The Poem (Masterplots, Fourth Edition)
In Heaven, Lucifer, unable to abide the supremacy of God, leads a revolt against divine authority. Defeated, he and his followers are cast into Hell, where they lie nine days on a burning lake. Lucifer, now called Satan, arises from the flaming pitch and vows that all is not lost, that he will have revenge for his downfall. Arousing his legions, he reviews them under the canopy of Hell and decides his purposes can be achieved by guile rather than by force.
Under the direction of Mulciber, the forces of evil build an elaborate palace, Pandemonium, in which Satan convenes a congress to decide on immediate action. At the meeting, Satan reasserts the unity of those fallen and opens the floor to debate regarding what measures should be taken. Moloch advises war. Belial recommends a slothful existence in Hell. Mammon proposes peacefully improving Hell so that it might rival Heaven in splendor. His motion is received with great favor until Beelzebub, second in command, rises and informs the conclave that God has created Earth, which he has peopled with good creatures called humans. It is Beelzebub’s proposal to investigate this new creation, seize it, and seduce its inhabitants to the cause of the fallen angels.
Announcing that he will journey to Earth to learn for himself how matters are there, Satan flies to the gate of Hell. There he encounters his daughter, Sin, and his son, Death. They open the gate, and Satan wings his way toward Earth....
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Places Discussed (Cyclopedia of Literary Places)
Heaven. Unlike the other places described by Milton in Paradise Lost, the scenes in heaven are not memorable for their physical description. When God the Father and his Son Jesus speak in book 3, they do so from the heights of Heaven. All the speaker asserts about the scene of this dialogue is that it is high above both Earth and Hell, and that it is bathed in celestial light. God’s throne is mentioned, along with the choirs of angels surrounding it, but traditional images of clouds and stars are absent. The book opens with Milton’s famous hymn to light, and the overall effect is the repeated emphasis on the brilliance of the empyrean, the highest heaven which, in the medieval cosmology surviving in Milton’s day, was the home of God and the angels.
Hell. The underworld into which the rebel angels fall in book 1 of Milton’s epic is the first fully visualized scene. After describing the precipitous fall of Satan and his cohorts amid the chaos of floods and whirlwinds, Milton has the demons remark on how different this place appears in comparison with the Heaven from which they have come. Just as Heaven is characterized mostly by light in book 3, Hell is known by its dimness. Even flames give forth no light, and there is no land, though Milton teases the reader’s visual imagination by speaking of lakes of liquid fire and lands of solid fire. Specific locations within Hell include its...
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The English Civil Wars, Interregnum, and Restoration
The civil wars of the 1640s in England were rooted in the conflicts between Charles I and his Parliament in the 1620s and the policies which were instituted in the 1630s, when Charles ruled without Parliament. His religious policies were resented: the apparently weakened stance regarding Catholics incensed the Puritans, as did the emphasis on the prayer book and its procedures, which curtailed the development of new religious practises and observances. In 1640-1642, a new Parliament was called which attempted religious and political reform, ultimately resulting in the first Civil War (1642-1646), which pitted king against parliament. The war was disorganized, and its outcome was determined not primarily by military factors, but by economic, religious, and political factors. The heavy taxation, extreme religious reform, and wide powers granted to parliamentary agents led to the second Civil War (1647-1649), which was primarily a revolt of the provinces against centralization and military rule, and which culminated in the beheading of Charles in 1649.
From 1649 to 1660, the period known as the Interregnum, England was a republic (though not a democracy). Cromwell governed from 1653 to 1658 as Lord Protector and Head of State. He saw England as representing God's chosen people, working towards a Promised Land where Church and State would be as one. His religious radicalism led to...
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Book 1 Questions and Answers
1. What is Milton’s main purpose or theme of his epic poem?
2. What is the setting of the opening scene of the poem?
3. Who is next in command to the archangel Satan?
4. What is Satan’s attitude in the beginning of the poem?
5. In what way does Milton’s enumeration of his fallen angels resemble Homer’s Iliad?
6. Who leads the fallen angels to dig for gold in Hell? Why?
7. What is the name of the temple that rose out of the ground in Hell?
8. According to Milton, what had many of the pagan gods been before the history of Man?
9. What are Milton’s basic sources for Paradise Lost?
10. What is the plan of action for the fallen angels and their leaders at the end of Book I?
1. Milton intends to “justify the ways of God to men.”
2. Satan and his angels are chained to the burning lake of fire in Hell.
3. Beelzebub is next in command to Satan.
4. Satan is sure that, in spite of his present state in Hell, he will never bow to God.
5. The list of Milton’s fallen angels is an epic convention that resembles the catalogue of ships in Homer’s Iliad.
6. Mammon leads the fallen angels to dig for gold in Hell. He wants Hell to equal Heaven in riches.
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Book 2 Questions and Answers
1. What does Moloch propose at the devilish council?
2. How does Belial’s proposal compare to Moloch’s?
3. What is Mammon’s argument at the council?
4. Who is Beelzebub, and what does he propose?
5. Who volunteers to go alone to spy on God’s new creation?
6. What is the volunteer’s true motive for his seemingly sacrificial act of exploring God’s new world?
7. Who does Satan meet at the gates of Hell?
8. Where did the barking Hell-hounds originate?
9. After which classical figure does Milton pattern the character of Sin?
10. Whom does Satan meet as he travels through the vast Abyss on his way to Earth?
1. Moloch proposes open war and is willing to risk annihilation in the attempt at armed conflict to avenge God.
2. Belial opposes Moloch’s plan. He advocates peace at all costs, reasoning that God might soften their punishment if they do not provoke him further.
3. Mammon wants to stay in Hell where he will be free of God. He chooses “hard liberty” rather than the “easy yoke” of servility.
4. Beelzebub is the mouthpiece for Satan himself. He proposes a plan to avenge God through his new creation, Man.
5. Satan volunteers to go to Earth to spy on God’s new race.
6. Satan is interested in his own honor...
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Book 3 Questions and Answers
1. What is the symbolic significance of the image of light in Book III?
2. Why is God referred to as “unapproached light”?
3. Whom does God point out to the Son as their dialogue begins?
4. Who answers God’s call for a volunteer to die for Man’s sins?
5. What is Jacob’s ladder in the biblical account?
6. How does Satan’s attitude toward God compare to Jacob’s as they each view the “stairway to Heaven”?
7. Who is Uriel? What does Satan ask of him?
8. Why does Satan disguise himself when he meets Uriel?
9. Why does the poet lament the fact that he finds “no dawn”?
10. Why does the poet compare himself to Homer (Maeonides)?
1. The image of light represents the essence of God because “God is light.”
2. God is “unapproached light” because no man has seen, nor is able to see Him.
3. God points to Satan who is nearing the wall of Heaven. God perceives Satan’s plan of revenge that will cause Man to fall.
4. The Son offers to go down to Earth and become a man who will give his life as a ransom for Man’s sin.
5. In a dream, Jacob sees a ladder that leads to Heaven with angels ascending and descending.
6. Jacob is filled with fear and reverence...
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Book 4 Questions and Answers
1. What does Satan feel is his greatest fault?
2. How does Satan feel about his own free will?
3. Where does Satan (in the form of a bird) alight when he first enters Paradise?
4. What is God’s only prohibition to Adam and Eve in the garden?
5. Which mythological character does Milton allude to in Eve’s story of her first day on Earth?
6. In what forms does Satan appear in Paradise in Book IV.
7. Where do Adam and Eve sleep in Paradise?
8. How does Uriel travel from his post in the sun to Paradise when he comes to warn Gabriel about an evil spirit that is loose?
9. What does Satan tell Gabriel when he is asked why he has left Hell?
10. Why does Satan finally leave Paradise?
1. Satan feels that his pride and ambition have brought him down to his miserable state.
2. Satan feels that he has been created free to fall.
3. Satan alights in the Tree of Life as a cormorant or bird.
4. God prohibits Adam and Eve to eat the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge.
5. Eve’s story, recalling her love for her own reflection, alludes to the classical myth of Narcissus.
6. Satan appears as a cormorant (bird) in the Tree of Life, a lion and tiger among the beasts, and a toad at Eve’s ear.
7. Adam and Eve sleep in a bower...
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Book 5 Questions and Answers
1. Who is responsible for the evil nature of Eve’s dream?
2. What does Eve’s dream foreshadow?
3. How does Adam comfort Eve after her frightening dream?
4. Who is asked to join Adam and Eve in their morning praise to God?
5. What kind of food does Eve prepare for Raphael?
6. To whom does Raphael allude when he greets Eve with “Hail Mother of Mankind”?
7. Who has no superior to obey in the “scale of Nature”?
8. Why does Satan rebel against God?
9. Who speaks against Satan when he gathers his legions of angels in the North of Heaven to convince them to rebel against God?
10. How does Satan answer his sole disbeliever’s accusation that he is not obeying his creator?
1. Satan has come to Eve in the form of a toad and has attempted to reach “the organs of her fancy.”
2. Eve’s dream foreshadows Satan’s temptation of Eve and her consequent fall.
3. Adam tells her that evil can come and go in the mind and leave no trace of its presence.
4. Adam and Eve call on the planets, elements, trees, birds, beasts, and angels to join them in their praise of God.
5. Eve prepares the choicest fruits of Paradise for Raphael, their guest.
6. Raphael alludes to Mary, the mother of Jesus. Eve is literally the Mother of...
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Book 6 Questions and Answers
1. Who commends Abdiel for opposing Satan and his legions of angels?
2. What is Abdiel’s definition of servitude?
3. Who is the leader of God’s angels in the war in Heaven?
4. Which side uses gunpowder in the war in Heaven?
5. Which side picks up mountains and uses them as weapons?
6. Why does neither of the armies win the war?
7. Who is sent to end the war and drive Satan and his angels out of Heaven?
8. For how many days do Satan and his angels fall?
9. Who is the narrator for the story of the war in Heaven?
10. What does the narrator warn Adam about?
1. God commends Abdiel for speaking against Satan and bearing the reproach of the multitudes.
2. Abdiel tells Satan that servitude is to serve an unwise leader (namely Satan) who has rebelled against a natural superior.
3. Michael is the leader of God’s angels in the war.
4. Satan’s troops use gunpowder against the angels who have been victorious up to that point.
5. Michael’s angels pick up mountains and throw them at their opponents.
6. Both armies were created equal and cannot win. The war would have gone on indefinitely if God had not intervened.
7. God sends the Son to end the war and drive Satan and his angels out of Heaven.
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Book 7 Questions and Answers
1. What is the name of the poet’s muse?
2. What does the poet mean when he says that it is the meaning, not the name of the muse that he is calling forth?
3. What does God plan to do to repair the loss of Satan and his angels in Heaven?
4. Who is appointed by God to perform the act of creation?
5. Had the light appeared before the sun?
6. When is the firmament created and what is it later called?
7. On which day of creation does dry land appear?
8. Besides Man, what else is created on the sixth day?
9. What do God, the Son, and the angels in Heaven do on the Sabbath?
10. What happens when the Son reaches the gates of Heaven?
1. The poet’s muse is named Urania, the muse of astronomy.
2. The poet associates the meaning of the muse with the God of the Scriptures but names Urania from classical mythology.
3. God plans to create a new race called Man to eventually fill the vacancy in Heaven.
4. The Son is appointed to create the universe.
5. God calls forth the light before the sun is created.
6. The firmament is created on the second day, and it is called Heaven.
7. Dry land appears on the third day.
8. The beasts of the field rise up out of the dust on the sixth day. Insects, worms, snakes, and...
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Book 8 Questions and Answers
1. What is Raphael’s answer to Adam’s question about the superfluous number of celestial bodies that serve only Earth?
2. What does Adam think is the primary purpose of the celestial bodies?
3. What does Adam see in his first moments of life?
4. Why are Adam and the sun important to each other?
5. What is the first thing that Adam wants to find after his creation?
6. What is an example of free will in Book VIII?
7. How did God create Eve?
8. What happens to Adam when he observes Eve’s loveliness?
9. What warning does Raphael give Adam about his wisdom concerning Eve?
10. What is Raphael’s last warning to Adam before he goes back to Heaven?
1. Raphael tells Adam to concern himself only with his life and leave other worlds to God.
2. Adam thinks the primary purpose of the celestial bodies is “to officiate light.”
3. Adam sees the sun that is drying his “balmy sweat.”
4. Adam needs the sun for warmth just as the sun needs Adam to fulfill its purpose.
5. The first thing Adam wants to find is his creator.
6. Free will is seen in Adam’s complaint about his own solitude.
7. Eve was formed from one of Adam’s ribs.
8. Adam’s passion takes over his reason when Eve appears.
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Book 9 Questions and Answers
1. Why is Book IX a central part of the epic poem?
2. What constitutes the climax of Paradise Lost ?
3. In what way is Book IX the turning point of the epic?
4. What is Adam and Eve’s tragic catastrophe?
5. How does the reader feel purged of his/her own emotional conflicts through the narrative?
6. Where has Satan been hiding for the last seven days?
7. How does Satan enter Paradise?
8. Why is Eve alone on the day of her temptation and fall?
9. According to the Serpent, what will be the effects of eating the fruit from the Tree of Knowledge?
10. What are the effects of the fall on Adam and Eve?
1. Book IX is central to the poem because it contains the climax of the action.
2. The climax of Paradise Lost is “Man’s first disobedience” or the fall of Adam and Eve.
3. In Book IX the tone is changed to tragic. All subsequent actions will be affected by the tragic fall in Book IX.
4. Adam and Eve have lost their immortality and will be removed from Paradise.
5. The reader feels purged of his/her own emotional conflicts (sins) by empathizing with the tragic hero.
6. Satan has been traveling within the dark shadow of the Earth.
7. Satan enters Paradise through the underground fountain of the...
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Book 10 Questions and Answers
1. Who is sent from Heaven to judge Adam and Eve after the fall?
2. What is Adam and Eve’s punishment for their disobedience to God?
3. How does the Son judge the Serpent (Satan) for tempting Eve?
4. What do Sin and Death do to make Earth more accessible?
5. What will Eve’s descendants do to the Serpent’s offspring?
6. Who helps to bring Adam out of the depths of despair?
7. How does Death feel about his new empire on Earth?
8. What does Discord do on Earth after the fall?
9. What happens to Satan and his fallen angels when he arrives in Hell?
10. What happens to the fruit that is eaten by the serpents in Hell?
1. God sends the Son to judge Adam and Eve after the fall.
2. Eve will bear the pain of childbirth and the subjection to her husband’s will. Adam will labor by the sweat of his brow to earn his bread.
3. The Serpent will crawl on his belly and eat dust for the rest of his days.
4. Sin and Death pave a highway for easier access from Hell
5. The descendants of Eve will destroy the Serpent’s evil offspring.
6. Eve asks Adam to forgive her and volunteers to take all the blame which brings Adam out of his despair.
7. Death says he would be equally as happy in Hell, Earth, or Heaven...
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Book 11 Questions and Answers
1. Who is sent to Earth to tell Adam and Eve about their expulsion from Paradise?
2. In what form does Michael appear on Earth?
3. What is Adam’s reaction when he is told that he must leave Paradise?
4. According to Michael, where can God be found?
5. Where is Eve while Adam and Michael discuss future events?
6. What method does Michael use to reveal the future to Adam?
7. Who are the two just men from the Bible who stand alone in Book XI?
8. What is Adam’s first real example of Death in the vision?
9. What is a lazer-house?
10. Why does God send the rainbow to Noah after the flood?
1. The archangel Michael is sent to Earth to break the sad news of Adam and Eve’s expulsion from Paradise.
2. Michael appears on Earth in the form of a man dressed in military attire.
3. Adam reacts with shocked silence at first but soon tells Michael that his greatest regret is leaving God.
4. Michael tells Adam that God is omnipresent and will be on the plain as well as in Paradise.
5. Michael has put Eve into a deep sleep.
6. Michael presents visions of biblical history to Adam to reveal the future of the World.
7. Two biblical examples of men who stand alone against the crowd are Noah and Enoch.
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Book 12 Questions and Answers
1. What approach does Michael use to explain how the world will be restored?
2. Which seventeenth-century monarch can be compared to the character of Nimrod from the Bible?
3. Besides an empire, what did Nimrod build?
4. Who is the first leader of the mighty nation of Israel?
5. Who is sent to deliver the nation of Israel out of captivity?
6. Who is the enemy of the Israelites?
7. What becomes of Solomon’s people?
8. Who baptizes the first believers after Christ’s death?
9. Where is Eve while Michael is talking to Adam?
10. Who accompanies Michael as he leads Adam and Eve out of Paradise?
1. Michael uses the method of narration to explain the restoration of a sinful world to Adam.
2. Most commentators feel that Milton was equating Charles I to Nimrod.
3. Nimrod built the Tower of Babel.
4. Abraham is the first leader of Israel.
5. Moses is sent to deliver the nation of Israel out of captivity.
6. Pharaoh and the Egyptians are the enemies of Moses and the Israelites.
7. Solomon’s people are taken into captivity by the Babylonians.
8. The Apostles baptize the first believers after Christ’s death.
9. Eve has been sleeping while...
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The standard definition of an epic, or heroic poem, is that it is a ''noble story told in noble verse'' (Hutson and McCoy, Epics of the Western World, p. 7), a continuous narrative concerning a heroic person from history or tradition. The epic uses historical and mythological material to exemplify a truth which is greater than both. The subject of an epic poem is to be a story which both delights and instructs, embodying the cultural and moral ideals of its time but with universal implications.
Milton chooses an unusual subject for his great epic poem, ostensibly shunning ''Wars, hitherto the only Argument / Heroic deem'd" (IX.28-9), in favor of the sad task of relating an "argument / Not less but more Heroic than the wrath / Of Stern Achilles on his Foe pursu'd / Thrice Fugitive about Troy Wall" (DC 13-15). The "higher argument" which Milton chooses is the story of the Creation, Fall, and Redemption of humankind, combining the epic conventions of high moral purpose with the conviction that in presenting a Biblical theme, he is also representing a higher truth. The fate of humankind thus becomes the unifying force of the poem, as Milton presents the ideals of private virtue and public rectitude by exploring both the nobility and weakness of fallen humanity.
Poetic Style and Techniques
Milton's dramatic and magnificent manipulation of language in Paradise Lost...
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Compare and Contrast
1642-1660: The English civil wars resulted in an Interregnum, during which England was a republic, although not a democracy, ruled by Parliament alone. In 1660, the republic collapsed and the monarchy was restored.
1700s: The late eighteenth century saw the French Revolution and the American Revolution both of which sought to establish republics in the place of monarchies. The French Revolution was a civil war which toppled the French monarchy. The American Revolution was the revolt of a colony against England, and while the English monarchy survived intact, its colonies in what became the United States were lost.
Late twentieth century: England is governed by a democratically elected parliament. Although the monarchy survives, the Queen, as head-of-state, has little real political power.
1600s: The seventeenth century saw scientific advances which included William Harvey's discovery of the circulation of the blood, Isaac Newton's theory of gravity, and developments in chemistry (Robert Boyle) and geology (Robert Hooke). Science was only just beginning to be seen as a discipline divorced from theology and philosophy, based on empirical observation of ''objective fact'' rather than metaphysical speculation about "truth."
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Topics for Further Study
Milton presents the political consequences of the Fall in Michael's preview of human history (Book XII). Discuss this presentation in light of the Restoration of the monarchy in England and the political controversies surrounding the debate concerning the merits of monarchy vs. republic.
Discuss Raphael's admonition to Adam concerning the limitations of human knowledge and his discouragement of Adam's inquiries into the movements of the heavenly spheres (Book VIII) in light of the advancements in science and the new "scientific" attitudes towards knowledge in the seventeenth century.
Research the philosophical trend towards rationalism in the seventeenth century, and then discuss Milton's view of the Fall as a failure of reason and obedience, rather than as an acquisition of "forbidden knowledge."
Book I, in part, describes the building of Pandemonium. Book IX describes the tending of Eden and the consequences of the Fall for nature. Both descriptions associate sin and the Fall with a disrupted natural affinity for the earth and the introduction of an indifference to the planet, which results in its ''wounding." Discuss this in light of present-day arguments for humanity's responsibility toward environmental preservation.
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Paradise Lost has never been adapted as a film or play. However, it is discussed in the video Milton and 17th-century Poetry (Films for the Humanities and Sciences, Princeton N.J.).
The story of the garden of Eden is included in the film The Bible—In the Beginning (1966), directed by John Huston and produced by Dino DeLaurentis, starring Ulla Bergryd as Eve and Michael Parks as Adam.
There is a reference to Paradise Lost in the 1967 Star Trek episode ''Space Seed.'' Ricardo Montalban portrays Kahn (who resurfaces in the movie Star Trek II: The Wrath of Kahn), a eugenically enhanced human who flees earth after leading an unsuccessful revolt of "supermen" like himself. Having taken him aboard the Enterprise, Kirk offers Kahn and his "rebel angels" the choice of exile on an untamed and uninhabited planet or returning to earth to face trial. Kahn chooses exile, referring to Satan's statement that it is "Better to reign in hell, than serve in heav'n." This is consistent with the theme explored in other Star Trek episodes, such as "The Apple," "Return of the Archons," and "This Side of Paradise"—that if there is a paradise, unredeemed humanity does not belong there. The devil's work is presented in four periods, one of which is the temptation of Adam and Eve in Eden, in Luigi Maggi's film Satan—or the Drama of Humanity (1912).
Paradise Lost is an...
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What Do I Read Next?
Paradise Regained (1671) is the sequel to Paradise Lost, in which Milton explores the temptation of Christ in the wilderness in order to show how redemption is achieved through the reversal of Adam's disobedience by Christ's obedience.
Bitterly disappointed in his own first marriage, in 1643 Milton published The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce, arguing that poor marriages should be dissolved. This essay provides an interesting contrast to the view of Adam and Eve's conjugal bliss in Paradise Lost.
Of Education (1644) is a treatise in which Milton explores the contribution of education to mankind's ability to withstand temptation, examining many of the issues which resurface in the treatment of the temptation in Paradise Lost.
Areopagitica (1644) is a treatise calling for freedom of the press and the removal of censorship. Here Milton develops many of the ideas concerning reason and knowledge developed in Paradise Lost, particularly the interdependence between the knowledge of good and evil and the folly of considering any knowledge "forbidden."
Samson Agonistes (1671) is a verse drama in which Milton portrays the story of Samson and Delilah in true tragic style. The...
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Bibliography and Further Reading
Adams, Robert M. and George M. Logan, eds. ''The Seventeenth Century'' in The Norton Anthology of English Literature, 6th ed., Vol. I, Norton, 1993.
Provides a good introduction to both the period and the poem, situating Paradise Lost in the context of Milton's life and works, the seventeenth century as a whole, and the epic tradition.
Berry, Boyd M., Process of Speech: Puritan Religious Writings and Paradise Lost, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976.
Discusses Paradise Lost in the context of the English Civil Wars and Puritan ideology. He compares the battle scenes in heaven to the unheroic Puritan militarism of Cromwell's troops
Chnstensen, Inger, '"Thy Great Deliverer': Christian Hero and Epic Convention in John Milton's Paradise Lost and C S. Lewis's Perelandra ," in Excursions in Fiction, Kennedy, Andrew and Overland, Orm (eds), pp. 68-88, Novus, 1994.
Compares the presentation of the epic hero and the epic form in Paradise Lost to C. S. Lewis's science fiction trilogy, especially Perelandra.
Daiches, David, Milton, Hutchinson and Co., 1957.
Provides an excellent introduction to Milton's major works, including a general overview and reading of Paradise Lost.
DuRocher, Richard J., "Dante, Milton and the Art of Visual Speech," Comparative Literature...
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Bibliography (Cyclopedia of Literary Characters, Revised Third Edition)
Sources for Further Study
Broadbent, John Barclay. Some Graver Subject: An Essay on “Paradise Lost.” New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1960. Serves as an excellent introduction to Paradise Lost. Acknowledging the difficulties of reading the poem, Broadbent systematically analyzes and explains Milton’s meanings.
Danielson, Dennis, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Milton. 1989. 2d ed. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Essays by scholars and critics, with a useful bibliography.
Gardner, Helen. A Reading of “Paradise Lost.” New York: Oxford University Press, 1965. Focuses on reading the poem with a twentieth century sensibility, including discussion of twentieth century Milton criticism.
Kelley, Maurice. This Great Argument: A Study of Milton’s “De Doctrina Christiana” as a Gloss upon “Paradise Lost.” Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1941. According to reviewer A. S. P. Woodhouse, “For the student of the history of thought the volume is a clear and useful compendium of Milton’s opinions on a large range of theological topics. . . . Kelley demonstrates in detail . . . that many of [Christian Doctrine’s] doctrines are reflected in Paradise Lost.”
Kranidas, Thomas, ed. New...
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