Ojibwa (American Indians Ready Reference)
The Ojibwa, ancestors of the modern Chippewa, Ojibwa, Mississauga, and Saulteaux, resided along the eastern shore of Georgian Bay, the north shore of Lake Huron, and west onto Michigan's Upper Peninsula before European contact. Changing residence with the seasons, they depended on hunting, fishing, and trading. The Ojibwas’ basic sociopolitical units were small bands that traveled after game. No overall political organization united the bands. In the early 1600's, the Ojibwa encountered Samuel de Champlain, Jesuit missionaries, and coureurs de bois (French trappers).
After 1650, the Ojibwa suffered setbacks from Iroquois raiders and their number declined substantially; however, they recovered before the century ended and pushed their way south, actively involved in the fur trade. Antoine Laumet de Lamothe Cadillac helped draw the Ojibwa south by establishing Detroit in 1701. One effect of the fur trade was growth in band populations and concentrations around trading posts; another was expansion of the band leader's authority and the evolution of leader into a hereditary position. The Ojibwa joined Pontiac in his war against the British in 1763.
In the late 1700's, Ojibwa began ceding land to the British and then to the Americans in the 1800's. Between the 1820's and 1860's, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota Ojibwa ceded much of their lands and were confined to small reservations; only a small number acquiesced to being removed to...
(The entire section is 817 words.)
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Ojibwa (Multicultural America:)
The Ojibwa, or Chippewa as they were also known, are numerically the largest Native American tribe in the United States and Canada. A member of the Algonkian language family, they are spread out around the western Northern Great Lakes region, extending from the northern shore of Lake Huron as far west as Montana, southward well into Wisconsin and Minnesota, and northward to Lake Manitoba. The archaeohgical records show evidence of Indian fishing around 2500 B.C. In those early times, the Ojibwa lived in numerous, widely scattered, small, autonomous bands.
French-Canadian traders bought beaver furs from the Chippewa from 1620 through 1763, until the French were conquered by the British. British trappers, fur traders and Jesuit missionaries (Blackrobes) entered the area and the fishery trade and territorial wars with the Europeans began. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris ended the American Revolution and established the boundary between Canada and the United States, placing the homeland of the Ojibwa in American territory. From the early 1500s to roughly 1840, the North American fur trade brought American Indians and Euro-Americans together in the exchange of goods and furs. Customs were also exchanged, as is documented in this memoir.
Before settlers could legally expand to the northwest into this area, agreements were needed with the Chippewa who occupied...
(The entire section is 4192 words.)