same subject, The Vanity of...
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SOURCE: "The Structure of Rasselas," in PMLA, Vol. LXVI, No. 5, September, 1951, pp. 698-717.
[In the following essay, Kolb discusses the relationship of structure to meaning in Rasselas. Kolb argues that Johnson's story is structurally distinct from the generic eighteenth-century oriental tale, and suggests that the common practice of viewing Rasselas as an oriental tale is misleading and results in an incomplete understanding of the work.]
In beginning a discussion of the structure of Rasselas one need not spend much time clearing the ground of previous arguments before advancing one's own. What the new commentator must face—and this is perhaps more disturbing than arguments would be—is the almost universal opinion1 that Rasselas has only the slightest structure and that the little it does have results from Johnson's not too successful effort to write an ordinary novel or "oriental tale."2 The narrative is "episodic," unimportant, dull, say some critics; the ending concludes nothing, the work merely stops. The action—and some of the characters—say others,3 lack dramatic power. At the same time that they thus observe, either directly or indirectly, the tale's failure to conform to their notions of what the structure should be, most commentators recognize a fundamental difference between Johnson's piece...
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SOURCE: "The Hunger of Imagination," in The Achievement of Samuel Johnson, Oxford University Press, 1955, pp. 63-91.
[In the following essay, Bate, a leading scholar of the eighteenth century, explores Johnson's view of the mind as a aspect of the human organism that should be constantly stimulated and diverted with intellectual pursuits and conscious reflection.]
In Rasselas, the little group, which has been traveling about in search of a fuller understanding of human nature and destiny, is taken by the philosopher, Imlac, to see the pyramids. Neither Rasselas nor his sister is excited by the prospect of the visit. They state, rather pretentiously, that their 'business is with man'—with human manners and customs—not with 'piles of stones' or 'fragments of temples.' Imlac replies that in order to know anything we must also know the products and traces it leaves behind: to understand men, we must see what they did 'that we maylearn what reason has dictated or passion incited, and find what are the most powerful motives of action. To judge rightly of the present, we must oppose it to the past; for all judgment is comparative …' The travelers enter the Great Pyramid, and descend to the tomb. As they sit to rest awhile before returning, Imlac, in an altogether Johnsonian way, starts to speculate why the pyramid was ever built in the first place, and why a king, 'whose power is...
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SOURCE: "Rasselas Returns—To What?," in Philological Quarterly, Vol. XXXVIII, No. 3, July, 1959, pp. 383-84.
[In the following essay, Sherburn argues that, contrary to the assumption of earlier critics, Rasselas and his party do not end their journey with an optimistic return to the Happy Valley. Instead, according to Sherburn, the travellers return to Abissinia only to find the Happy Valley closed to them forever.]
Since Rasselas is this year two hundred years old, it is natural for us all to write about it. But it is painful to find people misinterpreting one important fact of the work. In Philological Quarterly for January, 1959, William Kenney optimistically represents the travellers, Rasselas, Imlac, et al. as returning improved, and even hopeful, to the Happy Valley. Such an interpretation—and Kenney is not alone in the error—is totally unwarranted and contrary to Dr. Johnson's intention. The travellers return to Abissinia, but not under the circumstances represented. They do not return to the Happy Valley.
The abrupt conclusion of the book is carefully prepared for in its first chapters. In Chapter I Dr. Johnson tells us that "those, on whom the iron gate [of the Valley] had once closed, were never suffered to return" (Chapman ed. , p. 10). Added preparation for an unhappy ending is found in Chapters VIII to XII in which Imlac tells of his...
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SOURCE: "The Artistic Form of Rasselas," in The Review of English Studies, n.s., Vol. XVIII, No. 72, November, 1967, pp. 387-401.
[In the following essay, Jones argues that a three-part structure, rather than the usual division of Rasselas into two unequal parts, reflects more accurately Johnson's original intent for this work.]
Johnson's powers as a poet are more readily appreciated than they were fifty years ago. But the artistry of Rasselas is still too little recognized. The traditional reading of the book speaks of it as a species of sober discourse, and finds its unity—if it has one—in its mood or temper, that of a philosophical pessimism. To approach Rasselas in terms of its apparent sentiments may be misleading; for where a work has the degree of organization that, I suggest, may be found in Rasselas, the bearing of its statements cannot be clear until their context is ascertained. The tone of Rasselas will be misunderstood, in fact, if its artistic form is neglected.
'That most melancholy of fables' is how Walter Raleigh described Rasselas. That is all he had to say about it in his book on Johnson,' and in using such a phrase he was no doubt assenting to the traditional way of reading it. The gloom of Rasselas has long been a critical commonplace. Boswell's short account of it in the...
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SOURCE: "More Light on Rasselas: The Background of the Egyptian Episodes," in Philological Quarterly, Vol. XLVIII, No. 1, January, 1969, pp. 42-58.
[In the following essay, Weitzman identifies sources Johnson probably used for the Egyptian settings in Rasselas, arguing that the sources reflect Johnson's intent in incorporating Cairo, the pyramids, and other Eastern elements into his story. The critic adds that sources further support the hypothesis that Johnson did not simply compose Rasselas in seven days without any prior preparation, as is often claimed.]
Recent scholarly investigations of Johnson's Rasselas have tended to focus on the Abyssinian setting of the tale to the neglect of the second half of the book, the Egyptian setting. In the past two decades numerous articles' have appeared detailing the sources which Johnson either consulted for the Abyssinian portion of the tale or recollected from memory in the week Boswell claimed2 Johnson wrote Rasselas. In a recent study Donald Lockhart made an exhaustive survey of the accounts of Ethiopia which Johnson conceivably may have consulted in order to describe the Happy Valley. Lockhart's very close examination of all pre-1759 descriptive works and histories of Ethiopia led him to the conclusion that Johnson's sources were so numerous and so accurately utilized as to invalidate Boswell's implication that...
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SOURCE: "Rasselas and the Traditions of 'Menippean Satire'," in Samuel Johnson: New Critical Essays, edited by Isobel Grundy, Vision Press and Barnes & Noble, 1984, pp. 158-85.
[In the following essay, Woodruff considers Rasselas within the context of classical satiric traditions, suggesting that such a view makes clearer Johnson's efforts to create a Christian philosophy founded on realism.]
As Carey McIntosh has pointed out, Rasselas is 'the most problematic' of Johnson's narrative works.' Disagreement exists about its genre and about the effect of its style, moral, structure, plot and characterization. My aim is to suggest a context of discussion that I hope will contribute to the clarification of at least some of these controversies.
Most of the extensive and valuable discussion of the literary backgrounds of Rasselas has been in a biblical or relatively modem context. Occasionally Cicero and the Stoics are cited, but, as far as I am aware, the book has rarely been associated with ancient literary traditions. Earl R. Wasserman, however, has connected Rasselas with two Greek allegories, well known in the eighteenth century if not today: Prodicus's Choice of Hercules and the Tablet of Cebes.2 Wasserman uses his suggestion to work out implications of a fundamental insight about Rasselas and its period: 'the...
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SOURCE: "Sex and Love, Marriage and Friendship: A Feminist Reading of the Quest for Happii;iess in Rasselas," in English Studies, Vol. 6, 1985, pp. 513-25.
[In the following essay, Hansen argues that Johnson portrays friendship as the way to happiness in Rasselas. Hansen also suggets that Johnson's depiction of friendship suggests his view that women and men share an equal humanity.]
In this article I intend to argue that happiness is not shown to be unobtainable in Rasselas, although it is not connected with any particular way of life. Happiness arises from friendship, that is, from equal and affectionate relationships, which may break down the barriers of social, generational and gender differences. I call it a feminist reading because I place special emphasis on the role played by the female characters, whom I examine in relation to the preconceptions of eighteenth century literature and the contemporary attitudes. It will be seen that my methods are eclectic: I start with a thematic analysis of the text and proceed to a consideration of current ideas about the nature of women, ending up with some remarks on Johnson's own attitudes to women.
Rasselas is not a sexy book. There is not even much romantic interest; and perhaps only the force of Johnson's prose style keeps us from finding it incongruous that the search for happiness circumvents any serious...
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SOURCE: "Rasselas and the Conversation of History," in The Age of Johnson: A Scholarly Annual, Vol. 1, edited by Paul J. Korshin, AMS Press, Inc., 1987, pp. 79-109.
[In the following essay, Parke proposes that in Rasselas, Johnson elaborated on the thesis that history—as a reflection on the past and an awareness of the continuity of time—is both the antidote to life's natural boredom and a precondition for understanding the future.]
The travellers who escape from the Happy Valley to make their world tour in search of the happy choice of life experience on their trip many feelings: terror, disappointment, pleasure, curiosity, suspicion, perplexity, grief, sympathy, joy. But markedly absent, and notably so both in the context of life in the Happy Valley and the subsequent motive of their escape, is the feeling of boredom. And thus their journey in this basic sense, despite its disappointments, succeeds. The psychology of boredom, its meaning and antidotes, is central to an understanding of Johnson's distinctive approach as critic and moralist to literature and to life. Aspects of this psychology of boredom in Rasselas, particularly "the hunger of the imagination" that can never be satisfied by finite earthly activity, have been richly considered by several Johnsonians.' And this subject repays our returning to consider it again when a new angle strikes us as...
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SOURCE: "The Narrative Architecture of Rasselas," in The Age of Johnson: A Scholarly Annual, Vol. 3, edited by Paul J. Korshin, AMS Press, Inc., 1990, pp. 91-111.
[In the following essay, Braverman examines the significance of architectural structures as well as interior and spiritual spaces in Rasselas.]
More than twenty years ago, Paul Fussell noted the prevalence of architectural imagery in the writing of the major Augustan humanists. Writers from Swift to Burke, he observed, had found in the "architectural image-system" a way of expressing "the role of forethought, arrangement, will, and order in the self-construction of the human imagination …" Fussell went on from there to suggest that
If we could learn to pay less attention to what eighteenth-century writers say they are doing and more to what they actually do, I think we should find that instead of being devoted to the Horatian formula ut pictura poesis, as they sometimes say they are, they really are much more profoundly committed to thepremise ut architectura poesis.1
Given the prevalence of the "architectural image-system" in what Fussell termed the "rhetorical world" of the major Augustan writers, it is not surprising that architectural monuments find an important place in Samuel Johnson's Rasselas. In this work, Johnson's best known...
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SOURCE: "Repetitive Patterns in Samuel Johnson's Rasselas," in Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900, Vol. 36, No. 3, Summer, 1996, pp. 623-39.
[In the following essay, Smith examines the use and function of repetitive narrative structures in Rasselas.]
Ye who would listen with credulity to the whispers of fancy, and pursue with eagemess the phantoms of hope; who expect that age will perform the promises of youth, and that the deficiencies of the present day will be supplied by the morrow; attend to the history of Rasselas prince of Abissinia.
Thus, Samuel Johnson begins The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia, raising the expectation that attention to thenarrative which follows will somehow dispel "the whispers of fancy," "the phantoms of hope," or help one to understand whether "the deficiencies of the present day will be supplied by the morrow."' Whether and how the narrative actually does this has been debated almost ever since. On the one side, James Boswell argues that Rasselas "leads us through the most important scenes of human life, and shews us that this stage of our being is full of 'vanity and vexations of spirit"' and that "Johnson meant, by shewing the unsatisfactory nature of things temporal, to direct the hopes of man to things eternal."2 On the other hand, Johnson's earlier biographer, Sir John...
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Clifford, James L., and Donald J. Greene. "Rasselas and Other Prose Fiction." In Samuel Johnson: A Survey and Bibliography of Critical Studies, pp. 225-33. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1970.
Includes a bibliography of primary editions of Rasselas and secondary sources.
Baker, Sheridan. "Rasselas: Psychological Irony and Romance." Philological Quarterly 45, No. I (January 1966): 249-61.
Examines Rasselas as an ironic form of the popular eighteenth-century genre of oriental romance, suggesting that it reflects Johnson's ironic views of human nature.
Chapman, R. W. Introduction to The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia: A Tale by Samuel Johnson, pp. ix-xxi. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1927.
Provides a thorough textual history of Rasselas, including the circumstances under which it was written.
Hardy, J. P. "Rasselas." In Samuel Johnson: A Critical Study, pp. 127-48. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979.
Offers an essentially positive reading of Rasselas, finding that the repeated diversions and constant motion of the narrative reflect the need for both hope and continuous movement in human life.
Joost, Nicholas. "Whispers of Fancy; or, The...
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