Much Madness Is Divinest Sense Themes

Themes

Madness Versus Sanity
The main, or at least most obvious, theme of this poem deals with the argument over the definition of sanity and its opposite, madness. Sanity is an ambiguous term. It takes on its definition from its surroundings. What is considered sane in one society might be defined as crazy in another. The passage of time also alters the definition.

Dickinson is also correct in pointing out that the majority classifies what is sane and what is not. In any group, rules of conduct are determined by the majority. Deviation from this standard cannot be tolerated if the majority of the group is to “prevail.” In some way, those who object must be ostracized or else they will threaten the group’s goals. Although the words “sanity” and “madness” have definite meanings recognized by modern readers, in Dickinson’s time, these concepts were often used when discussing women’s rights or the attempts to suppress them.

Individuality
The individual versus the group is a perpetual battle for balance. For the creative spirit to expand and explore, the individual must be given the freedom to think differently from the traditions of the group. Innovations occur when imagination is unconfined.

This said, it is easy to understand Dickinson’s concerns for the needs of the individual. She was an artist and therefore had a unique way of thinking. The pressures on her to conform were powerful. Not only...

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