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ED frames this poem as an anti-establishment, anti-authoritarian argument.
From ED's perspective, only the majority's view prevails even if, as she says in the opening line, "Madness is divinest Sense."
To disagree with the majority, then, is to guarantee yourself some form of restriction--either metaphorical (perhaps being ignored) or literal (in an institution for the mentally ill).
The poem's theme is that one either thinks conventionally or pays a heavy price for being unconventional, one of ED's favorite themes.