Polydore Vergil 1470?-1555
Italian historian and nonfiction writer.
Vergil is best remembered for his Anglica historia (1532), the first account of English history to combine narrative with critical analysis. Although some of Vergil's conclusions—especially his conviction that King Arthur was little more than a fable—shocked contemporary English readers, the Anglica historia quickly became one of the most influential English histories, earning him the title “father of English history.” Vergil's greatest contemporary fame, however, came not from the Anglica historia but from his De inventoribus rerum (1499), an inventory of historical “firsts” that has no modern literary equivalent. Covering a wide array of subjects, De inventoribus rerum seeks to establish which individual or civilization first invented such things as writing, drama, music, painting, and weaponry; Vergil's commentary, often critical of Christian practice, caused De inventoribus rerum to be banned by Vatican officials. Modern students of English literature often learn about Vergil's Anglica historia because of its profound influence on Edward Hall, whose histories form the basis of several of Shakespeare's plays.
Very little is known about Vergil's early life and education. He was born near Urbino, Italy, probably around 1470, into a prominent and well-educated family. He attended universities in Padua and Bologna, and in 1496 he was ordained a priest and named to serve as chamberlain in Pope Alexander VI's chancery. Over the next three years, Vergil published three books: Cornucopiae latinae linguae (1496), an edition of Nicholas Perotti's grammatical commentary; Proverbiorum libellus (1498), a collection of ancient and classical proverbs and adages; and the first edition of De inventoribus rerum. These works gained Vergil scholastic respect as well as the patronage of Adriano Castelli, an influential church official who would eventually rise to the rank of cardinal. In 1502 Castelli brought Vergil to England, where he was welcomed by King Henry VII as a visiting scholar. In 1505, at Henry's request, Vergil began to research and write a comprehensive history of England. Vergil earned his living in a variety of ecclesiastical positions, most importantly as archdeacon of Wells. In 1510 Vergil was naturalized as an English subject. For most of the remainder of his life, Vergil lived quietly, writing his Anglica historia, updating and expanding his collections of adages and first inventors, composing original dialogues, and translating works by the sixth-century historian Gildas and the Christian saint John Chrysostom. He returned to his native Urbino shortly before his death in 1555.
Most of Vergil's literary output is all but forgotten. Even his Proverbiorum libellus, which in its final 1550 edition had been expanded to include over 700 sacred and nearly 400 profane proverbs and adages, has been relegated to a literary footnote, being overshadowed by Desiderius Erasmus's similar work, Adagia (1500). Today, critical commentary focuses almost exclusively on the two works that made Vergil's literary reputation: De inventoribus rerum and Anglica historia.
When De inventoribus rerum was first published in 1499, it included three books of research on the persons or civilizations most likely responsible for first inventing almost any conceivable art or scientific technology, as well as secular and religious institutions. In 1521 Vergil expanded the work by an additional five volumes devoted to the origins of Christian rites and practices. In 1525 a third edition appeared which included Vergil's commentary on the Lord's Prayer. More than merely a catalog of names, dates, and places, De inventoribus rerum also contains commentary, some of it highly critical of how Christian customs and institutions had evolved since the early days of the Church. Despite Vergil's attempt at objectivity, he repeatedly comes to the conclusion that the civilization Moses founded is superior to all others.
The research and writing of Anglica historia was a time-consuming process, and Vergil did not finish a first draft of the work for eight years. The work circulated in manuscript form until it was formally published in 1532. Tracing the history of England from the earliest recorded events until the reign of Henry VII in 1509, the work was published in three parts. The third and most influential part is divided into chapters, or “books,” each one devoted to the reign of an individual king, expressing Vergil's conviction that the actions of the royal head of state were the most important determinant of a country's fate. In 1546 a second edition of the history was published, which concentrated more on the importance of London's growth and influence. A final edition in 1555 updated the history through the reign of Henry VIII, to whom the work was dedicated. It is in this final edition that Vergil's personal opinions are most notable, especially his angry portrayal of Chancellor Thomas Wolsey, against whom Vergil likely harbored personal as well as political animosities.
Vergil's enduring literary reputation lies almost exclusively with his Anglica historia, widely considered to be the first historical narrative of English history that combined literary flourishes with careful, scholarly research. Though much of the information Vergil's history provides has since been discounted, Vergil continues to be credited with first expressing doubt in the historical reality of Brutus, then known as the first Briton, and King Arthur. Literary critics have often noted the importance of Vergil's history on Shakespeare's historical dramas; though Shakespeare did not read Vergil directly, the information he used, and more importantly the interpretations he came to about various English kings and leading figures, were supplied to the playwright through his reading of Hall's translation of large sections of the Anglica historia. The vast preponderance of modern critical analysis of the Anglica historia focuses on whether or not the work should be viewed as Tudor propaganda. Although most critics have concluded that Vergil's history celebrates the reigns of Henry VII and Henry VIII, more than a few have argued that a careful reading of the final chapters reveals Vergil's subtle criticism of contemporary monarchs whom he could not afford to openly oppose. Nearly all agree, however, that the work, though not as original or engaging as others, should be applauded for its exhaustive research and early attempt at historical objectivity, both vital to the evolution of modern historiography. While modern critical attention as well as debate over Vergil's literary influence has been dominated by the Anglica historia, several scholars have attempted to keep Vergil's De inventoribus rerum from being forgotten. These critics most often note the great popularity of Vergil's work, which for nearly 200 years was considered the most authoritative collection of its kind. They argue that although literary figures such as Miguel de Cervantes ridiculed its storehouse of knowledge, it was a work that was known to most writers into the eighteenth century. De inventoribus rerum is seen as one of the earliest works to express the humanist belief in the advances of humankind, to show the progression of technology and medicine, and to compare religious traditions. Although the information it supplies remains of little interest today, modern critics praise the De inventoribus rerum, much as they do Anglica historia, as a work of long-lasting influence.
Cornucopiae latinae linguae [editor] (nonfiction) 1496
Proverbiorum libellus [editor] (proverbs) 1498; revised and enlarged, 1521
De inventoribus rerum libri tres [Beginnings and Discoveries] (nonfiction) 1499; revised as De inventoribus rerum libri octo, 1521; expanded 1525
De calamitate, excidio, et conquestu Britanniae [editor; with Robert Ridley] (history) 1525
Dialogorum de prodigiis libri tres [with Ridley] (dialogues) 1531
Anglica historia (history) 1532; revised as Anglicae historiae libri viginti sex, ab ipso autore … regoniti 1546; revised as Anglicae historiae libri viginti septum 1555
Comparatio regii potentates et divitiarum [translator] (nonfiction) 1533
Dialogorum libri (dialogues) 1545
Dialogorum de prodigiis (dialogues) 1545
(The entire section is 83 words.)
SOURCE: Hay, Denys. Introduction to Polydore Vergil: Renaissance Historian and Man of Letters, pp. vii-xiii. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1952.
[In the following excerpt, Hay argues that several of Vergil's works, notably his Anglica historia and De Inventoribus rerum, have had an influence on a large body of literature and thought.]
[Polydore Vergil's] importance in the development of English historiography has been evident since C. L. Kingsford's English Historical Literature in the Fifteenth Century was published in 1913. The basic authority of the Anglica Historia for the events of Henry VII's reign was established by W. Busch in the first (and only) volume of his history of England under the Tudors, which appeared in German in 1892 and in English three years later. A very little investigation shows that the Anglica Historia not only determined to a great extent the form which later histories of the Tudor period were to take, but influenced the treatment of the English past as a whole for many generations. Nor was this influence merely formal. The substance of Vergil's analysis, as well as the structure of his work, informed nearly all later histories. It is true that in his own day Englishmen were anxious to condemn his sceptical attitude to Brutus and Arthur and that by the seventeenth century more precise scholarship was replacing his account of Dark Age and early...
(The entire section is 1717 words.)
SOURCE: Hanham, Alison. “Polydore Vergil, the Second Italian.” In Richard III and His Early Historians, 1483-1535, pp. 125-47. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975.
[In this essay, Hanham analyzes Vergil's description of the reign of Richard III in Anglica historia to show what sources most influenced Vergil's writing, how the author subtly expressed his own political views, and why Vergil, and not Thomas More, should be credited with writing the first English literary history.]
Polydore Vergil was already a scholar of international standing when he came to England in 1502. With the encouragement of Henry VII he undertook to write a history of England, and after some twelve years of research he produced a first complete draft which went up as far as September 1513.1 He subsequently added and altered material, and the work seems to have circulated in manuscript, as one would expect, before the first edition was published at Basle in 1534.2 The beauty and elegance of this volume, a remarkable contrast to the homely black-letter prints produced in England at the time, appropriately symbolize the difference in quality between Vergil and the English chroniclers discussed in the last chapter.
There is no need to detail Vergil's considerable merits as a historian in general: the ground has been ably covered by Professor Denys...
(The entire section is 9282 words.)
SOURCE: Weiss, Bruno, and Louis C. Pérez. “Introduction: Polydore's Life and Works.” In Beginnings and Discoveries: Polydore Vergil's De Inventoribus rerum, pp. 5-25. Nieuwkoop, Netherlands: De Graaf Publishers, 1997.
[In the excerpt below, Weiss and Pérez discuss the diversity of topics found in De inventoribus rerum, which for many years had been considered Vergil's greatest achievement.]
Polydore Vergil was born around 1470, most likely in the Castle of Fermignano where his father owned land and property. Fermignano was located near the city of Urbino with which the Vergili family had a long connection. We come to the conclusion that 1470 was the year of his birth from Polydore's preface to his 1496 critical edition of Nicolò Perotti's Cornucopiae in which he is identified as a priest: at the time, one could not become a priest before age 25, hence he must have been born by 1470. His grandfather Antonio, very learned in medicine and astrology, had taught at the University of Paris and was associated with the Montefeltri, Dukes of Urbino. Giorgio, Polydore's father, following the footsteps of his own parent, established a pharmacy in Fermignano, a town renown for the production of paper used by scribes and authors—perhaps an omen for the future writer. Giorgio had four sons: Giovanni Matteo, Girolamo, Giovanni Francesco and Polydore. Matteo, a student of the Aristotelian...
(The entire section is 7405 words.)
Cespedes, Frank V. “The Final Book of Polydore Vergil's ‘Anglica Historia’: ‘Persecution and the Art of the Writing.’” Medieval and Renaissance Studies 10 (1979): 375-96.
Argues that Vergil's section on Henry VIII is full of careful irony.
Copenhaver, Brian P. “The Historiography of Discovery in the Renaissance: The Source and Composition of Polydore Vergil's De Inventoribus Rerum, I-III.” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 41 (1978): 192-214.
Argues that Vergil's De inventoribus rerum is remarkable for its scope and use of diverse historical sources.
Ellis, Henry. Preface to Three Books of Polydore Vergil's English History, Comprising the Reigns of Henry VI, Edward IV, and Richard III, edited by Sir Henry Ellis, pp. i-xxx. 1844. Reprint. Westport, Conn.: AMS Press, 1968.
Provides a biographical sketch of Vergil's life and a discussion of his most important writings.
Ferguson, John. “Notes on the Work of Polydore Vergil: ‘De Inventorius Rerum.’” Isis 17, no. 1 (January 1932): 375-96.
Offers a broad overview of Vergil's life and writing, drawing special attention to De inventoribus rerum.
Hammond, William. Introduction to Polydori Vergilii de Rerum Inventoribus,...
(The entire section is 378 words.)