Numeration Systems (Encyclopedia of Science)
Numeration systems are methods for representing quantities. As a simple example, suppose you have a basket of oranges. You might want to keep track of the number of oranges in the basket. Or you might want to sell the oranges to someone else. Or you might simply want to give the basket a numerical code that could be used to tell when and where the oranges came from. In order to perform any of these simple mathematical operations, you would have to begin with some kind of numeration system.
Why numeration systems exist
This example illustrates the three primary reasons that numeration systems exist. First, it is often necessary to tell the number of items contained in a collection or set of those items. To do that, you have to have some method for counting the items. The total number of items is represented by a number known as a cardinal number. If the basket mentioned above contained 30 oranges, then 30 would be a cardinal number since it tells how many of an item there are.
Numbers can also be used to express the rank or sequence or order of items. For example, the individual oranges in the basket could be numbered according to the sequence in which they were picked. Orange #1 would be the first orange picked; orange #2, the second picked; orange #3, the third picked; and so on. Numbers used in this way are known as ordinal numbers....
(The entire section is 1432 words.)
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