Philip DormerStanhope, Lord Chesterfield Biography


(Great Authors of World Literature, Critical Edition)

Lord Chesterfield’s name has become so synonymous with courtly manners that it is easy to forget that he had a distinguished career in public affairs. He succeeded in 1726 as the fourth earl of Chesterfield. During his public life, he was twice ambassador to The Hague, secretary of state, negotiator of the second Treaty of Vienna (1731), and a very successful lord lieutenant of Ireland (1746). In 1755, he had a famous quarrel with Samuel Johnson on the publication of the latter’s dictionary, the story of which can be found in James Boswell’s Life of Samuel Johnson (1791).{$S[A]Stanhope, Philip Dormer;Chesterfield, Philip Dormer Stanhope, Lord}

The famous letters for which Lord Chesterfield is chiefly remembered were written to his illegitimate son, Philip. They were begun when the boy was young and were continued for years. The purpose was to teach the boy the easy elegance of manner that distinguished his father and to serve as a guide to the fashionable world. To some readers, the letters seem cold, artificial, and heartless; to others, they have much traditional eighteenth century charm. It is ironic that the son never profited from the lessons; he married a woman of low birth and never assumed the position in the world for which his father had tried to prepare him. Philip preceded Lord Chesterfield in death by five years.

Lord Chesterfield married Melusina von Schulemberg, illegitimate daughter of George I. They had no children, and he was succeeded in the earldom by a distant cousin after his death.