Nineteenth-Century American Periodicals
The United States in the nineteenth century saw an exponential rise in the business of periodical publication, a boom that coincided with an era of rapid cultural and geographic growth. New methods of printing and distribution, combined with an increased literacy rate and a developing sense of national identity, helped facilitate this dramatic expansion. Beginning in 1800, when the country supported few periodicals, the industry developed popular readership throughout the country, and by the end of the century the modern mix of general interest and niche publications had been established.
Among the most influential early nineteenth-century periodicals was Joseph Dennie's Port Folio, which appeared for the first time in print on January 3, 1801. Dennie, a native of Philadelphia, hit upon the successful combination of politics and literature to fill the pages of his Federalist weekly. Guided by the strong personality of its editor/publisher, Port Folio set a pattern for future magazines by appealing to a general audience and featuring wit, insightful criticism, political analysis, and a generous amount of fiction and poetry. The magazine reached its zenith in the first decade of the nineteenth century but declined in quality after being sold by Dennie and ceased publication in 1827. The quiet demise of the ground-breaking Port Folio marks the birth of what influential early critic Frank Luther Mott termed the “Golden Age of Magazines” in America. Stretching from 1825 into the 1860s and the opening shots of the American Civil War, the period saw a surge in the number and scope of American periodicals and a dramatic increase in the appetite of audiences for the new monthlies. Prior to this period, the major urban newspapers had established their hegemony over hard news. But as the expanding consumer culture in America came to identify themselves as a nation of readers, the new general magazines met a growing demand for inexpensive, easily available literature that covered topics in a way the newspapers did not. The brilliant entrepreneur George R. Graham launched one of the most successful monthlies of the period. After purchasing two struggling periodicals at the close of the 1830s, he combined them to produce Graham's Magazine, which excelled by producing quality literary offerings between 1840 and 1858. A number of rivals to Graham's appeared at the time, during which hundreds of new magazines exploded on the scene, many with lifetimes measured in months or weeks rather than years. Others, like the New York-based Knickerbocker Magazine (established in 1833), had greater longevity and won audiences by printing the works of such notable American authors as Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, and Nathaniel Hawthorne.
By the 1850s, the American magazine had become a staple of the culture. General monthlies, such as Harper's New Monthly Magazine, featured the latest serialized novels from England and across the country. These existed alongside more specialized periodicals as part of an enormous industry that in its essential qualities closely resembles the diverse magazine market of contemporary times. As Harper's and various other journals gained in readership through the 1850s, new magazines continually appeared. Late in 1857, the first issue of the Boston-based Atlantic Monthly made its debut. In the pages of the magazine appeared the finest and most popular American literature of the era, from the poetry of Ralph Waldo Emerson to the socially incisive fiction of Harriet Beecher Stowe. In the South, Southern Literary Messenger dominated the periodicals market between 1834 and 1864 while dozens of other Southern monthlies started up and then became defunct just a few years later, seemingly unnoticed by fickle Southern readers. An important element in the success of the Messenger, scholars observe, was the editorship of one of America's nineteenth-century literary luminaries, Edgar Allan Poe, between 1835 and 1837—a brief but influential period that set a new standard of excellence among contributed poetry and fiction. While literature flourished in the South, periodicals in the North had increasingly become forums for robust disputation, with arguments over slavery, political corruption, poverty, and the conditions of industrial laborers frequently spread across the pages of popular magazines. But, as interest grew, economic and historical factors continued to sway the industry. The nation experienced a significant financial panic in 1857, causing a number of the less-established magazines to falter, although titles like Harper's and the Atlantic—already a part of everyday American life—continued unscathed. Only a few years later, the devastating effects of the American Civil War combined to overwhelm a steady stream of magazines, including the Southern Literary Messenger. Still, an astonishing number of publications, particularly many women's magazines, survived the war and emerged with renewed vigor.
The record of publications for women occupies a special place in the history of the American periodical, beginning with the nineteenth-century prototype of the woman's magazine, Godey's Lady's Book. Godey's began publication in 1830 and maintained a loyal readership until its end in 1898. Widely read, the magazine helped define the standards of women in Victorian America, taking the concept of feminine purity, critics observe, to almost mawkish levels. Nevertheless, this sentimentalized formula was highly successful in mid-century America and spawned numerous ladies' magazines that expounded similar principles and defined the mode of life for the middle-class woman by delineating precisely what it meant to be a successful mother, wife, or daughter.
Technological improvements in printing helped assure the continued strength and diversity of the American periodical industry after the Civil War. Between 1860 and 1900 the number of monthly magazines produced in the United States grew more than five-fold to number over 1,800 titles. Additionally, during the period of postwar Reconstruction, a number of magazine editors hit upon a new formula to satisfy the longings for renewed social harmony in war-weary America. Appealing to the tastes of the burgeoning middle-class, editors like R. W. Gilder began to publish the fiction of local color specialists, such as George Washington Cable and Thomas Nelson Page, whose works offered a gentle blend of romanticism, realism, and regional flavor. Gilder, first at Scribner's Monthly and later as editor of the Century, presided over the vogue in local color fiction and the new ‘genteel’ tradition in American letters, a combination that proved highly successful for publishers of literary magazines into the twentieth century. Meanwhile, others had taken advantage of new demands and interests among female readers. Among the most influential of these new periodicals aimed at women was the widely popular Ladies' Home Journal, founded in 1883 by Cyrus H. K. Curtis, a man recognized as a pioneering figure in the use of targeted print advertising. During the last decade of the nineteenth-century, editorial control of the Journal was taken over by Edward Bok. A master of the publicity campaign and a shrewd manager, Bok steered Curtis's magazine into a position of unprecedented popularity among women readers and effectively displaced the older generation of ladies' magazines. The Ladies' Home Journal became an American icon and is one of several examples of nineteenth-century magazines that have survived in some form through the end of the twentieth century.
Port Folio (periodical) 1801-27
The North American Review (periodical) 1815-
American Farmer (periodical) 1819-73
Western Review (periodical) 1819-1921
Saturday Evening Post (periodical) 1821-1969; 1971-
New-York Mirror (periodical) 1823-46
The Cherokee Phoenix and Indian Advocate (periodical) 1828-
The Southern Review (periodical) 1828-32
Godey's Lady's Book (periodical) 1830-98
The Southern Rose [previously Southern Rosebud] (periodical) 1832-39
Knickerbocker Magazine (periodical) 1833-65
New-Yorker (periodical) 1834-41
Southern Literary Messenger (periodical) 1834-64
The Ladies' Garland (periodical) 1837-49
New York Review (periodical) 1837-42
The Dial (Boston) (periodical) 1840-44
Graham's Magazine (periodical) 1840-58
Peterson's Ladies' National Magazine (periodical) 1842-98
The Pioneer (periodical) 1843
The Southern and Western Monthly Magazine and Review Simm's Magazine (periodical) 1845
Harper's Magazine [previously Harper's New Monthly] (periodical) 1850-
Putnam's Monthly [previously Putnam's Magazine] (periodical) 1853-1910
Leslie's Weekly [previously Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper] (periodical) 1855-1922
The Atlantic Monthly (periodical) 1857-
Anglo African Magazine (periodical) 1859-60
Lippincott's Magazine (periodical) 1868-1916
Overland Monthly (periodical) 1868-1935
Century [previously Scribner's Monthly]] (periodical) 1870-1930
Puck (periodical) 1877-1918
Ladies' Home Journal (periodical) 1883-
Good Housekeeping (periodical) 1885-
Cosmopolitan Magazine (periodical) 1886-
McClure's (periodical) 1893-1929
SOURCE: Mott, Frank Luther. “General Periodicals in the Era of Expansion.” In A History of American Magazines: 1741-1850, pp. 339-74. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1930.
[In the following excerpt, Mott surveys developments in the American periodical from 1825 to mid-century, with special focus on women's magazines and literary weeklies.]
POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS IN 1825
The years immediately following 1825 were epochal in practically all fields of endeavor in most of Europe and America. From the accession of Charles X to the French throne in 1824 events ran on rapidly to the revolution of 1830; Belgium achieved her...
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SOURCE: Wood, James Playsted. “Innovation and Expansion in Coverage,” “Magazines as a Weapon against Political Corruption,” and “Emergence of the National Magazine.” In Magazines in the United States: Their Social and Economic Influence, pp. 75-89, 90-98, 99-104. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1949.
[In the following excerpt, Wood concentrates on changes in American magazine publishing between 1850 and the 1870s as national concepts of audience, literature, and social responsibility began to coalesce in the United States.]
INNOVATION AND EXPANSION IN COVERAGE
The editors and publishers of early general magazines might look with...
(The entire section is 7721 words.)
SOURCE: Tebbel, John. “How the General Magazines Began” and “Periodicals as a Political Platform.” In The American Magazine: A Compact History, pp. 47-65. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1969.
[In the following excerpt, Tebbel recounts the rise of the general magazine between 1825 and 1850 and the importance of new periodicals as forums for political debate during this period.]
HOW THE GENERAL MAGAZINES BEGAN
The year 1825 was a turning point in both Europe and America. Abroad there was a rising wave of revolutionary movement in many countries, and a strong tide of reform was running. Change was the order of the day. It was also the primary...
(The entire section is 6414 words.)
SOURCE: King, Kimball. “Local Color and the Rise of the American Magazine.” In Essays Mostly on Periodical Publishing in America: A Collection in Honor of Clarence Gohdes, edited by James Woodress, pp. 121-33. Durham: Duke University Press, 1973.
[In the following essay, King discusses the post-Civil War growth of local color fiction in the pages of American magazines.]
The emergence of the American magazine after the Civil War provided for many young writers access to the reading public and afforded them the opportunity and encouragement necessary for their development. Also the more established authors were in a better position to negotiate publication of...
(The entire section is 4818 words.)
SOURCE: Tebbel, John, and Mary Ellen Zuckerman. “Rise of the General Magazines” and “The Magazine as a Political and Cultural Influence.” In The Magazine in America: 1741-1990, pp. 8-13, 14-26. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
[In the following excerpt, Tebbel and Zuckerman highlight the ascent of general magazines in post-1825 America. The critics focus on the political impact of new periodicals such as Harper's and the Atlantic at mid-century.]
RISE OF THE GENERAL MAGAZINES
As the nineteenth century began, there was a new energy in the business of making magazines. Old problems remained, but they were not as...
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SOURCE: Mott, Frank Luther. “Literary Types and Judgments” and “Literary Phases of Postbellum Magazines.” In A History of American Magazines: 1850-1865, pp. 157-87; 223-74. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1938.
[In the following excerpts, Mott evaluates the literature and literary criticism that appeared in American magazines from 1850 through the 1880s.]
LITERARY TYPES AND JUDGMENTS
“Next to that of Germany, the reading circle of the United States is the most extensive in the world,” asserted the editor of Putnam's Monthly in 1856. “There are more writers in France, and better writing in England, no doubt, than among...
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SOURCE: Simpson, Lewis P. “Poe's Vision of His Ideal Magazine.” In The Man of Letters in New England and the South: Essays on the History of the Literary Vocation in America, pp. 131-49. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1973.
[In the following essay, Simpson probes Edgar Allan Poe's attempts to establish a viable literary magazine in mid nineteenth-century America.]
“Touching ‘The Stylus’:—this is the one great purpose of my literary life.”
Poe to Philip Pendleton Cooke, 1846
Let us begin somewhat indirectly by looking at two pictures. One is the daguerreotype...
(The entire section is 6123 words.)
SOURCE: Mathews, James W. “Hawthorne and the Periodical Tale: From Popular Lore to Art.” Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 68, no. 2 (1974): 149-62.
[In the following essay, Mathews considers Nathaniel Hawthorne's awareness of the American magazine-reading public in composing his short stories.]
Nathaniel Hawthorne's frustrations in publishing his first short stories have been amply documented by such early biographers as Lathrop and Bridge and by more recent scholars Nelson F. Adkins and Seymour Gross.1 Their consensus is that most of Hawthorne's difficulty resulted from his necessity to utilize periodicals, with a resultant reduction of...
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SOURCE: Hubbell, Jay B. “Southern Magazines.” In Culture in the South, edited by W. T. Couch, pp. 159-82. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1935.
[In the following essay, Hubbell documents the history of magazine publication in the nineteenth-century American South.]
Not until the better American magazines were threatened with extinction did their history receive any considerable attention from our scholars. Frank Luther Mott's A History of American Magazines, 1741-1850 was not published until 1930. In that year I learned that one of the oldest and best of the New York magazines was losing twenty-five thousand dollars a year. Some of the...
(The entire section is 10210 words.)
SOURCE: Marovitz, Sanford E. “Romance or Realism? Western Periodical Literature: 1893-1902.” Western American Literature 10, no. 1 (May 1975): 45-58.
[In the following essay, Marovitz assesses western-themed popular literature that appeared in four late nineteenth-century American periodicals.]
Two kinds of American fiction flourished during the decade preceding the publication of Owen Wister's The Virginian and Andy Adams' The Log of a Cowboy in 1902 and 1903 respectively, but the peak of one had already passed, and the heyday of the other was yet to come. The Virginian—with its idealized cowboy hero and schoolmarm heroine, its unredeemable...
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SOURCE: Tomlinson, David. “Simms's Monthly Magazine: the Southern and Western Monthly Magazine and Review.” The Southern Literary Journal 8, no. 1 (fall 1975): 95-125.
[In the following essay, Tomlinson recounts the editorial agenda and brief publication history of Simm's Monthly Magazine, edited by the well-known southern writer William Gilmore Simms.]
Early in November 1844, William Gilmore Simms accepted the editorship of a proposed new magazine from Burges and James, the Charleston publishers. In spite of his misgivings about the name the owners had chosen for the periodical—“Simms's Southern Monthly”—the editor...
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SOURCE: Bonner, Judith H. “Art and Letters: An Illustrated Periodical of Nineteenth-Century New Orleans.” Southern Quarterly 27, no. 2 (winter 1989): 59-76.
[In the following essay, Bonner discusses the brief lifespan of the New Orleans periodical Arts and Letters.]
Early experiments in periodical publishing during the settlement of New Orleans were no more than newspaper reporting, avocational and inelegant in style.1 Reportage was limited to foreign affairs, marine traffic, election news and advertising. After 1830 topics expanded to include national and local affairs, and by way of literary endeavors, occasionally there were poems. After 1840...
(The entire section is 4590 words.)
SOURCE: Thompson, Eleanor Wolf. “The Magazines and Their Editors.” In Education for Ladies 1830-1860: Ideas on Education in Magazines for Women, pp. 1-23. Morningside Heights, N. Y.: King's Crown Press, 1947.
[In the following essay, Thompson discusses the many magazines for women in pre-Civil War America.]
The Magazine for ladies in the United States1—north, south, east, and west—in the decades before the Civil War was Godey's Lady's Book.2 Was it not named The Lady's Book, with an accent on “the” and did not the astute Mr. Godey tell his readers that it was “the book of the nation”3 and keep them informed...
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SOURCE: Bakker, Jan. “Another Dilemma of an Intellectual in the Old South: Caroline Gilman, the Peculiar Institution, and Greater Rights for Women in the Rose Magazines.” The Southern Literary Journal 17, no. 1 (fall 1984): 12-25.
[In the following essay, Bakker examines the “gentle feminism” and sentimentalized support for slavery in Caroline Howard Gilman's weeklies of the 1830s.]
Although she was a Yankee by birth and education, Mrs. Caroline Howard Gilman became the best known southern female author in the antebellum United States. Largely responsible for her literary fame was the nation-wide dissemination of her popular young people's magazines printed in...
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SOURCE: Zuckerman, Mary Ellen. “Birth of the Big Six.” In A History of Popular Women's Magazines in the United States, 1792-1995, pp. 3-23. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1998.
[In the following essay, portions of which were published in 1989, Zuckerman discusses the major American women's magazines of the late nineteenth century.]
Over fifty girls are employed to keep the subscription books during each day and a dozen others come to work at six p.m. and remain three hours every night.
—Ladies' Home Journal, 18871
The death of Godey's Lady's Book publisher Louis...
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SOURCE: Bullock, Penelope L. “In Retrospect.” In The Afro-American Periodical Press: 1838-1909, pp. 205-21. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1981.
[In the following essay, Bullock summarizes the development of African-American periodicals between 1838 and 1909.]
We would call attention distinctly to the permanent and reference value of the contents of each number. Lapse of years will not diminish the value of these papers; on the contrary, they will increase in value.
—A. M. E. Church Review, July, 1896
During these seven decades [between 1838 and 1909],...
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SOURCE: Murphy, James E., and Sharon M. Murphy. “American Indian Newspapers, 1828 to the Civil War.” In Let My People Know: American Indian Journalism, 1828-1978, pp. 16-38. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1981.
[In the following excerpt, the Murphys examine the history of Native American news periodicals and their representation of Indian life prior to the Civil War.]
The survey of American Indian newspapers that starts here opens with an account of early-day press efforts, presenting their development in the context of the social forces that initially prompted the papers and eventually stifled them. Following a general overview, the chapter focuses closely...
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SOURCE: Jentz, John B. “The 48ers and the Politics of the German Labor Movement in Chicago during the Civil War Era: Community Formation and the Rise of a Labor Press.” In The German-American Radical Press: The Shaping of a Left Political Culture, 1850-1940, edited by Elliott Shore, Ken Fones-Wolf, and James P. Danky, pp. 49-62. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992.
[In the following essay, an earlier version of which was presented in 1988, Jentz describes the pivotal role of the leftist German-language press in the mid nineteenth-century American labor movement.]
During the Civil War a vital interethnic labor movement emerged in Chicago, as in other major...
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Albaugh, Gaylord P. History and Annotated Bibliography of American Religious Periodicals and Newspapers Established from 1730 through 1830. 2 vols. Worcester, Mass.: American Antiquarian Society, 1994, 1,456 p.
Compiles 590 religious periodicals and newspapers that appeared under 867 titles from 1730 to 1830.
Arndt, Karl J. R., and May E. Olson. German-American Newspapers and Periodicals, 1732-1955: History and Bibliography. Second, revised edition. Heidelberg: Quelle & Meyer, 1965, 810 p.
Documents approximately five thousand U. S. periodicals and newspapers, arranged geographically by state....
(The entire section is 1140 words.)