Study Guide

Othello

by William Shakespeare

Othello eText - Act I

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Act I

Scene I

Original Text Modern Translation

[Venice. A Street.]

Enter Roderigo and Iago

ROD:
Tush, never tell me! I take it much unkindly
That thou, Iago, who hast had my purse
As if the strings were thine, shouldst know of this.
ROD:
Rubbish! Don’t tell me; I don’t like it at all
That you, Iago, who has used my purse
As if the strings were yours, should know about this.
IAGO:
'Sblood, but you will not hear me.
If ever I did dream of such a matter,(5)
Abhor me.
IAGO:
God’s blood! but you’re not listening to me.
If I ever dreamt about such a matter,
Hate me.
ROD:
Thou told'st me thou didst hold him in thy hate.
ROD:
You told me you hated him.
IAGO:
Despise me, if I do not. Three great ones of the city,
In personal suit to make me his lieutenant,
Offcapp'd to him; and, by the faith of man,(10)
I know my price, I am worth no worse a place.
But he, as loving his own pride and purposes,
Evades them with a bombast circumstance
Horribly stuff'd with epithets of war,
And, in conclusion,(15)
Nonsuits my mediators; for, “Certes,” says he,
“I have already chose my officer.”
And what was he?
Forsooth, a great arithmetician,
One Michael Cassio, a Florentine(20)
A fellow almost damn'd in a fair wife
That never set a squadron in the field,
Nor the division of a battle knows
More than a spinster; unless the bookish theoric,
Where in the toga'd consuls can propose(25)
As masterly as he; mere prattle without practice,
Is all his soldiership. But he, sir, had the election;
And I,—of whom his eyes had seen the proof
At Rhodes, at Cyprus, and on other grounds
Christian and heathen,—must be belee'd and calm'd(30)
By debitor and creditor. This countercaster,
He, in good time, must his lieutenant be,
And I—God bless the mark!—his Moorship's ancient.
IAGO:
Despise me, if I don’t. Three major people of the city
Personally ask him to make me his lieutenant,
Take off their hats to him. and, by the faith of man,
I know my price, I am worth that promotion.
But he, loving his own pride and purposes,
Evades them, beating around the bush proudly,
Horribly stuffed with his usual talk of war.
And, in conclusion, tells
My mediators, “No,” because, "Certainly," he says,
"I have already chosen my officer."
And who was he?
Truly, a great arithmetician,
One Michael Cassio, a Florentine,
A fellow almost damned in a having a beautiful wife;
That has never led a squadron in the field,
And doesn’t know the division of a battle any
More than a spinster does, unless the theory books,
In which the consuls wearing togas can propose a plan
As masterly as he can. His war skills are only talk,
Without practice. But he, sir, got the promotion.
And I, who saw what he had done
At Rhodes, at Cyprus, and on other battlegrounds,
Christian and heathen, must be spoken to and calmed
Down by debtor and creditor, this bean counter.
He must be his lieutenant in good time,
And I, God bless the mark! his Moorship's ensign.
ROD:
By heaven, I rather would have been his hangman.
ROD:
By heaven, I would rather have been his hangman.
IAGO:
Why, there's no remedy. 'Tis the curse of service,(35)
Preferment goes by letter and affection,
And not by old gradation, where each second
Stood heir to the first. Now, sir, be judge yourself
Whether I in any just term am affined
To love the Moor.(40)
IAGO:
Why, there's no remedy; it is the curse of the military.
Preference goes by who you know and who likes you,
And not by old system, where each second person
Took the first’s place. Now, sir, judge it for yourself
Whether or I am better suited in any beautiful terms
To love the Moor.
ROD:
I would not follow him then.
ROD:
I wouldn’t follow him then.
IAGO:
O, sir, content you.
I follow him to serve my turn upon him:
We cannot all be masters, nor all masters
Cannot be truly follow'd. You shall mark(45)
Many a duteous and kneecrooking knave,
That doting on his own obsequious bondage
Wears out his time, much like his master's ass,
For naught but provender; and, when he's old, cashier'd.
Whip me such honest knaves. Others there are,(50)
Who, trimm'd in forms and visages of duty,
Keep yet their hearts attending on themselves,
And throwing but shows of service on their lords
Do well thrive by them; and when they have lined their
coats(55)
Do themselves homage. These fellows have some soul,
And such a one do I profess myself.
For, sir,
It is as sure as you are Roderigo,
Were I the Moor, I would not be Iago.(60)
In following him, I follow but myself;
Heaven is my judge, not I for love and duty,
But seeming so, for my peculiar end.
For when my outward action doth demonstrate
The native act and figure of my heart(65)
In complement extern, 'tis not long after
But I will wear my heart upon my sleeve
For daws to peck at: I am not what I am.
IAGO:
O, sir, content you;
I follow him to serve my turn on him.
We all cannot be masters, nor can all masters
Be truly followed. You shall see
Many a duteous and knee-bending rogue
That, doting on his own obedient slavery,
Wears himself out, much like his master's ass,
For nothing but dry oats; and when he's old, dismissed
From the service. I would whip such honest rogues.
There are others who, dressed in uniforms and faces of
duty, that keep their hearts attending on themselves;
And, throwing only shows of service to their lords,
Thrive well by them, and when they have lined their coats,
Do themselves homage. These fellows have some soul;
And someone like that is how I am.
Because, sir,
It is as sure as you are Roderigo,
Were I the Moor, I would not be Iago.
In following him, I follow only myself;
Heaven is my judge for love and duty, not I.
I only seem so for my own peculiar end,
Because when my outward action demonstrates
The native act and figure of my heart
In external complement, it is not long after
That I will only I wear my heart on my sleeve
For crows to peck at. I am not what I am.

[Aside]

ROD:
What a full fortune does the thicklips owe,
If he can carry't thus!(70)
ROD:
What great luck the thick lips have,
If he can get away with this!
IAGO:
Call up her father,
Rouse him:—make after him, poison his delight,
Proclaim him in the streets, incense her kinsmen,
And, though he in a fertile climate dwell,
Plague him with flies. Though that his joy be joy,(75)
Yet throw such changes of vexation on't
As it may lose some color.
IAGO:
Call her father,
Wake him up. annoy him, poison his joy,
Yell for him in the streets; fire up her relatives,
And, although he may live in a pleasant climate,
Plague him with flies. even if his joy is joy,
Still throw such aggravation on it
That he won’t stay happy for long.
ROD:
Here is her father's house; I'll call aloud.
ROD:
Here is her father's house. I'll call loudly.
IAGO:
Do; with like timorous accent and dire yell
As when, by night and negligence, the fire(80)
Is spied in populous cities.
IAGO:
Go ahead; yell with frightening accent and distress
As when a fire
Is seen in big cities at night and by accident.
ROD:
What, ho, Brabantio! Signior Brabantio, ho!
ROD:
What, ho, Brabantio! Signior Brabantio, ho!
IAGO:
Awake! What, ho, Brabantio! thieves! thieves! thieves!
Look to your house, your daughter, and your bags!
Thieves! thieves!(85)
IAGO:
Awake! what, ho, Brabantio! Thieves! Thieves! Thieves!
Look at your house, your daughter, and your bags!
Thieves! Thieves!

Brabantio appears above, at a window.

BRAB:
What is the reason of this terrible summons?
What is the matter there?
BRAB:
What is the reason for this terrible summons?
What’s the matter there?
ROD:
Signior, is all your family within?
ROD:
Signior, is your family all inside?
IAGO:
Are your doors lock'd?
IAGO:
Are your doors locked?
BRAB:
Why? Wherefore ask you this?(90)
BRAB:
Why, why ask you this?
IAGO:
'Zounds, sir, you're robb'd! For shame, put on your
gown;
Your heart is burst, you have lost half your soul;
Even now, now, very now, an old black ram
Is tupping your white ewe. Arise, arise!(95)
Awake the snorting citizens with the bell,
Or else the devil will make a grandsire of you.
Arise, I say!
IAGO:
Zounds, sir, you're robbed; for shame, put on
your nightgown; Your heart has burst; you have lost half your soul;
Even now, now, very now, an old black ram
Is screwing your white lamb. Get up, get up;
Wake the snoring citizens with the bell,
Or else the devil will make you a grandfather.
Get up, I say.
BRAB:
What, have you lost your wits?
BRAB:
What, have you lost your wits?
ROD:
Most reverend signior, do you know my voice?(100)
ROD:
Very reverend Signior, do you know my voice?
BRAB:
Not I. What are you?
BRAB:
No, who are you?
ROD:
My name is Roderigo.
ROD:
My name is Roderigo.
BRAB:
The worser welcome.
I have charged thee not to haunt about my doors:
In honest plainness thou hast heard me say(105)
My daughter is not for thee; and now, in madness,—
Being full of supper and distempering draughts,—
Upon malicious bravery, dost thou come
To start my quiet.
BRAB:
The worst welcome.
I have ordered you not to hang around my doors;
In honest plainness, you have heard me say
My daughter is not for you, and now, in madness,
Being full of supper and drunk,
You come, out of maliciousness
To interrupt my sleep.
ROD:
Sir, sir, sir—(110)
ROD:
Sir, sir, sir,
BRAB:
But thou must needs be sure
My spirit and my place have in them power
To make this bitter to thee.
BRAB:
But you must certainly be sure that
My spirit and my place have power in them
To make this bitter to you.
ROD:
Patience, good sir.
ROD:
Patience, good sir.
BRAB:
What tell'st thou me of robbing? This is Venice;(115)
My house is not a grange.
BRAB:
Why are you telling me about robbing? this is Venice;
My house is not a farm.
ROD:
Most grave Brabantio,
In simple and pure soul I come to you.
ROD:
Very grave Brabantio,
I come to you in simple and pure soul.
IAGO:
'Zounds, sir, you are one of those that will not serve
God, if the devil bid you. Because we come to do you(120)
service and you think we are ruffians, you'll have your
daughter covered with a Barbary horse; you'll have your
nephews neigh to you; you'll have coursers for cousins,
and gennets for germans.
IAGO:
Zounds, sir, you are one of those who wouldn’t serve
God if the devil asked you to. Because we are servants,
and you think we are ruffians, you'd have your daughter
covered with a African horse; you'd have your nephews
neigh to you; you'd have chargers for cousins and small
Spanish horses for Germans.
BRAB:
What profane wretch art thou?(125)
BRAB:
Who the hell are you?
IAGO:
I am one, sir, that comes to tell you your daughter and
the Moor are now making the beast with two backs.
IAGO:
I am one, sir, that comes to tell you your daughter and
the Moor are now making a Satan.
BRAB:
Thou art a villain.
BRAB:
You are a villain.
IAGO:
You are—a senator.
IAGO:
You are a senator.
BRAB:
This thou shalt answer; I know thee, Roderigo.(130)
BRAB:
You’ll answer for this. I know you, Roderigo.
ROD:
Sir, I will answer any thing. But, I beseech you,
If't be your pleasure and most wise consent,
As partly I find it is, that your fair daughter,
At this odd-even and dull watch o' the night,
Transported, with no worse nor better guard(135)
But with a knave of common hire, a gondolier,
To the gross clasps of a lascivious Moor—
If this be known to you, and your allowance,
We then have done you bold and saucy wrongs;
But, if you know not this, my manners tell me(140)
We have your wrong rebuke. Do not believe
That, from the sense of all civility,
I thus would play and trifle with your reverence.
Your daughter, if you have not given her leave,
I say again, hath made a gross revolt,(145)
Tying her duty, beauty, wit, and fortunes
In an extravagant and wheeling stranger
Of here and everywhere. Straight satisfy yourself:
If she be in her chamber or your house,
Let loose on me the justice of the state(150)
For thus deluding you.
ROD:
Sir, I will answer anything. But, I beg you,
If it is your pleasure and very wise consent,
As I find partly it is, know that your beautiful daughter,
At this odd-even and dull hour of the night,
Has been transported with no worse or no better guard
Than a rogue of common hire, a gondolier,
To the gross embraces of a lewd Moor.
If this is known to you, and you permit it,
Then we then have done you bold and impudent wrongs;
But if you don’t know this, my manners tell me
You scold us unfairly. Don’t believe
That, from the sense of all manners,
I would play like this and trifle with you;
Your daughter, if you have not given her permission,
I say again, has made a disgusting rebellion against you;
Tying her duty, beauty, wit, and fortunes
To an extravagant and a wheeling-dealing stranger
From here and everywhere. Satisfy yourself right away.
If she is in her bedroom or in your house
Let the justice of the state arrest me
For deluding you like this.
BRAB:
Strike on the tinder, ho!
Give me a taper! Call up all my people!
This accident is not unlike my dream;
Belief of it oppresses me already.(155)
Light, I say, light!
BRAB:
Light the lights, ho!
Give me a candle! Wake up all my servants!
This accident is not different from my dream.
Believing of it makes me nervous already.
Light, I say! light!

[Exit.]

IAGO:
Farewell, for I must leave you.
It seems not meet, nor wholesome to my place,
To be produced—as, if I stay, I shall—
Against the Moor. For I do know, the state,(160)
However this may gall him with some check,
Cannot with safety cast him; for he's embark'd
With such loud reason to the Cyprus' wars,
Which even now stands in act, that, for their souls,
Another of his fathom they have none(165)
To lead their business; in which regard,
Though I do hate him as I do hell-pains,
Yet for necessity of present life,
I must show out a flag and sign of love,
Which is indeed but sign. That you shall surely find him,(170)
Lead to the Sagittary the raised search,
And there will I be with him. So farewell.
IAGO:
Farewell; because I must leave you.
It doesn’t seem right or suitable to my position
To be a witness (which I will be if I stay),
Against the Moor. because I know the government,
No matter how angry this makes Brabantio with some
Argument, cannot arrest him safely; because he's
Embarked with such loud reason to the Cyprus wars,
Which is being discussed even now, that, to save their
Souls, they have no one of his depth
To lead their armies, in which regard,
Although I hate him as I hate hell pains,
I must still show a flag and sign of love,
To preserve my present life,
Which is indeed only sign. So that you shall surely find
him, lead these searchers to the Sagittary Inn,
And I will be there with him. So, farewell.

Exit.

Enter Brabantio in his nightgown, and Servants with torches.

BRAB:
It is too true an evil: gone she is,
And what's to come of my despised time
Is nought but bitterness.—Now, Roderigo,(175)
Where didst thou see her? —O unhappy girl!—
With the Moor, say'st thou?—Who would be a father!
How didst thou know 'twas she? —O, she deceives me
Past thought!—What said she to you?—Get more tapers.
Raise all my kindred. —Are they married, think you?(180)
BRAB:
It is too true an evil. she is gone;
And what's to come of my life that’s left
Is nothing but bitterness. Now, Roderigo,
Where did you see her? O unhappy girl!
With the Moor, you say? Who would become a father!
How did you know it was she? O, she deceives me
Beyond thought. What did she say to you? Get more
Candles; Wake up all my relatives. Do you think they’re
married?
ROD:
Truly, I think they are.
ROD:
Truly, I think they are.
BRAB:
O heaven!—How got she out? —O treason of the
blood!
Fathers, from hence trust not your daughters' minds
By what you see them act. Are there not charms(185)
By which the property of youth and maidhood
May be abused? Have you not read, Roderigo,
Of some such thing?
BRAB:
O heaven! How did she get out? O treason of the blood!
Fathers, from now on don’t believe you can know your
daughters' minds from the way you see them act. Aren’t
there magic spells which change the natural qualities of
young maids? Haven’t you read, Roderigo,
Of some such thing?
ROD:
Yes, sir, I have indeed.
ROD:
Yes, sir, I have indeed.
BRAB:
Call up my brother. —Do you know(190)
Where we may apprehend her and the Moor?
BRAB:
Call my brother. O, I wish you had had her!
Some one way, some another. Do you know
Where we may catch her and the Moor?
ROD:
I think I can discover him, if you please
To get good guard, and go along with me.
ROD:
I think I can find him, if you’d please
Get a good guard, and go along with me.
BRAB:
Pray you, lead on. At every house I'll call;
I may command at most.—Get weapons, ho!(195)
And raise some special officers of night.—
On, good Roderigo,—I'll deserve your pains.
BRAB:
I beg you, lead on. I’ll call at every house that
Will give me the most help most. Get weapons, ho!
And wake up some special officers of night.
Onward, good Roderigo, I'll reward your pains.

Exeunt.

Scene II

Original Text Modern Translation

[Another street.]

Enter Othello, Iago, and Attendants with torches.

IAGO:
Though in the trade of war I have slain men,
Yet do I hold it very stuff o' the conscience
To do no contrived murder. I lack iniquity
Sometimes to do me service. Nine or ten times
I had thought to have yerk'd him here under the ribs.(5)
IAGO:
Although I have slain men during a war,
I believe it is a grave matter of the conscience
To do a premeditated murder. I don’t have evil in me
Sometimes to do me service. Nine or ten times
I had thought to have stabbed him here under the ribs.
OTHELLO:
'Tis better as it is.
OTHELLO:
It is better as it is.
IAGO:
Nay, but he prated
And spoke such scurvy and provoking terms
Against your honor
That, with the little godliness I have,(10)
I did full hard forbear him. But I pray you, sir,
Are you fast married? Be assured of this,
That the magnifico is much beloved,
And hath in his effect a voice potential
As double as the Duke's. He will divorce you,(15)
Or put upon you what restraint and grievance
The law, with all his might to enforce it on,
Will give him cable.
IAGO:
No, but he chattered on,
And spoke such scurvy and provoking terms
Against your honor,
That, with the little godliness I have,
I worked hard to tolerate him. But, I beg you, sir,
Are you really married? Be assured of this,
That the magnifico is very popular;
And has, in his office, a voice equal
To twice the duke's. he will divorce you;
Or apply to you what restraint and grievance
The law will allow him to do,
With all his might to do it.
OTHELLO:
Let him do his spite.
My services, which I have done the signiory,(20)
Shall out-tongue his complaints. 'Tis yet to know—
Which, when I know that boasting is an honor,
I shall promulgate—I fetch my life and being
From men of royal siege; and my demerits
May speak unbonneted to as proud a fortune(25)
As this that I have reach'd. For know, Iago,
But that I love the gentle Desdemona,
I would not my unhoused free condition
Put into circumscription and confine
For the sea's worth. But, look! What lights come yond?(30)
OTHELLO:
Let him do his worse.
My services that I have done for the signiory
Shall out-shout his complaints. It is still to know,
Which one I shall proclaim, when I know that boasting is
An honor, I earn my living and being
From men of royal battle; and my demerits
May speak publicly to as proud a fortune
As this that I have reached, because know, Iago,
Except that I love the gentle Desdemona,
I would not have my absolutely free condition
Limited and confined
For the sea's worth. But, look! what lights are coming?
IAGO:
Those are the raised father and his friends.
You were best go in.
IAGO:
Those are the awakened father and his friends.
You had better go in.
OTHELLO:
Not I; I must be found.
My parts, my title, and my perfect soul
Shall manifest me rightly. Is it they?(35)
OTHELLO:
Not I; I must be found;
My parts, my title, and my perfect soul
Shall show me truthfully. Is it they?
IAGO:
By Janus, I think no.

Enter Cassio and certain Officers with torches.

IAGO:
By Janus, I don’t think so.
OTHELLO:
The servants of the Duke?
And my lieutenant?
The goodness of the night upon you, friends!
What is the news?(40)
OTHELLO:
The servants of the duke and my lieutenant.
The goodness of the night on you, friends!
What’s the news?
CASSIO:
The Duke does greet you, general,
And he requires your haste-post-haste appearance,
Even on the instant.
CASSIO:
The duke greets you, general;
And he requires your super-speedy appearance
This instant.
OTHELLO:
What is the matter, think you?
OTHELLO:
What’s the matter, do you think?
CASSIO:
Something from Cyprus, as I may divine;(45)
It is a business of some heat. The galleys
Have sent a dozen sequent messengers
This very night at one another's heels;
And many of the consuls, raised and met,
Are at the Duke's already. You have been hotly call'd for;(50)
When, being not at your lodging to be found,
The Senate hath sent about three quests
To search you out.
CASSIO:
Something from Cyprus, as I may guess.
It is a business of some heat. The galleys
Have sent a dozen sequential messengers
This very night at one another's heels;
And many of the consuls, awakened and meeting,
Are at the duke's already. You have been hotly called for;
When, you weren’t found at your lodging,
The senate sent about three different requests
To search for you.
OTHELLO:
'Tis well I am found by you.
I will but spend a word here in the house(55)
And go with you.
OTHELLO:
It is good that you found me.
I will only say one more word here in the house,
And I’ll go with you.

[Exit.]

CASSIO:
Ancient, what makes he here?
CASSIO:
Ensign, what is he doing here?
IAGO:
Faith, he tonight hath boarded a land carack;
If it prove lawful prize, he's made forever.
IAGO:
Faith, he has boarded a land warship tonight.
If it turns out to be a legal prize, he's made forever.
CASSIO:
I do not understand.(60)
CASSIO:
I don’t understand.
IAGO:
He's married.
IAGO:
He's married.
CASSIO:
To who?
CASSIO:
To whom?

[Reenter Othello.]

IAGO:
Marry, to—Come, captain, will you go?
IAGO:
By Mary, to… Come, captain, will you go?
OTHELLO:
Have with you.
OTHELLO:
Let’s go.
CASSIO:
Here comes another troop to seek for you.(65)
CASSIO:
Here comes another group to see for you.
IAGO:
It is Brabantio.—General, be advised;
He comes to bad intent.
IAGO:
It is Brabantio. General, be careful;
He comes with bad intentions.

Enter Brabantio, Roderigo, and Officers with torches and weapons.

OTHELLO:
Holla! Stand there!
OTHELLO:
Stop! Stop there!
ROD:
Signior, it is the Moor.
ROD:
Signior, it is the Moor.
BRAB:
Down with him, thief! They draw on both sides.(70)
BRAB:
Down with him. Thief!
IAGO:
You, Roderigo! Come, sir, I am for you.
IAGO:
You, Roderigo! Come, sir, I will fight you.
OTHELLO:
Keep up your bright swords, for the dew will rust
them.—
Good signior, you shall more command with years
Than with your weapons.(75)
OTHELLO:
Put your bright swords away, because the dew will rust
Them. Good Signior, you shall order more from me with
Years than with your weapons.
BRAB:
O thou foul thief, where hast thou stow'd my
daughter?
Damn'd as thou art, thou hast enchanted her,
For I'll refer me to all things of sense,
If she in chains of magic were not bound,(80)
Whether a maid so tender, fair, and happy,
So opposite to marriage that she shunn'd
The wealthy, curled darlings of our nation,
Would ever have, to incur a general mock,
Run from her guardage to the sooty bosom(85)
Of such a thing as thou—to fear, not to delight.
Judge me the world, if 'tis not gross in sense
That thou hast practiced on her with foul charms;
Abused her delicate youth with drugs or minerals
That weaken motion:—I'll have't disputed on;(90)
'Tis probable, and palpable to thinking.
I therefore apprehend and do attach thee
For an abuser of the world, a practicer
Of arts inhibited and out of warrant.—
Lay hold upon him. If he do resist,(95)
Subdue him at his peril.
BRAB:
O you foul thief, where have you hidden my daughter?
Damned as you are, you have cast a spell on her;
Because I'll restore myself to all things of sense,
If she wasn’t bound in chains of magic,
Would a maid so tender, beautiful, and happy,
So opposed to marriage that she shunned
The wealthy, curled darlings of our country,
Would she ever have, to merit a public joke,
Run from her father to the black bosom
Of a thing such as you, to fear, not to delight in?
The world will judge me, if it is not evil in feeling
That you have cast disgusting spells on her,
Abused her delicate youth with drugs or minerals
That knocked her out. I'll have it judged;
It is probable and tangible to thinking.
I therefore arrest and attack you
As an abuser of the world, a practitioner
Of the forbidden and illegal arts.
Seize him! If he resists,
Subdue him at his peril.
OTHELLO:
Hold your hands,
Both you of my inclining, and the rest:
Were it my cue to fight, I should have known it
Without a prompter.—Where will you that I go(100)
To answer this your charge?
OTHELLO:
Stop,
Both you my friends, and the rest.
Were it my cue to fight, I should have known it
Without a prompter. Where will you take me so that I can
Answer this your charge?
BRAB:
To prison; till fit time
Of law and course of direct session,
Call thee to answer.
BRAB:
To prison until the right time
Of law and course of justice
Call you to answer.
OTHELLO:
What if I do obey?(105)
How may the Duke be therewith satisfied,
Whose messengers are here about my side,
Upon some present business of the state
To bring me to him?
OTHELLO:
What if I obey?
How may the duke be satisfied with that,
Whose messengers are here by my side,
On some urgent business of the state,
To bring me to him?
FIRST OFFICER:
'Tis true, most worthy signior;(110)
The Duke's in council, and your noble self,
I am sure, is sent for.
FIRST OFFICER:
It is true, very worthy Signior;
The duke's in council, and your noble self,
I am sure, is sent for.
BRAB:
How? The Duke in council?
In this time of the night?—Bring him away;
Mine's not an idle cause. The Duke himself,(115)
Or any of my brothers of the state,
Cannot but feel this wrong as 'twere their own;
For if such actions may have passage free,
Bond-slaves and pagans shall our statesmen be.
BRAB:
What! The duke in council!
AT this time of the night! Take him away.
Mine's not an trivial matter. The duke himself,
Or any of my brothers of the state,
Can only feel this wrong as if it were their own;
Because if such actions may have passage free,
Bond slaves and pagans shall be our statesmen.

Exeunt.

Scene III

Original Text Modern Translation

[A council chamber.]

Enter Duke and Senators, set at a table with lights and attendants.

DUKE:
There is no composition in these news
That gives them credit.
DUKE:
There is no written in this news
That makes them believable.
FIRST SENATOR:
Indeed they are disproportion'd;
My letters say a hundred and seven galleys.
FIRST SENATOR:
Indeed, they are out of proportion;
My letters say a hundred and seven galleys.
DUKE:
And mine, a hundred and forty.(5)
DUKE:
And mine a hundred and forty.
SECOND SENATOR:
And mine, two hundred.
But though they jump not on a just account—
As in these cases, where the aim reports,
'Tis oft with difference—yet do they all confirm
A Turkish fleet, and bearing up to Cyprus.(10)
SECOND SENATOR:
And mine two hundred.
But although they don’t give a true account,
As in these cases, where the goal tells the story,
It is often with differences. Still they all confirm
A Turkish fleet, and sailing to Cyprus.
DUKE:
Nay, it is possible enough to judgement:
I do not so secure me in the error,
But the main article I do approve
In fearful sense.
DUKE:
No, it is accurate enough to judge.
I’m not so convinced of the error,
But I do believe the report’s intentions
In fearful sense.

[Within.]

SAILOR:
What, ho! What, ho! What, ho!(15)
SAILOR:
What, ho! what, ho! what, ho!

[Enter Sailor.]

FIRST OFFICER:
A messenger from the galleys.
FIRST OFFICER:
A messenger from the galleys.
DUKE:
Now, what's the business?
DUKE:
Now, what's the latest?
SAILOR:
The Turkish preparation makes for Rhodes;
So was I bid report here to the state
By Signior Angelo.(20)
SAILOR:
The Turkish armies are headed for Rhodes;
So I was asked to report here to the state
By Signior Angelo.
DUKE:
How say you by this change?
DUKE:
What do you say about this change?
FIRST SENATOR:
This cannot be,
By no assay of reason; 'tis a pageant
To keep us in false gaze. When we consider
The importancy of Cyprus to the Turk;(25)
And let ourselves again but understand
That as it more concerns the Turk than Rhodes,
So may he with more facile question bear it,
For that it stands not in such warlike brace,
But altogether lacks the abilities(30)
That Rhodes is dress'd in;—
If we make thought of this,
We must not think the Turk is so unskillful
To leave that latest which concerns him first,
Neglecting an attempt of ease and gain,(35)
To wake and wage a danger profitless.
FIRST SENATOR:
This cannot be,
By any test of reason. It is a parade
To trick us into false vision. When we consider
The importance of Cyprus to the Turks,
And let ourselves again only understand
That, as it more concerns the Turks than Rhodes,
The Turks may bear it with easier question,
Because it is not in such warlike position,
But altogether lacks the abilities
That Rhodes is dressed in. If we think about this,
We must not think the Turks are so unskillful
To leave which concerns them first to the last,
Neglecting a try for ease and gain,
To wake and wage a profitless danger.
DUKE:
Nay, in all confidence, he's not for Rhodes.
DUKE:
No, in all confidence, the Turks are not going to Rhodes.
FIRST OFFICER:
Here is more news.
FIRST OFFICER:
Here is more news.

[Enter a Messenger.]

MESSENGER:
The Ottomites, reverend and gracious,
Steering with due course toward the isle of Rhodes,(40)
Have there injointed them with an after fleet.
MESSENGER:
The Ottoman, reverend and gracious,
Steering with due course toward the isle of Rhodes,
Have joined a later fleet there with them.
FIRST SENATOR:
Ay, so I thought. How many, as you guess?
FIRST SENATOR:
Yes, so I thought. How many, do you guess?
MESSENGER:
Of thirty sail; and now they do restem
Their backward course, bearing with frank appearance
Their purposes toward Cyprus. Signior Montano,(45)
Your trusty and most valiant servitor,
With his free duty recommends you thus,
And prays you to believe him.
MESSENGER:
About thirty ships. And now they returned via
Their backward course, bearing, with frank appearance,
Toward Cyprus. Signior Montano,
Your trusty and very valiant servant,
Salutes you like this, with his free duty,
And begs you to believe him.
DUKE:
'Tis certain then for Cyprus.
Marcus Luccicos, is not he in town?(50)
DUKE:
It is certain, then, for Cyprus.
Marcus Luccicos, isn’t he in town?
FIRST SENATOR:
He's now in Florence.
FIRST SENATOR:
He's now in Florence.
DUKE:
Write from us to him, postposthaste dispatch.
DUKE:
Write to him from us; send it very, very quickly.
FIRST SENATOR:
Here comes Brabantio and the valiant Moor.
FIRST SENATOR:
Here comes Brabantio and the valiant Moor.

Enter Brabantio, Othello, Iago, Roderigo, and Officers.

DUKE:
Valiant Othello, we must straight employ you
Against the general enemy Ottoman.(55)
I did not see you; welcome, gentle signior;
We lack'd your counsel and your help tonight.
DUKE:
Valiant Othello, we must straight send you
Against the general enemy Ottoman.
I didn’t see you; welcome, gentle Signior;
We missed your advice and your help tonight.
BRAB:
So did I yours. Good your Grace, pardon me:
Neither my place nor aught I heard of business
Hath raised me from my bed, nor doth the general care(60)
Take hold on me; for my particular grief
Is of so floodgate and o'erbearing nature
That it engluts and swallows other sorrows,
And it is still itself.
BRAB:
And I missed yours. Your good grace, pardon me;
Neither my place or anything I have heard of business
Has gotten me out of bed. Nor does public safety
Concern me, because my particular grief
Is of so massive and overbearing nature
That it engulfs and swallows other sorrows,
And it is still itself.
DUKE:
Why, what's the matter?(65)
DUKE:
Why, what's the matter?
BRAB:
My daughter! O, my daughter!
BRAB:
My daughter! O, my daughter!
ALL:
Dead?
ALL:
Dead?
BRAB:
Ay, to me.
She is abused, stol'n from me and corrupted
By spells and medicines bought of mountebanks;(70)
For nature so preposterously to err,
Being not deficient, blind, or lame of sense,
Sans witchcraft could not.
BRAB:
Yes, to me;
She is abused, stolen from me, and corrupted
By spells and medicines bought of false medicine men
Because, in order for nature to make such a
preposterous Mistake, being not deficient, blind, or crazy,
It couldn’t be done without witchcraft.
DUKE:
Whoe'er he be that in this foul proceeding
Hath thus beguiled your daughter of herself(75)
And you of her, the bloody book of law
You shall yourself read in the bitter letter
After your own sense.
DUKE:
Whoever he is that, in this disgusting event,
Has tricked your daughter of herself like this,
And you of her, the bloody book of law
You shall read yourself to the bitter letter of it
As you see fit.
BRAB:
Humbly I thank your Grace.
Here is the man, this Moor; whom now, it seems,(80)
Your special mandate for the state affairs
Hath hither brought.
BRAB:
Humbly I thank your grace.
Here is the man, this Moor; who now, it seems,
Has been brought here by
Your special mandate for the state affairs.
ALL:
We are very sorry for't.
ALL:
We are very sorry for it .
DUKE:
What in your own part can you say to this?
DUKE:
What, in your own part, can you say to this?
BRAB:
Nothing, but this is so.(85)
BRAB:
Nothing, but that this is so.
OTHELLO:
Most potent, grave, and reverend signiors,
My very noble and approved good masters,
That I have ta'en away this old man's daughter,
It is most true; true, I have married her;
The very head and front of my offending(90)
Hath this extent, no more. Rude am I in my speech,
And little blest with the soft phrase of peace;
For since these arms of mine had seven years' pith,
Till now some nine moons wasted, they have used
Their dearest action in the tented field,(95)
And little of this great world can I speak,
More than pertains to feats of broil and battle;
And therefore little shall I grace my cause
In speaking for myself. Yet, by your gracious patience,
I will a round unvarnish'd tale deliver(100)
Of my whole course of love: what drugs, what charms,
What conjuration, and what mighty magic
For such proceeding I am charged withal
I won his daughter.
OTHELLO:
Very potent, grave, and reverend signiors,
My very noble and approved good masters,
That I have taken away this old man's daughter,
Is very true; true, I have married her.
The very top and bottom of my crime
Is this big, no more. I don’t speak well,
And I am little blessed with the soft phrase of peace
Because, since these arms of mine were seven years'
old, until now some nine months past, they have used
Their dearest actions on the battlefield;
And I can speak little of this great world,
Only what relates to feats of war and battle;
And therefore I shall grace my cause little
By speaking for myself. Yet, by your gracious patience,
I will deliver a round truthful tale
Of my whole course of love, by what drugs, what charms,
What invocation, and what mighty magic,
Because I am charged with such crimes,
I won his daughter.
BRAB:
A maiden never bold;(105)
Of spirit so still and quiet that her motion
Blush'd at herself; and she—in spite of nature,
Of years, of country, credit, everything—
To fall in love with what she fear'd to look on!
It is judgement maim'd and most imperfect,(110)
That will confess perfection so could err
Against all rules of nature, I therefore vouch again,
That with some mixtures powerful o'er the blood,
Or with some dram conjured to this effect,
He wrought upon her.(115)
BRAB:
A maiden never bold,
Of a spirit so still and quiet that she blushed at her own
Movements; and she, in spite of nature,
Of years, of country, reputation, everything,
To fall in love with what she feared to look at!
It is a judgment maimed and very imperfect
That will confess perfection could be so wrong,
Against all rules of nature; and it must be driven
To find out practices of cunning hell,
Why this should be. I therefore testify again,
That he worked on her with some mixtures powerful over
the blood,
Or with some dram that produced this effect.
DUKE:
To vouch this, is no proof,
Without more certain and more overt test
Than these thin habits and poor likelihoods
Of modern seeming do prefer against him.
DUKE:
To testify is not proof,
Without wider and more open tests
Than these thin habits and poor probabilities
Of modern liking prefer against him.
FIRST SENATOR:
But, Othello, speak.(120)
Did you by indirect and forced courses
Subdue and poison this young maid's affections?
Or came it by request, and such fair question
As soul to soul affordeth?
FIRST SENATOR:
But, Othello, speak.
Did you, by indirect and forced methods,
Subdue and poison this young maid's affections?
Or did she ask for them, with such a beautiful question
As soul to soul allows?
OTHELLO:
I do beseech you,(125)
Send for the lady to the Sagittary,
And let her speak of me before her father:
If you do find me foul in her report,
The trust, the office I do hold of you,
Not only take away, but let your sentence(130)
Even fall upon my life.
OTHELLO:
I beg you,
Send to the Sagittary Inn for the lady,
And let her speak of me before her father.
If you find me evil after hearing her,
The trust, the office I hold of you,
Not only take away, but also let your sentence
Fall even on my life.
DUKE:
Fetch Desdemona hither.
DUKE:
Fetch Desdemona here.

Exit two or three.

OTHELLO:
Ancient, conduct them; you best know the place.

[Exit Iago]

And till she come, as truly as to heaven
I do confess the vices of my blood,(135)
So justly to your grave ears I'll present
How I did thrive in this fair lady's love
And she in mine.
OTHELLO:
Ensign, go with them; you know the place best.

And, until she comes, as truly as
I confess the vices of my blood to heaven,
So I'll present truthfully, to your hearing,
How I thrived in this beautiful lady's love,
And she in mine.

DUKE:
Say it, Othello.
DUKE:
Tell it, Othello.
OTHELLO:
Her father loved me, oft invited me,(140)
Still question'd me the story of my life
From year to year, the battles, sieges, fortunes,
That I have pass'd.
I ran it through, even from my boyish days
To the very moment that he bade me tell it:(145)
Wherein I spake of most disastrous chances,
Of moving accidents by flood and field,
Of hairbreadth 'scapes i' the imminent deadly breach,
Of being taken by the insolent foe,
And sold to slavery, of my redemption thence,(150)
And portance in my travels' history;
Wherein of antres vast and deserts idle,
Rough quarries, rocks, and hills whose heads touch heaven,
It was my hint to speak,— such was the process;
And of the Cannibals that each other eat,(155)
The Anthropophagi, and men whose heads
Do grow beneath their shoulders. This to hear
Would Desdemona seriously incline;
But still the house affairs would draw her thence,
Which ever as she could with haste dispatch,(160)
She'ld come again, and with a greedy ear
Devour up my discourse; which I observing,
Took once a pliant hour, and found good means
To draw from her a prayer of earnest heart
That I would all my pilgrimage dilate,(165)
Whereof by parcels she had something heard,
But not intentively. I did consent,
And often did beguile her of her tears
When I did speak of some distressful stroke
That my youth suffer'd. My story being done,(170)
She gave me for my pains a world of sighs;
She swore, in faith, 'twas strange, 'twas passing strange;
'Twas pitiful, 'twas wondrous pitiful.
She wish'd she had not heard it, yet she wish'd
That heaven had made her such a man; she thank'd me,(175)
And bade me, if I had a friend that loved her,
I should but teach him how to tell my story,
And that would woo her. Upon this hint I spake:
She loved me for the dangers I had pass'd,
And I loved her that she did pity them.(180)
This only is the witchcraft I have used.
Here comes the lady; let her witness it.
OTHELLO:
Her father loved me, often invited me;
Still questioned me the story of my life,
From year to year, the battles, sieges, fortunes,
That I have been in.
I ran through it, even from my childhood days
To the very moment that he asked me tell it.
I spoke of very disastrous bad luck,
Of moving accidents by flood and field;
Of hair-breadth escapes in the imminent deadly battle;
Of being taken prisoner by the strange enemy,
And sold into slavery; of my redemption then,
And behavior in the story of my travels.
It was my habit to speak about vast caves and idle
Deserts, rough quarries, rocks, and hills whose heads
Touch heaven. That was the way it went;
And about the Cannibals that eat each other,
The Man-Eaters, and men whose heads
Grow beneath their shoulders. To hear this,
Desdemona would seriously listen,
But still the house affairs would draw her away,
Which she would finish in a great hurry, and
She’d come again, and eat up my stories
With a greedy ear, which I observing,
Once I took a rare hour; and found good ways
To draw a prayer of earnest enthusiasm from her
So that I would lengthen all my stories,
Which she had already heard bits and pieces of,
But not all of them. I agreed
And often I cheated her of her tears,
When I spoke of some distressful event
I had suffered in my youth. My story being done,
She gave me a world of sighs for my pains.
She swore, really, it was strange, it was passing strange;
It was pitiful, it was wondrously pitiful.
She wished she had not heard it, still she wished
That heaven made her such a man. She thanked me;
And begged me, that if I had a friend that loved her,
I should only teach him how to tell my story,
And that would court her. On this hint I spoke.
She loved me for the dangers I had passed;
And I loved her that she pitied them.
This is the only witchcraft I have used.
Here comes the lady; let her verify it.

Enter Desdemona, Iago, and the rest.

DUKE:
I think this tale would win my daughter too.
Good Brabantio,
Take up this mangled matter at the best:(185)
Men do their broken weapons rather use
Than their bare hands.
DUKE:
I think this tale would win my daughter too.
Good Brabantio,
Consider this mess at its best.
Men would rather use their broken weapons
Than their bare hands.
BRAB:
I pray you, hear her speak:
If she confess that she was half the wooer,
Destruction on my head, if my bad blame(190)
Light on the man! Come hither, gentle mistress:
Do you perceive in all this noble company
Where most you owe obedience?
BRAB:
I beg you, hear her speak.
If she confesses that she was half the lover,
Destruction on my head, if I falsely
Accuse the man! Come here, gentle mistress.
Do you see in all this noble company
To whom you owe the very obedience?
DESD:
My noble father,
I do perceive here a divided duty.(195)
To you I am bound for life and education;
My life and education both do learn me
How to respect you; you are the lord of duty,
I am hitherto your daughter. But here's my husband,
And so much duty as my mother show'd(200)
To you, preferring you before her father,
So much I challenge that I may profess
Due to the Moor, my lord.
DESD:
My noble father,
I see a divided duty here.
To you I am bound for my life and education;
My life and education both teach me
How to respect you; you are the lord of duty,
I am therefore your daughter. But here's my husband;
And as much duty as my mother showed
To you, preferring you before her father,
So much I dispute that I may profess
Due to the Moor, my lord.
BRAB:
God be with you! I have done.
Please it your Grace, on to the state affairs;(205)
I had rather to adopt a child than get it.
Come hither, Moor:
I here do give thee that with all my heart
Which, but thou hast already, with all my heart
I would keep from thee. For your sake, jewel,(210)
I am glad at soul I have no other child;
For thy escape would teach me tyranny,
To hang clogs on them. I have done, my lord.
BRAB:
God be with you! I’m done.
Please your grace, go on with state affairs.
I’d rather to adopt a child than father it.
Come here, Moor.
I here give you that with all my heart
That, except you already have it, I would keep from you
With all my heart . For your sake, jewel,
I am glad at soul I have no other child,
Because your escape would teach me tyranny,
To hang logs on them. I’m done, my lord.
DUKE:
Let me speak like yourself, and lay a sentence
Which, as a grise or step, may help these lovers(215)
Into your favor.
When remedies are past, the griefs are ended
By seeing the worst, which late on hopes depended.
To mourn a mischief that is past and gone
Is the next way to draw new mischief on.(220)
What cannot be preserved when fortune takes,
Patience her injury a mockery makes.
The robb'd that smiles steals something from the thief;
He robs himself that spends a bootless grief.
DUKE:
Let me speak as you would; and lay a sentence
Which, as a grace or step, may help these lovers
Into your favor.
When remedies are too late, griefs are ended
By seeing the worst, which hopes lately depended on.
To mourn mischief that is over and gone
Is the next way to create new mischief.
What cannot be preserved when fortune takes it,
Patience makes a mockery of her injury.
The victim that smiles steals something from the thief;
He robs himself that spends a unprofitable grief.
BRAB:
So let the Turk of Cyprus us beguile;(225)
We lose it not so long as we can smile.
He bears the sentence well, that nothing bears
But the free comfort which from thence he hears;
But he bears both the sentence and the sorrow
That, to pay grief, must of poor patience borrow.(230)
These sentences, to sugar or to gall,
Being strong on both sides, are equivocal.
But words are words; I never yet did hear
That the bruised heart was pierced through the ear.
I humbly beseech you, proceed to the affairs of state.(235)
BRAB:
So let the Turk of Cyprus cheat us;
We don’t lose it as long as we can smile;
He takes the sentence well, that shows nothing
But the free comfort which he hears from it;
Only he bears both the sentence and the sorrow
That must be borrowed from poor patience to pay grief.
These sentences, to sweetness or to bitterness,
Being strong on both sides, are equal.
But words are words. I haven’t yet heard
That the bruised heart was pierced through the ear.
I humbly beg you, proceed to the affairs of state.
DUKE:
The Turk with a most mighty preparation makes for
Cyprus. Othello, the fortitude of the place is best
known to you; and though we have there a substitute of
most allowed sufficiency, yet opinion, a sovereign
mistress of effects, throws a more safer voice on you. You(240)
must therefore be content to slubber the gloss of your
new fortunes with this more stubborn and boisterous
expedition.
DUKE:
The Turk with very mighty preparation makes for Cyprus.
Othello, the strength of the place is best known to you;
and although we have there a force that is more than
adequate, yet public opinion, a sovereign mistress of
effects, say we need a safer voice, like you. You must
therefore be content to conceal the gloss of your new
fortunes with this more stubborn and violent expedition.
OTHELLO:
The tyrant custom, most grave senators,
Hath made the flinty and steel couch of war(245)
My thrice driven bed of down. I do agnize
A natural and prompt alacrity
I find in hardness; and do undertake
These present wars against the Ottomites.
Most humbly therefore bending to your state,(250)
I crave fit disposition for my wife,
Due reference of place and exhibition,
With such accommodation and besort
As levels with her breeding.
OTHELLO:
The dictator, custom, very grave senators,
Has made the stone and steel couch of war
My feather bed three times. I recognize
A natural and prompt speed that
I find in hardness, and undertake
These present wars against the Ottoman.
Very humbly, therefore, bowing to your state,
I’d like proper provisions for my wife,
Proper respect for housing and subsidy,
With such accommodation and suitable company
As is equal with her breeding.
DUKE:
If you please,(255)
Be't at her father's.
DUKE:
If you please,
Let it be at her father's.
BRAB:
I'll not have it so.
BRAB:
If you please,
Let it be at her father's.
OTHELLO:
Nor I.
OTHELLO:
Nor I.
DESD:
Nor I. I would not there reside
To put my father in impatient thoughts(260)
By being in his eye. Most gracious Duke,
To my unfolding lend your prosperous ear.
DESD:
Nor I. I would not live there,
To put my father into violent thoughts,
By being always in his sight. Very gracious duke,
Listen with a gracious ear to my request,
And let me find a contract in your voice
To assist my simpleness.
DUKE:
What would you, Desdemona?
DUKE:
What would you have, Desdemona?
DESD:
That I did love the Moor to live with him,
My downright violence and storm of fortunes(265)
May trumpet to the world. My heart's subdued
Even to the very quality of my lord:
I saw Othello's visage in his mind,
And to his honors and his valiant parts
Did I my soul and fortunes consecrate.(270)
So that, dear lords, if I be left behind,
A moth of peace, and he go to the war,
The rites for which I love him are bereft me,
And I a heavy interim shall support
By his dear absence. Let me go with him.(275)
DESD:
That I loved the Moor to live with him,
My downright violence and storm of fortunes
May shout to the world. My heart's overcome,
Even to the very quality of my lord.
I saw Othello's face in his mind,
And I consecrated my soul and fortunes
To his honors and his valiant parts.
So much so, dear lords, if I am left behind,
A moth of peace, and he goes to the war,
The rites for which I love him I am deprived of,
And I shall endure a sad interval caused
By his dear absence. Let me go with him.
OTHELLO:
Let her have your voices.
Vouch with me, heaven, I therefore beg it not
To please the palate of my appetite;
Nor to comply with heat the young affects
In me defunct—and proper satisfaction;(280)
But to be free and bounteous to her mind;
And heaven defend your good souls, that you think
I will your serious and great business scant
For she is with me. No, when lightwing'd toys
Of feather'd Cupid seel with wanton dullness(285)
My speculative and officed instruments,
That my disports corrupt and taint my business,
Let housewives make a skillet of my helm,
And all indign and base adversities
Make head against my estimation!(290)
OTHELLO:
Let her have your votes.
Be my witness, heaven, I do not beg it
To please the palate of my appetite,
Or to comply with passion, the young effects of it
Dead in me, and proper satisfaction;
But to be free and generous to her mind.
And heaven defend your good souls, that you think
I will neglect your serious and great business
Because she is with me. No, when light-winged toys
Of feathered Cupid blind my knowing and
Usual instruments of sight with unruly dullness,
That if my games corrupt and stain my work,
Let housewives make a skillet of my helmet,
And all indignities and base adversities
Make a boil of my reputation!
DUKE:
Be it as you shall privately determine,
Either for her stay or going: the affair cries haste,
And speed must answer't: you must hence tonight.
DUKE:
Let it be as you shall determine privately,
Either for her staying or going. The affair cries for haste,
And speed must answer it.
DESD:
Tonight, my lord?
DESD:
Tonight, my lord?
DUKE:
This night.(295)
DUKE:
This night.
OTHELLO:
With all my heart.
OTHELLO:
With all my heart.
DUKE:
At nine i' the morning here we'll meet again.
Othello, leave some officer behind,
And he shall our commission bring to you;
With such things else of quality and respect(300)
As doth import you.
DUKE:
At nine in the morning, we'll meet here again.
Othello, leave some officer behind,
And he shall bring our commission to you,
With such things of quality and respect
As are important to you.
OTHELLO:
So please your Grace, my ancient;
A man he is of honesty and trust.
To his conveyance I assign my wife,
With what else needful your good Grace shall think(305)
To be sent after me.
OTHELLO:
So please your grace, I assign my wife
To the care of my ensign,
A man of honesty and trust,
With whatever else your good grace shall think is
necessary to be sent after me.
DUKE:
Let it be so.
Good night to everyone.
And, noble signior,
If virtue no delighted beauty lack,(310)
Your son-in-law is far more fair than black.
DUKE:
Let it be so.
Good night to everyone.
And, noble Signior,
If virtue is missing delightful beauty,
Your son-in-law is far more just than black.
FIRST SENATOR:
Adieu, brave Moor, use Desdemona well.
FIRST SENATOR:
Goodbye, brave Moor; be kind to Desdemona.
BRAB:
Look to her, Moor, if thou hast eyes to see;
She has deceived her father, and may thee.
BRAB:
Watch her, Moor, if you have eyes to see.
She has deceived her father, and may deceive you.

Exeunt [Duke, Senators, and Officers.]

OTHELLO:
My life upon her faith! Honest Iago,(315)
My Desdemona must I leave to thee:
I prithee, let thy wife attend on her;
And bring them after in the best advantage.
Come, Desdemona, I have but an hour
Of love, of worldly matters and direction,(320)
To spend with thee: We must obey the time.
OTHELLO:
My life on her faith in me! Honest Iago,
I must leave my Desdemona to you.
I beg you, let your wife attend on her;
And bring them in the best way after I leave.
Come, Desdemona, I have only an hour
Of love, of worldly matters and direction,
To spend with you. We must obey the time.

[Exeunt [Othello] and Desdemona.]

ROD:
Iago!
ROD:
Iago?
IAGO:
What say'st thou, noble heart?
IAGO:
What do you say, noble heart?
ROD:
What will I do, thinkest thou?
ROD:
What will I do, do you think?
IAGO:
Why, go to bed and sleep.(325)
IAGO:
Why, go to bed and sleep.
ROD:
I will incontinently drown myself.
ROD:
I will drown myself immediately.
IAGO:
If thou dost, I shall never love thee after.
Why, thou silly gentleman!
IAGO:
If you do, I shall never love you after. Why, you silly
gentleman!
ROD:
It is silliness to live when to live is torment, and then
have we a prescription to die when death is our physician.(330)
ROD:
It is silliness to live when to live is torment; and then we
have a prescription to die when death is our physician.
IAGO:
O villainous! I have looked upon the world for four
times seven years, and since I could distinguish betwixt a
benefit and an injury, I never found man that knew how
to love himself. Ere I would say I would drown myself for
the love of a guinea hen, I would change my humanity(335)
with a baboon.
IAGO:
O villainous! I have looked on the world for twenty eight
years, and since I could distinguish between a benefit
and a disadvantage, I’ve never found man that knew how
to love himself. Before I would say I would drown myself
for the love of a chicken, I would exchange my humanity
with a baboon.
ROD:
What should I do? I confess it is my shame to be so
fond, but it is not in my virtue to amend it.
ROD:
What should I do? I confess it is my shame to be so
crazy in love, but it is not in my virtue to fix it.
IAGO:
Virtue? a fig! 'Tis in ourselves that we are thus or thus.
Our bodies are gardens, to the which our wills are(340)
gardeners; so that if we will plant nettles or sow lettuce,
set hyssop and weed up thyme, supply it with one gender
of herbs or distract it with many, either to have it sterile
with idleness or manured with industry, why, the power and
corrigible authority of this lies in our wills. If the balance(345)
of our lives had not one scale of reason to poise another
of sensuality, the blood and baseness of our natures would
conduct us to most preposterous conclusions. But we have
reason to cool our raging motions, our carnal stings, our
unbitted lusts.(350)
IAGO:
Virtue! A fig! It is in ourselves that we are like this or like
that. Our bodies are gardens, to the which our wills are
gardeners. If we will plant stinging plants or sow lettuce,
plant hyssop and dig up thyme, supply it with only one
kind of herbs or plant it with many, either to have it
wild with inattention or manured with hard work— why, the
power and weak authority of this lies in our wills. If the
balance of our lives had not one scale of reason to
balance another of sensuality, the blood and baseness of
our natures would lead us to very preposterous
conclusions. But we have reason to cool our raging
motions, our sexual stings, our forbidden lusts, which as I
take this thing that you call love, to be a class or father.
ROD:
It cannot be.
ROD:
It cannot be.
IAGO:
It is merely a lust of the blood and a permission of the
will. Come, be a man! Drown thyself? Drown cats and blind
puppies! I have professed me thy friend, and I confess me
knit to thy deserving with cables of perdurable tough-(355)
ness; I could never better stead thee than now. Put money
in thy purse; follow thou the wars; defeat thy favor with an
usurped beard. I say, put money in thy purse. It cannot be
that Desdemona should long continue her love to the
Moor—put money in thy purse—nor he his to her. It was a(360)
violent commencement, and thou shalt see an answer-
able sequestration; put but money in thy purse. These
Moors are changeable in their wills:—fill thy purse with
money. The food that to him now is as luscious as locusts,
shall be to him shortly as acerb as the coloquintida.(365)
She must change for youth; when she is sated with his
body, she will find the error of her choice. She must have
change, she must; therefore put money in thy purse. If thou
wilt needs damn thyself, do it a more delicate way than
drowning. Make all the money thou canst. If sanctimony(370)
and a frail vow betwixt an erring barbarian and a supersub-
tle Venetian be not too hard for my wits and all the tribe of
hell, thou shalt enjoy her; therefore make money. A pox of
drowning thyself! It is clean out of the way. Seek thou
rather to be hanged in compassing thy joy than to be(375)
drowned and go without her.
IAGO:
It is merely a lust of the blood and a permission of the
will. Come, be a man. drown yourself! Drown cats and
blind puppies. I have professed myself to be your friend,
and I confess I knit with cables of lasting toughness to
your merit. I could never be a better friend to you than
now. Put money in your purse; follow the wars; defeat
your mood with an false beard; I say, put
money in your purse. It can’t be that Desdemona should
continue her love to the Moor for long— put money in
your purse— nor he his love to her. It had a violent
beginning, and you shall see an answerable separation—
put only money in your purse.—These Moors are
changeable in their wills. Fill your purse with money. The
food that is now as luscious as locusts to him shall be
shortly be as bitter as the bitter apple drug. She must
change for youth. When she is full with his body,
she will see the error of her choice. She must have change, she
must. Therefore, put money in your purse. If you must
damn yourself, do it a more delicate way than drowning.
Make all the money you can; if holiness and a frail vow
between an erring barbarian and a super-subtle Venetian
are not too hard for my wits and all the tribe of hell, you
shall enjoy her. Therefore make money. A pox on
drowning yourself! It is clean out of the way. Rather seek
to be hanged in planning your joy than to be drowned
and go without her.
ROD:
Wilt thou be fast to my hopes, if I depend on the issue?
ROD:
Will you be committed to my hopes, if I depend on you?
IAGO:
Thou art sure of me; go, make money. I have told thee
often, and I retell thee again and again, I hate the Moor. My
cause is hearted; thine hath no less reason. Let us be(380)
conjunctive in our revenge against him. If thou canst
cuckold him, thou dost thyself a pleasure, me a sport.
There are many events in the womb of time which will be
delivered. Traverse, go, provide thy money. We will have
more of this tomorrow. Adieu.(385)
IAGO:
You are sure of me. Go, make money. I have told you
often, and I’ll tell you again and again, I hate the Moor.
My cause is fixed in my heart; yours has no less reason.
Let us be united in our revenge against him. If you can
get his wife, you do yourself a pleasure, me a sport.
There are many events in the womb of time which will be
delivered. Go ahead; go; provide your money. We will
talk about this more of this tomorrow. Goodbye.
ROD:
Where shall we meet i' the morning?
ROD:
Where shall we meet in the morning?
IAGO:
At my lodging.
IAGO:
At my lodging.
ROD:
I'll be with thee betimes.
ROD:
I'll be with you soon.
IAGO:
Go to, farewell. Do you hear, Roderigo?
IAGO:
Go to; farewell. Do you hear me, Roderigo?
ROD:
What say you?(390)
ROD:
What did you say?
IAGO:
No more of drowning, do you hear?
IAGO:
No more about drowning, do you hear?
ROD:
I am changed; I'll go sell all my land.
ROD:
I am changed. I'll go sell all my land.

[Exit Roderigo.]

IAGO:
Thus do I ever make my fool my purse;
For I mine own gain'd knowledge should profane,
If I would time expend with such a snipe(395)
But for my sport and profit. I hate the Moor;
And it is thought abroad that 'twixt my sheets
He has done my office. I know not if't be true;
But I for mere suspicion in that kind
Will do as if for surety. He holds me well;(400)
The better shall my purpose work on him.
Cassio's a proper man. Let me see now:
To get his place, and to plume up my will
In double knavery—How, how? —Let's see—
After some time, to abuse Othello's ear(405)
That he is too familiar with his wife.
He hath a person and a smooth dispose
To be suspected; framed to make women false.
The Moor is of a free and open nature,
That thinks men honest that but seem to be so;(410)
And will as tenderly be led by the nose
As asses are.
I have't. It is engender'd. Hell and night
Must bring this monstrous birth to the world's light.
IAGO:
This is the way I ever make my fool my purse;
Because I should abuse my own gained knowledge
If I would waste time with such a fool
Only for my sport and profit. I hate the Moor;
And it is widely thought that he has done my job
Between my sheets. I don’t know if it is true;
But I will take it as a certainty just because of mere
Suspicion in that way. He trusts me well,
The better my plan will work on him.
Cassio's a proper man. Let me see now,
To get his place, and to congratulate myself
In double trickery, How, how? Let's see.
After some time, to whisper into Othello's ear
That Cassio is too familiar with his wife.
He has a person, and a smooth disposition,
To be suspected, framed to make women lie.
The Moor is of a free and open nature,
That thinks men are honest that only seem to be so;
And will as tenderly be led by the nose
As asses are.
I have it! It is born. Hell and night
Must bring this monstrous birth to the world's light.

Exit.