Beaumarchais, Pierre-Augustin Caron de
Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais 1732–-1799
French playwright and essayist.
Beaumarchais is considered one of the greatest playwrights of eighteenth-century France. Working in a period of stylistic transition, he effectively synthesized elements of Molière's comedy of manners, Italian commedia dell' arte, and the ideas of Denis Diderot concerning the drame bourgeois. Although such early plays as Eugénie (1767; The School forRakes) and Les Deux amis; ou, Le Négociant de Lyon (1770; The Two Friends; or, the Liverpool Merchant), both derivative of Diderot's dramas, are rarely performed, Le Barbier de Séville; ou, La Précaution inutile (1775; The Barber of Seville, or The Useless Precaution) and, above all, La Folle Journée; ou, Le mariage de Figaro (1784; The Follies of a Day; or, The Marriage of Figaro) are considered masterpieces of the comedic genre and are frequently produced. Renowned for their ingenious plot construction, assured pacing, and clever dialogue, both are presided over by the celebrated comic persona of Figaro, whose penetrating intelligence epitomized the critical spirit of the age.
Beaumarchais was born Pierre-Augustin Caron in Paris on January 24, 1732, the son of a clockmaker. He was educated at the Ecole d'Alfort to age thirteen, then apprenticed to his father. He was presented at court in 1754 and consolidated his position at Versailles in 1755 when he bought an annuity from a retiring court official. The following year, he married the official's widow, who died in 1757, leaving him a small property from which he derived the name Beaumarchais. An increasingly influential figure at court, he became the music instructor to the daughters of the King. During this period he befriended Joseph Paris-Duverney, a powerful banker who invited Beaumarchais into the world of finance. Through Duverney's assistance, in 1761 Beaumarchais purchased the title of Secretaire du Roi, which conferred legal status of hereditary nobility. Beaumarchais visited Spain from 1764 to 1766, where he attended court and pursued financial negotiations on behalf of Duverney.
Capitalizing on his well-received skill at writing parades, short comic sketches, for friends, Beaumarchais began writing a full-length drama. For almost a decade he planned his play Eugénie before concluding it upon his return from Spain; it was first performed by the Comedie Français, the national theatre, in 1767. His next play, The Two Friends, was performed first in January 1770 although it was not well received, closing after ten performances. Beaumarchais was involved in a series of highly controversial court cases in the 1770s, and consequently his influence at Versailles in the final years of Louis XV greatly diminished. With the accession of Louis XVI in 1774, however, his fortunes rapidly improved; he even served as a government agent in 1774-75, providing aid to American forces during the early phases of the Revolutionary War. Also in 1775 he produced The Barber of Seville, and in 1784 his masterpiece, The Marriage of Figaro, which enjoyed an extraordinary success at the Théâtre de la Comédie Française. The third Figaro play, L'Autre Tartuffe; ou, La Mère coupable (Frailty and Hypocrisy), was less popular when it was produced in 1792. Throughout this period, Beaumarchais continued to revise his plays to increase their popular appeal and to conform with the censors' demands. Although Beaumarchais initially welcomed the meeting of the Estates-General in Paris in 1789, the increasingly radical course of the French Revolution made his position extremely precarious, and he was arrested in 1792, narrowly escaping the September massacres. Beaumarchais subsequently fled to England and Holland before settling in Germany as an émigré; meanwhile his family was imprisoned and his properties alienated to the Jacobin regime. Beaumarchais returned to France in 1796, but his appeals for the restoration of his property were unheeded, and he was left destitute. He died of a stroke in Paris on May 18, 1799.
Beaumarchais's earliest dramas were short, frivolous pieces known as parades, a popular genre that drew its romantic repertoire from French and Italian comedy and Parisian street entertainments. They were performed privately for the circle of Charles Lenormant d'Étoiles, husband of Madame de Pompadour, and contain the themes, situations, and stylistic attributes of Beaumarchais's later dramas. Beaumarchais was also interested in dramatic theory, particularly that of Diderot, which called for a drame bourgeois—serious and moving drama in simple prose that emphasizes moral instruction in modern social contexts. His Un essai sur le drame sérieux (1767) critiques the precepts of French seventeenth-century classical tragedy and argues for the necessity of modern plays written in simple language unrestricted by rules of decorum. These concerns inform Beaumarchais's first full-length drama, Eugénie, which was based on his sister's seduction and subsequent betrayal by the Spanish nobleman Don José Clabijo y Fajardo. In his next play, The Two Friends, Beaumarchais's subject—the complicated financial affairs of two businessmen—exemplifies Diderot's concept of generating conflict from social conditions, though the inclusion of the traditional device of a romantic subplot reveals the weakness of this formula. The Barber of Seville and The Marriage of Figaro, Beaumarchais's supreme theatrical achievements, reveal his gift for complex, sophisticated intrigue, original interpretation of character types, and brilliant, sustained dialogue. The Barber of Seville deploys a constellation of characters in elaborate and sometimes farcical romantic intrigues, culminating in the marriage of Rosina and her youthful suitor, Count Almaviva, who outmaneuvers his rival, Dr. Bartholo, with the assistance of Figaro, Bartholo's clever barber. The Marriage of Figaro reunites the characters of The Barber of Seville three years later. Count Almaviva now has designs on Suzanne, maid of Countess Almaviva and the betrothed of Figaro, who again cleverly outwits his opponents and finally marries her with the Count's approval. The dramatic action consists of a complicated series of intrigues that result in unexpected turns of plot and hilarious character revelations. In the play's famous monologue in the fifth act, Figaro ironically comments on the abuses of the privileged classes against the common people, interpreted by many critics as a forecast of the impending revolution and demise of the French aristocracy. Both of the Figaro plays were transformed into operas, the first by Rossini and the second by Mozart. In La Mère coupable the main characters of the The Barber of Seville and The Marriage of Figaro are revisited twenty years later in an attempt to portray Count Almaviva as a virtuous man. Considered by some critics a competent exercise in the sentimental style of Diderot, La Mère coupable has been attacked by many others as overly moralizing or practically unperformable.
The plays of Beaumarchais have been viewed as the culmination of many varied trends within eighteenth-century French literature, and critics have examined the influence of earlier writers such as Rabelais, Molière, Marivaux, Diderot, and Voltaire on Beaumarchais's writing. Scholars agree that as he incorporated these various influences into his work, Beaumarchais transformed classical French comedy by emphasizing its social discourse rather than its formal stylistic properties. Written at the advent of the French Revolution, the Figaro plays are critical of aristocratic privilege, create an unflattering picture of judges and justice, and celebrate the common man. Figaro, a highly resourceful and moral valet, reflects the ideals of Enlightenment thinking, judged for his intelligence and not his rank. Although The Barber of Seville has continued to be performed and well received, critics are united in their praise of The Marriage of Figaro, citing it as the best of his works. Noted Beaumarchias scholar W. D. Howarth has called The Marraige of Figaro “a brilliant synthesis of all that is best in the comic writing of its century.”
*Eugénie [The School for Rakes,] (drama) 1767
Les Deux amis; ou Le Négociant de Lyon [The Two Friends; or, The Liverpool Merchant] (drama) 1770
Le Barbier de Séville; ou, La Précaution inutile [The Barber of Seville; or, The Useless Precaution] (drama) 1775
La Folle Journée; ou, Le mariage de Figaro [The Follies of a Day; or, The Marriage of Figaro] (drama) 1784
Tarare [librettist; musical score by Salieri] (drama) 1787
L'Autre Tartuffe; ou, La Mère coupable [Frailty and Hypocrisy] (drama) 1792
Oevures complètes. 7 vols. [collected works; edited by P. Ph. Gudin de la Brenellerie] (drama) 1809
Oevures complètes [collected works; edited by Eduard Fournier] (drama) 1876
Oevures complètes. [collected works; edited by Albert Demaziére] (drama) 1973
*Published with Un essai sur le drame sérieux.
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SOURCE: “The Significance of a Comic Pattern in Plautus and Beaumarchais,” in Modern Language Notes, Vol. 88, No. 6, December, 1973, pp. 1262-87.
[In the essay below, MacCary compares Plautus's play Casina with The Marriage of Figaro, arguing that the plays are structurally and thematically similar.]
In writing the introduction for a new edition of Plautus' Casina,1 I was concerned to show by analogy with more familiar material the sorts of changes the Roman poet worked in his Greek original, Diphilos' Kleroumenoi (The Lot-casters). I took my cue from E. Fraenkel, who compares Plautus' technique of transforming Greek speeches into Latin songs to Da Ponte's adaptation of Beaumarchais' Figaro for Mozart's opera.2 In developing this comparison—Diphilos is to Plautus what Beaumarchais is to DaPonte and Mozart—I was most concerned with the expansiveness of the lyric mode, the fact that arias or songs, by their very nature, do not advance the dramatic action of an opera or musical comedy, but serve rather to elaborate themes inherent in the action, to develop characterization and, in general, offer a pause for reflection on emotional aspects of the situation.3 Since we do not have Diphilos' Kleroumenoi, but can only make deductions from the Casina itself and what we know of Plautus' technique in other plays, the...
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SOURCE: “Sparkling Gaiety” and “Conclusion,” in Beaumarchais, Twayne Publishers, 1974, pp. 80-103.
[In the excerpt below, Sungolowsky analyzes the plot, characters, and meaning of The Marriage of Figaro,arguing that the work is both complex and unified.]
The overwhelming success which greeted the Mariage de Figaro when it was finally presented on the French stage should be viewed as an accurate appraisal of Beaumarchais's dramatic genius. One of the longest plays of the French theater, it is also one of the most complex. In composing it, Beaumarchais not only devised a complicated intrigue but he exposed the mores of his times, designed types, introduced emotional episodes, and raised social and political issues. All these elements are combined to create an eventful action which takes place in a single “mad day,” which is the subtitle of the play. In dealing with such a diversity of genres, Beaumarchais could not avoid many scenes, events, and tirades that prove to be extraneous to the main action. Yet, he succeeded in creating an atmosphere of sparkling gaiety which gives the play both unity and originality. Our concern here is to elucidate the complicated plot, to evaluate the characters, and to reassess the multiple significance of Beaumarchais's masterpiece.
I THE PREFACE
After the Mariage had been performed for nearly a...
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SOURCE: “Revolution: Three Changing Faces of Figaro,” in The Michigan Academician, Vol. IX, No. 2, Fall, 1976, pp. 135-46.
[In the following essay, Reish demonstrates the ways in which Beaumarchais reflects a changing social order through his transformation of Figaro in the Figaro trilogy.]
Revolution connotes dramatic social change. The last quarter of the eighteenth century witnessed two such manifestations of the reordering of the status quo, one in North America, another in Europe. The writing and staging of Beaumarchais' three plays in which the universally known character Figaro appears—Le Barbier de Séville (1775), Le Mariage de Figaro (1784), and La Mère coupable (1792)—occur at a time of two world revolutions in which the author took an active part. These works, composed for the stage over a score of years, illustrate dramatic artistic change in the author's literary production and particularly in the presentation of the socially conscious Figaro persona.
The texture of this character is rich and fascinating; it lends itself to various interpretive studies. There are those such as Frédéric Grendel and John Rivers, who maintain that Figaro is the literary embodiment of his creator.1 Convinced of the close kinship between artist and creation, biographers have entitled their works accordingly: Figaro ou la vie de Beaumarchais;...
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SOURCE: “The Barber of Seville”and “The Rest Is Literature,” in Beaumarchais: The Man Who Was Figaro, translated by Roger Greaves, Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1977, pp. 134-45, 203-10.
[In the excerpt below, Grendel ponders the appeal of The Barber of Seville and provides background on Beaumarchais's life.]
THE BARBER OF SEVILLE
Here we go. With this devil of a man, nothing is ever signed, sealed and delivered. There is always a reason for starting all over again. As he wrote to Gudin in 1774, ‘I have been alive for two hundred years.’ It would take a good couple of centuries, and innumerable books, to tell his life story. At this point in his labours, the author of this biography feels his mind reel. As he discovers the errors made by others, he realizes how many he has made himself. At every step he feels the urge to go back over what he has written and start the impossible task all over again. Appearances are there to blind him; if he is to understand, he has to interpret. Beaumarchais never appears without a mask, and to throw us off the scent he is constantly changing his disguise.
The voluminous scholarly works inspired by The Barber alone haven't nearly exhausted the subject. Alongside the transparent, sparkling comedy whose workings are obvious, there is an obscure, ambiguous work which, albeit less mysterious than...
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SOURCE: “The Play,” in Beaumarchais: “Le Mariage de Figaro,” Grant & Cutler Ltd., 1983, pp. 32-66.
[In the following excerpt, Niklaus explains the structure of The Marriage of Figaro, commenting on past literary criticism and seeking to explain the unique importance of the play.]
A. THE PLOT AND THE ACTION
We do not know all the stages in the composition of [Le Mariage de Figaro.] Ratermanis has provided us with the text of three manuscripts side by side with that of the first published edition, of the preface, of different versions of the Préliminaire de lecture, the Programme du Mariage and extracts from the opéra comique which was to constitute the last stage of the play. The stemma of the manuscripts preserved in the Bibliothèque Nationale, the archives of the family and the Comédie Française, is not immediately apparent. The manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale is a rough draft, although not the first, and the action is incoherent in places. There is an irrelevant passage which Beaumarchais struck out from this copy but which reappears in the other two manuscripts, only to be omitted in the first published edition. The manuscripts show hesitation over the character of Marceline which obviously presented him with some problems, and there are many differences in Act IV. Marceline's feminist outburst involved some...
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SOURCE: “Beaumarchais' Transformations,” in Modern Language Notes, Vol. 100, No. 4, September, 1985, pp. 829-70.
[In the following excerpt, Undank traces the development of Beaumarchais's literary style and philosophies.]
How does it happen that in Beaumarchais, the energetic heir of Voltaire, Rousseau, Diderot, and scores of others—as if a predictable ripeness were not all—there appears a series of startling gaps and disabilities: effort without depth of principle, action emptying instead of filling and fulfilling the self, language hopelessly adrift. The very question is unorthodox and, if conscionable, raises others about the perils that had all along been incubating in those literary and ideological traditions Beaumarchais absorbed with the appetite of a self-interested, though intellectually complacent, disciple. The battle for men's minds was not yet won; nor were the corollaries of the new metaphysical, “scientific,” economic, or “natural” principles of the philosophes fully worked out in theory or application. But for Beaumarchais, who suffered (in other ways) from anxieties of influence and authority, those principles—or at least the small palette of truths from which he worked—were acceptably in place, if not, as he was bound to discover, without disturbing contradictions and inconsistencies. Like Voltaire, whom he worshipped, he hurled them as though they were...
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SOURCE: “The Marriage of Figaro,” in The Attraction of the Contrary: Essays on the Literature of the French Enlightenment, Cambridge University Press, 1987, pp. 184-96.
[In the following excerpt, Rex discusses the unique role of The Marriage of Figaro within French literature.]
Beaumarchais' Mariage de Figaro is a mixture of ingredients so perfectly combined, it would be almost perverse to strain out any single element and call it the essence. The play is everything at once: situation comedy, farce, comic opera, parade, comedy of manners, erotic comedy, social satire, drame bourgeois, comédie larmoyante, revolutionary indictment of the system,1 plea for unwed mothers and women's liberation, and so on. The action shifts focus constantly, and each time a new strand comes by the audience must catch on as best it can. If we look behind the play to its literary “sources” we find likewise a pleasantly heterogeneous jumble of overlapping fragments.2 Behind the character of Figaro stands a virtually endless line of impudent theatrical valets stretching from the plays of Marivaux, Dancourt, Regnard, and Molière all the way back to the comedies of Terence and Plautus.3 Count Almaviva, that jealous thwarter of young lovers, also falls heir to an abundant theatrical ancestry, going back at least to those...
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SOURCE: “Rewriting Bourgeois Drama: Beaumarchais's ‘double plan,’” in The Age of Theatre in France, edited by David Trott and Nicole Boursier, Academic Printing & Publishing, 1988, pp. 41-51.
[In the following excerpt, Hayes examines Beaumarchais's general perspective on the theater and assesses the influence of Diderot's theories on Beaumarchais's works.]
Beaumarchais's publicly acknowledged debt to the author of Le Père de famille brought him cruel raillery from Palissot: ‘Beaumarchais, trop obscur pour être intéressant, / De son dieu Diderot est le singe impuissant.’1 However, although Eugénie and Le Père de famille enjoyed roughly equal popularity, both were displaced in the 1780's by Le Barbier de Séville and Le Mariage de Figaro and today it is as the creator of Figaro that Beaumarchais is accounted the dramatic luminary of late eighteenth century France. In this paper, however, I should like to look at Beaumarchais's ideas on the theatre in general and his practice in the drame in particular, consulting for the most part the serious plays and their prefaces, but glancing on occasion at the better-known Figaro plays as well. I am concerned here with probing the relationship between Beaumarchais's dramaturgy and Diderot's and the extent to which Diderot's dramatic theories either remain inscribed in Beaumarchais's text or...
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SOURCE: “The Currency of Exchange in Beaumarchais' Mariage de Figaro: From the ‘Master Trope’ Synecdoche to Fetish,” in Eighteenth-Century Studies, Vol. 25, No. 1, Fall, 1991, pp. 57-84.
[In the following essay, Pucci argues that Beaumarchais's use of changing values and the loss of aristocratic privilege in The Marriage of Figaro transforms the play from a mere light comedy.]
The importance of the droit de seigneur in Beaumarchais' Mariage de Figaro lies in its staging as an avowed anachronism and simultaneous translation from ritual act into an economy of monetary exchange. Such transformation is introduced from the very outset in the opening remarks of the play. In Act I, scene 1, Suzanne, first lady-in-waiting of Count Almaviva's wife, apprises her fiancé Figaro of Almaviva's designs on her in an allusion to the “ancien droit de seigneur.”1 Indeed, Suzanne reveals the conversion of this “former” ritual in the metaphor of its new economy: “Et bien, s'il l'a détruit, il s'en repent; et c'est de ta fiancée qu'il veut le racheter en secret aujourd'hui” (174, my emphasis).2
The custom that granted the seigneur of a manor first right to bed any woman in his domestic entourage is explicitly displaced in the Mariage de Figaro by an economy based on a medium of exchange there where previously aristocratic...
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SOURCE: “The Evolution of a Dramatic Text: The Case of Le Mariage de Figaro,” in Voices in the Air: French Dramatists and the Resources of Language, edited by John Dunkley and Bill Kirton, University of Glasgow French and German Publications, 1992, pp. 102-17.
[In the following essay, Howarth addresses Beaumarchais's creative process by comparing versions of The Marriage of Figaro.]
It is a critical commonplace to describe Le Mariage de Figaro as a brilliant synthesis of all that is best in the comic writing of its century. Comédie d'intrigue, comédie larmoyante, satire, social and political polemic: each of these is represented in Beaumarchais's masterpiece by its own peculiar literary style, and it is the swift transition from one style to another, and the successful achievement of diversity in unity, that constitute one of the most distinctive features of this fascinating play.
However, for the scholar who, not content with the appreciation of the finished work as read in the published editions and enjoyed in the theatre for the last two hundred years, wishes to examine the way in which that text came into being, the study of Beaumarchais must surely offer the bonus of a richer source-material than that of any other major French dramatist of the past. The genesis of Le Mariage de Figaro is a particularly fertile subject for study, since there exist...
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SOURCE: “The Anxiety of Change: Reconfiguring Family Relations in Beaumarchais's Trilogy,” in Modern Language Quarterly, Vol. 55, No. 1, March, 1994, pp. 47-78.
[In the essay below, McDonald considers the rights of the individual and the concepts of political and social change as dramatized in The Barber of Seville, The Marriage of Figaro, and La Mère coupable. McDonald also addresses problems relating to a modern reader's interpretation of an eighteenth-century text.]
Si j'étais professeur d'histoire de France, (dit l'histoire), et peut-être d'histoire du monde, je ferais lire [La Mère coupable] à mes élèves. … Je leur lirais d'abord les deux comédies; et ensuite je leur lirais le drame. … Rien ne permettrait autant de mesurer la différence de temps, la différence de ton, enfin ce qui fait proprement l'histoire et l'âge et l'événement d'un peuple et du monde. Je voudrais donner à mes élèves le goût même, la saveur pour ainsi dire physique de ce que c'était que 1775, 1784, 1792: je leur lirais simplement ces trois pièces.1
—Histoire, in Péguy's Clio
I would like to frame what follows in the cross-current between literary, philosophical, and juridical discourses as they are worked out, not in systems but in the particularities of cases, experiences, and...
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SOURCE: “Tarare” and “La Mere Coupable,” in Beaumarchais and the Theatre, Routledge, 1995, pp. 196-220.
[In the excerpt below, Howarth, a noted Beaumarchais scholar, places Tarare and La Mère coupable in the context of Beaumarchais's writings as well as the eighteenth century literary world.]
Beaumarchais's next—and penultimate—dramatic work was already on the stocks well before the production of Le Mariage de Figaro in 1784. Although Tarare was not to be performed in public (at the Opéra) until 1787, its original conception dates from the 1770s, and a prose version of the opera libretto was apparently completed, and the composition of a verse version well under way, as early as 1775. The project of an opera was inspired by the Paris performance of Gluck's Iphigénie en Aulide, and the composer's visit to Paris, where he met Beaumarchais, in 1774. Both were keen, it seems, to work together on an opera; but by the time Beaumarchais's libretto was finished in 1784, Gluck, now aged 70, considered himself too old to take it on, and instead proposed his pupil and friend Salieri as a replacement: master and pupil had worked together on Les Danaïdes, which had its première at the Paris Opéra on 26 April 1784, the day before the first performance of Le Mariage de Figaro at the Comédie-Française.
Tarare enjoyed a genuine...
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SOURCE: “After the Fall: The Chute of a Play, Droits d'Auteur, and Literary Property in the Old Regime,” in French Historical Studies, Vol. 22, No. 4, Fall, 1999, pp. 465-91.
[In the following essay, Brown examines literary property rights of eighteenth century playwrights, considering the views of Beaumarchais in advocating greater control for authors in the royal theater.]
Among the papers of Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais, there is a manuscript titled “Difficulté de fixer le taux de chute d'une pièce.” Begun in August 1777, these twelve folio pages argue that the royal theater, the Comédie Française, should assure playwrights droits d'auteur and propriété littéraire.1 Beaumarchais offers no high-minded defense of free expression or physiocratic comparison of writers' scripts to real estate, as did Denis Diderot in a pamphlet republished the same year defending printers' privilèges. This difference in argument can be attributed to context—Beaumarchais expressed to the First Gentlemen of the Royal Bedchamber the playwrights' desire for new regulations of the royal theater, while Diderot addressed the director of the Book Trade on behalf of printers. On 30 August 1777, the director issued six decrees that reformed Book Trade regulations to allow writers for the first time to register their works for privilèges in their own...
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Havens, George R. “Beaumarchais on the Eve of the Revolution.” In The Age of Ideas: From Reaction to Revolution in Eighteenth-Century France, pp. 357-82. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1955.
Provides a biographical account of Beaumarchais's career.
Gatty, Janette. “Beaumarchais, Champion of Human Rights and American Independence.” American Society Legion of Honor Magazine 1 (1979): 17-34.
Discusses Beaumarchais's advocacy of human rights and role in the American War of Independence.
Gourgues, Leo Las. “Le Mariage de Figaro’: Characters, Intrigue and Structure.” Australian Journal of French Studies XVI, No. 2 (January-April 1979): 295-99.
Explores the function of character, intrigue, and dramatic structure in The Marriage of Figaro, purporting that “the essential unity of the play is to be found in the seduction intrigue and its consequences.”
Haggis, D. R. “Beaumarchais and the Early Balzac.” In Studies in Eighteenth-Century French Literature: Presented to Robert Niklaus, pp. 87-96. Edited by J. H. Fox, M. H. Waddicor, and D. A. Watts. Exeter: University of Exeter, 1975.
Considers the influence of Beaumarchais on Honoré de Balzac.
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