Pericles (Vol. 36)
For further information on the critical and stage history of Pericles, see SC, Volumes 2 and 15.
Likely composed and first performed in the years 1606-08, Pericles is a tale of loss and reconciliation between father and daughter, based upon the classical legend of Pericles of Tyre. Despite the considerable age of this folk story—Ben Jonson once called it a "mouldy tale"—scholars have identified the primary sources that Shakespeare probably used to compose his drama as John Gower's Confessio Amantis (1385-93) and Lawrence Twine's The Paíteme of Paynfull Adventures (1576). Since the recognition of these and other sources of the work, much scholarly interest in the play has been devoted to the question of its authorship. While contention still exists, the majority opinion seems to favor the theory that Shakespeare collaborated with another author, who is said to have written the somewhat inferior first two acts of Pericles, while Shakespeare himself is generally credited with having composed the last three acts of the play. Further areas of twentieth-century critical inquiry have included an exploration of the relationship between Pericles and his daughter Marina as well as the characterization of both, and discussions of the play's imagery and treatment of sexual motifs, especially regarding the theme of incest that pervades the work.
Critical observations on the authorship of Pericles and its lesser quality typically originate from the corruption of the text as part of the 1609 quarto version of Shakespeare's works and its exclusion from the more reliable First Folio edition (1623). Still, many scholars, including Kenneth Muir, have located significant evidence of Shakespeare's authorship in the work's language and imagery. Muir and others have observed that the play represents a departure for Shakespeare, and is a transitional drama that bridges the gap between the great tragedies of his middle period, such as Hamlet and King Lear, and his later plays, including The Winter's Tale and The Tempest. Overall the work has been seen as less complex and less realistic than either group, with more simplified characters and a thinner plot. Other commentators, while accepting Muir's conclusions for the most part, have nevertheless observed the literary richness of Pericles. Andrew Welsh has noted the unifying theme of tradition in the play, and traced its classical, medieval, and folklore sources in the appearance of riddles, the Seven DeadlySins, and knightly emblems. Ruth Nevo, taking a psychoanalytic approach to the drama, has outlined its symbolic power as a dream-fantasy which meditates on the repressed subjects of death and incest.
The characters of Pericles and Marina have also attracted the attention of modern scholars. Their assessments have offered a reevaluation of the prince as a patient sufferer and analyzed the play's themes of suffering, loss, repentance, and reconciliation between father and daughter. As for Marina's character, critical estimations have typically emphasized her chastity and purity. Michael Taylor has noted the juxtaposition of innocence and wisdom in Marina, while Nona Fienberg has associated her with the value of "moral discourse." Both critics have observed that her character stands in opposition to the darker aspects of the play, including the incestuous relationship between Antiochus and his daughter, and the degradation of the brothel where she finds herself in Act IV.
Shakespeare's use of imagery in Pericles, especially as it applies to the motifs of sexuality and incest, has also provided additional topics for modern critics of the play. Alexander Leggati has commented on the riddle of incest and Antiochus's illicit relationship with his daughter, arguing that the fear of deviant sexuality informs the drama throughout. Anthony Lewis has seen the prevalent imagery of eating in Pericles as an indication of the play's theme of sustaining and nourishing oneself and others. Several commentators, including Mary Judith Dunbar and W. B. Thorne, have argued that through its symbolic devices the play presents a unified poetic, moral, and comic vision. For Thorne, the oppositions in the play, between generations and between loss and reconciliation, form the dramatic structure of the work and represent an evolution of Shakespeare's earlier comedies. Overall, these assessments of the mechanics of Pericles have demonstrated a small critical shift in the evaluation of a play that was popular in Shakespeare's time, but has since fallen into relative disregard. However, while scholars acknowledge that the work suffers from certain flaws, most agree that it offers an abundance of form and a quality of language that surpasses its weaknesses of character and incident.
Kenneth Muir (essay date 1960)
SOURCE: "Pericles," in Shakespeare as Collaborator, Barnes & Noble Inc., 1960, pp. 77-97.
[In the following essay, Muir surveys the text of Pericles, locating evidence of Shakespeare's authorship in the language, imagery, and thematic qualities of the work.]
Whether we accept Mr Philip Edwards' view that the difference between the first two acts of the play and the remainder is due to the differing skill of two reporters, or assume that Shakespeare based his play on the work of another dramatist, making few alterations in the opening acts and completely rewriting the last three, we may agree that the text given in the Quarto is a bad one, and almost certainly reported. But the two theories have different editorial implications. Those who believe that [George] Wilkins' novel [The Painfull Adventures of Pericles, Prince of Tyre] is based on an earlier play which Shakespeare revised should be less ready to accept readings from the novel into the text of the last three acts of the play than those who regard Wilkins' novel as a kind of rival report. On the other hand, those who think that Wilkins was reporting Shakespeare's play ought to have the courage of their convictions and print the Lysimachus-Marina dialogue almost as given in the novel. In any case we may assume that the text of the play is so poor that it is only a...
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Fathers And Daughters
Michael Taylor (essay date 1982)
SOURCE: '"Here is a thing too young for such a place': Innocence in Pericles," in Ariel, Vol. 13, No. 3, July, 1982, pp. 3-19.
[In this essay, Taylor explores the difference between the quality of Pericles* innocence and Marina's.]
In Shakespeare's plays the corrupt often confuse innocence with stupidity. Swayed by their reductive view of human nature (innocent and simplistic itself) these confident, pragmatic observers of human behaviour cannot acknowledge the possibility that any sensible person can (or should) act beyond his or her immediate self-interest. Such a stance helps to explain why Shakespeare's evil-doers are so sure of their intellectual superiority over their innocent victims, so certain that their interpretation of the world exposes its essential, shabby truth. In Dionyza's jeering tone in Pericles, for instance, as she lords it over her ineffectual husband, can be heard echoes of many of Shakespeare's antagonists to virtue, ranging from the maledictions of Richard III to the urbane mockery of Antonio and Sebastian in The Tempest. And what, among other things, these scoffers have in common—what Dionyza parades most contemptuously—is a confirmed aversion to the idea that some kind of beneficent supernatural power is at work in the world's affairs. With Iago they believe that it is...
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Imagery And Sexuality
Gerald J. Schiffhorst (essay date 1967)
SOURCE: 'The Imagery of Pericles and What It Tells Us," in Ball State University Forum, Vol. VIII, No. 3, Summer, 1967, pp. 61-70.
[In the essay below, Schiffhorst surveys the varied imagery of Pericles, offering it as evidence that the play was either entirely written or emended throughout by Shakespeare.]
Critical attention to the imagery of Shakespeare's Pericles has been almost negligible, and commentators have often been content to dismiss the play as only in part Shakespeare's. Recent scholarship has indicated that the differences between the first two and the last three acts are due either to two separate reporters involved in the transmission of the text or to the likely possibility that Shakespeare, basing the play on the work of another dramatist, made a few alterations in the first two acts but completely rewrote the last three. Concludes Kenneth Muir: "There are no lines in the first two acts which are certainly Shakespeare's, though there are a number which could be his."1 It is my purpose to suggest that, although the imagery of Pericles cannot compare in richness with that of the great plays, it spans the whole breadth of Shakespeare's imaginative material and presents a more rewarding poetic experience than is often thought possible; and, what is more important, that the number, types,...
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Nona Fienberg (essay date 1982)
SOURCE: "Marina in Pericles: Exchange Values and the Art of Moral Discourse," in Iowa State Journal of Research, Vol. 57, No. 2, November, 1982, pp. 153-61.
[Here, Fienberg discusses the economic metaphors of Pericles in relation to Marina's character, arguing that by selling moral discourse instead of her body "Marina acknowledges the market system, yetremains uncorrupted by it."]
In his essay, "Of Truth" (1625), Francis Bacon distinguishes between "theological and philosophical truth" and the truth of "civil business." While he further distinguishes between the poets, whose harmless lies give pleasure, and the merchants, who lie "for advantage," both stand in the second category of the truth of civil business, since both participate in the nascent spirit of capitalism of seventeenth-century London. A spokesman for his economic world, Bacon frames his essay with a cynical portrayal of truth in the market-place: "Truth may perhaps come to the price of a pearl, that showeth best by day; but it will not rise to the price of a diamond or carbuncle, that showeth best in varied lights. A mixture of a lie doth ever add pleasure."1 But if the world of civil business where even truth has its price informs his essay, Bacon grants us, in the heart of the essay, a vision of truth "in varied lights," the spiritual truth that does not...
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Brockbank, J. P. "'Pericles' and the Dream of Immortality." Shakespeare Survey 24 (1971): 105-16.
Examines the sources of Pericles and its theme of death as illusion.
Fawkner, H. W. "Miracle." In Shakespeare's Miracle Plays: 'Pericles,' 'Cymbeline,' and The Winter's Tale,' pp. 13-56. London: Associated University Presses, 1992.
Analysis of Pericles informed by the metaphor of "muteness" and "contrasting masculine and feminine principles."
Flower, Annette C. "Disguise and Identity in Pericles, Prince of Tyre." In Shakespeare Quarterly 26, No. 1 (Winter 1975): 30-41.
Examines the motif of disguise in Pericles and investigates its relation to the play's themes of reconciliation and restoration.
Gajdusek, R. E. "Death, Incest, and the Triple Bond in the Later Plays of Shakespeare." American Imago 31, No. 2 (Summer 1974): 109-58.
Explores mythic, religious, and archetypal elements of Pericles.
Glazov-Corrigan, Elena. "The New Function of Language in Shakespeare's Pericles: Oath Versus 'Holy Word'." Shakespeare Survey 43 (1991): 131-40.
Contends that Pericles represents a departure from the tragedies in terms of Shakespeare's use of language and its powers of persuasion.
Gorfain, Phyllis. "Puzzle and...
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