Molière (Vol. 64)
(Pseudonym of Jean Baptiste Poquelin) French dramatist.
The following entry presents recent criticism of Molière's works. For further information on his life and career, see LC, Volumes 10 and 28.
Molière is widely recognized as the greatest comic writer of seventeenth-century France and one of the foremost dramatists in world literature. In such masterpieces as L'École des femmes (1662; The School for Wives), Le Tartuffe (1664; Tartuffe), Le Misanthrope (1666; The Misanthrope), and L'Avare (1668;The Miser) he set precedents that completely altered the focus and purpose of comedy, introducing realism to the French stage and elevating comic drama from farcical buffoonery to an important forum for social and religious criticism. Molière thus profoundly influenced the development of modern comedy and established comic drama as a legitimate literary medium, equal to tragedy in its ability to portray aspects of human nature.
Born in Paris, Jean Baptiste Poquelin was the eldest of six children born to a well-to-do bourgeois who held a prestigious royal appointment as valet de chambre to Louis XIII. Jean Baptiste was apprenticed in his father's trade but showed little inclination for the family business. The boy's interest in acting was sparked by his grandfather, who had a passion for the theater and occasionally took his grandson to see productions at the famous Hôtel de Bourgogne. Jean Baptiste attended school at the prestigious Jesuit Collège de Clermont, where he studied classical playwrights, including Terence and Plautus, who would be important influences on his comedies. He is also believed to have studied there with the eminent philosopher Pierre Gassendi, best known for his bitter public arguments with René Descartes as well as his affiliation with French Libertinism. After leaving Clermont Molière studied law briefly before inheriting his father's position at court. His final enticement to the stage was his affair with the actress Madeleine Béjart, whom he likely met while traveling as part of his royal office in 1642. With her influence he left the court for the stage in 1643, adopting the stage name Molière and establishing an acting company, L'Illustre Théatre, with Béjart and her family. By 1645 the troupe collapsed, and Molière was briefly imprisoned for debt, but from that year onward he began writing plays and touring the provinces. During this period he wrote short adaptations of Italian farces in the tradition of the commedia dell'arte, including La Jalousie de Barbouillé (1645; The Jealousy of Le Barbouillé) and Le Mèdecin volant (1645?;The Flying Doctor). In 1658 Molière and his troupe returned to Paris, where their premier performance consisted of Corneille's Nicomède, accompanied by Molière's farce Le Dépit amoureux (1656; The Amorous Quarrel). The actors apparently failed to pull off the tragedy, but the farce was a great success, winning the admiration of Louis XIV. More farces mocking the pretensions of the aristocracy earned Molière important enemies although they met with further success. Molière made his last attempt at tragedy with Dom Garcie de Navarre; ou, Le Prince jaloux (Don Garcia of Navarre; or, The Jealous Prince) in 1661, the failure of which moved him to abandon the genre. In 1662 Molière married a girl half his age, twenty-year-old Armande Béjart, who was thought to be either the sister or the daughter of his former mistress. Shortly afterward he produced his greatest commercial success, The School for Wives, which tells the story of a middle-aged man who attempts to create a chaste wife by raising her from girlhood in complete ignorance and innocence. Molière's enemies were quick to find parallels, accusing him of incest and labeling him a cuckold. He met with further trouble in the production of his most critically successful work, Tartuffe. The comedy about a devious, manipulative spiritual advisor inspired calls for censorship and the excommunication of anyone who performed, attended, or even read the play. The intervention of Louis XIV, who supported Molière silently to avoid arousing the ire of the Church, likely spared Molière execution for heresy. Plagued with recurrent illnesses due primarily to exhaution, Molière was diagnosed a hypochondriac by doctors, whose profession he maligned in many pieces. Molière himself played the hypochondriac in his last comedy, Le Malade imaginaire (1673; The Imaginary Invalid). He died following the fourth performance, the result of a lung disorder. As an actor, he was denied the ministrations of a priest and burial in consecrated ground. He was granted a serviceless funeral, following the intervention of his old patron, Louis XIV.
Commentators agree that Molière's strength as a dramatist lies in his diverse, insightful characterizations rather than in his plots, a number of which have been deemed unoriginal, contrived, and awkward. Portraying recognizable characters in ordinary circumstances and using a simpler, more natural language than had been previously utilized by writers of farce or tragedy, Molière exposed artificiality and vice in society. His plays frequently depict a specific character flaw in its extreme form—for example, the hypocrisy of Tartuffe or the obsessive avarice of Harpagon in The Miser—or pillory a social institution, as in the merciless ridiculing of members of the medical profession in The Imaginary Invalid. Juxtaposed with such monomaniacs as Alceste in The Misanthrope are such honnetes hommes and raisonneurs as Alceste's rational counterpart, Philinte, who add balance and serve to restore social harmony at the play's conclusion. Though often extremely critical, Molière's comedies are considered good-natured, and commentators note that they are surprisingly free of bitterness. Indeed, critics generally agree that rather than wishing to destroy existing social structures, Molière intended to point out specific, willful vices in hopes that society might eventually correct itself. This goal, along with Molière's desire to make audiences laugh, resulted in a legacy of dramas of human nature considered humorous yet profound.
Modern scholars have probed virtually every literary, scientific, and historical aspect of Molière's work. Heralded by critics of every century as the father of modern comic drama, Molière continues to be esteemed for the universality of his comic portraits, and recent studies have analyzed the psychology of such renowned characters as Tartuffe, Don Juan, and Alceste. Commentators such as James F. Gaines and John McCann have explored some of Molière's most vexing characters, stressing the playwright's use of paradox and ambiguity in his characterizations. While modern scholars, like their predecessors, still seek philosophical, ethical, and religious messages in Molière's comedies, critical interest has, in many instances, shifted away from assessments of the playwright's didactic intent toward purely aesthetic examinations of his comic technique. Critics such as David Hartley have explored Molière's use of language, finding it to be the heart of his comedy. Recent scholarship has also placed greater emphasis on Molière's role not only as a writer but as an actor and designer of theatrical spectacle. Theater scholars such as Jim Carmody have stressed the study of the staging of Molière's comedies as an important component of a historically aware interpretive process. Several critics have taken an interest in Molière's comedy-ballets, which blend comedy, music and dance. Robert McBride has suggested that interpretation of Molière's comedy-ballets is strongly supported by recognizing their emphasis on aesthetics as well as language and satire. David Whitton has noted that the development of the genre is closely linked to royal patronage and thus to the social and political circumstances of seventeenth-century France. In a similar vein, Helen L. Harrison has analyzed the influence of royal patronage on Molière's creative process and his treatment of money and power in his plays.
La Jalousie de Barbouillé [The Jealousy of Le Barbouillé] (drama) 1645?
Le Médecin volant [The Flying Doctor] (drama) 1645?
L'Éstourdy; ou, Le Contretemps [The Blunderer] (drama) 1653
Le Dépit amoureux [The Amorous Quarrel] (drama) 1656
Les Précieuses ridicules [The Affected Ladies] (drama) 1659
Sganarelle; ou, Le Cocu imaginaire [The Imaginary Cuckold] (drama) 1660
Dom Garcie de Navarre; ou, Le Prince jaloux [Don Garcia of Navarre; or, The Jealous Prince] (drama) 1661
L'École des maris [The School for Husbands] (drama) 1661
Les Fâcheux [The Bores] (drama) 1661
L'École des femmes [The School for Wives] (drama) 1662
La Critique de “L'École des femmes” [“The School for Wives” Criticised] (drama) 1662
L'Impromptu de Versailles [The Impromptu of Versailles] (drama) 1663
Le Mariage forcé [The Forced Marriage] (drama) 1664
La Princess d'Élide [The Princess of Elis, being the Second Day of the Pleasures of the Inchanted Island] (drama) 1664
*Le Tartuffe [Tartuffe; or, The Hypocrite] (drama) 1664
Dom Juan; ou Le Festin de pierre [Don Juan; or, The Feast with the Statue] (drama) 1665
Le Médecin malgré lui [The Physician in Spite of Himself] (drama) 1666
Le Misanthrope [The Misanthrope] (drama) 1666
Amphitryon [Amphitryon; or, The Two Sosias] (drama) 1668
L'Avare [The Miser] (drama) 1668
George Dandin; ou, Le Mary confondu [George Dandin; or, The Wanton Wife] (drama) 1668
Monsieur de Pourceaugnac [Monsieur de Pourceaugnac; or, Squire Trelooby] (drama) 1669
Les Amants magnifiques (drama) 1670
Le Bourgeois gentilhomme [The Bourgeois Gentleman] (drama) 1670
Les Fourberies de Scapin [The Cheats of Scapin] (drama) 1671
Psiché [Psyché; with Pierre Corneille] (drama)1671
Les Femmes savantes [The Learned Ladies] (drama) 1672
Le Malade imaginaire [The Imaginary Invalid] (drama) 1673
The Works of Mr. De Molière. 6 vols. (dramas) 1714
The Dramatic Works of Molière. 6 vols. (dramas) 1875-76
The Plays of Molière in French with an English Translation. 8 vols. (dramas) 1902-07
*Revised versions of this work were also performed as L'Imposteur (1667) and Le Tartuffe; ou, L'Imposteur (1669).
David Hartley (essay date 1992)
SOURCE: “Language and Authority in Molière,” in Voices in the Air: French Dramatists and the Resource of Language, University of Glasgow French and German Publications, 1992, pp. 29-41.
[In this essay, Hartley argues that in Molière's plays a character's use of language reveals the reliability of his or her authority, and that Molière satirizes those who value language as a marker of status.]
In recent years, Molière criticism has tended to concentrate on the theatrical, rather than the literary side to his plays. Attention has focused on such topics as his debt to the commedia dell'arte, with whose performers he shared for some months the...
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Robert McBride (essay date 1992)
SOURCE: “Two Comedy-Ballets of Salon Life,” in The Triumph of Ballet in Molière's Theatre, The Edwin Mellon Press, 1992, pp. 271-97.
[In this excerpt, McBride focuses on La Comtesse d'Escarbagnas and, particularly, on The Learned Ladies as grand aesthetic spectacles. McBride argues that the sheer theatricality of The Learned Ladies becomes more important than either its overt themes or its satire when the play is staged.]
La Comtesse d'Escarbagnas was composed as part of Le Ballet des ballets to celebrate the marriage of Monsieur, widower of Henriette d'Angleterre, with Elisabeth-Charlotte de...
(The entire section is 10596 words.)
David Whitton (essay date 1992)
SOURCE: “Context: Genre and Occasion,” in Molière: Le Bourgeois gentilhomme, Grant & Cutler Ltd., 1992, pp. 15-26.
[In this excerpt from his book-length study of The Bourgeois Gentleman, Whitton discusses Molière's role in the development of the uniquely French genre of the comedy-ballet.]
Il a le premier inventé la manière de mêler des scènes et des ballets dans les comédies, et il avait trouvé par là un nouveau secret de plaire.
(21, p. 4)
It is interesting that in an age which affected to mistrust originality—or at least to prize...
(The entire section is 4219 words.)
David Jaymes (essay date 1993)
SOURCE: “Parasitology in Molière: Satire of Doctors and Praise of Paramedics,” in Literature and Medicine, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1993, pp. 1-18.
[In this essay, Jaymes explicates Molière's view of health and medicine, arguing that his satire of doctors is rooted in questions of responsibility and what constitutes appropriate authority. Molière, the critic contends,“seems to take serious issue with any attempt to sever the link between mind and body.… For him consulting a physician is tantamount to abdicating responsibility for one's health, an abdication that usually consists of turning one's body over to a mere physical specialist.”]
Molière's doctors are a...
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Jim Carmody (essay date 1993)
SOURCE: “Reading Molière in the Theatre: Mise en Scène and the Classic Text,” in Rereading Molière: Mise en Scène from Antoine to Vitez, University of Michigan Press, 1993, pp. 1-23.
[In this excerpt, Carmody develops a methodology for interpreting Molière's works through the lens of twentieth-century stagings. Carmody's interest is in how these stagings address issues of historical distance and Molière's status as a classic author.]
Since the 1949 publication of Will Moore's seminal book, Molière: A New Criticism, English-speaking critics of Molière have accepted the premise that Molière's texts should be interpreted in the context of the theater....
(The entire section is 11268 words.)
James F. Gaines (essay date 1993)
SOURCE: “Caractères, Superstition and Paradoxes in Le Misanthrope,” in Alteratives, edited by Warren Motte and Gerald Prince, French Forum Publishers, 1993, pp. 71-84.
[In this essay, Gaines argues that the series of oppositions and dualities in The Misanthrope comprise a deliberate pattern of paradoxes.]
Beginning with Rousseau's Lettre à d'Alembert and continuing through modern studies by Jules Brody and others,1 it has been common critical practice to analyze Le Misanthrope as a system of conflicting dualities: Alceste against the rest of the characters, sincerity versus dissimulation, ethical versus esthetic...
(The entire section is 5692 words.)
Richard Maber (essay date 1994)
SOURCE: “Molière's Bawdy,” in Nottingham French Studies, Vol. 33, No. 1, 1994, pp. 124-32.
[In this essay, Maber traces the sexual humor throughout Molière's works, distinguishing playwright's use of bawdy, a broad, obvious form of comedy, from his use of subtle double entendre, which requires some complicity from the audience for the humor to be realized.]
Molière is one of the most accessible of all French writers, and arguably the most universal in his appeal; and yet at the same time he is one of the most elusive. From his own lifetime to the present day, he has been the subject of a great diversity of interpretations, of his own complex and multi-faceted...
(The entire section is 4944 words.)
Stephen H. Fleck (essay date 1995)
SOURCE: “Comic Theory, Molière, and the Comedy-Ballets,” in Music, Dance, and Laughter: Comic Creation in Molière's Comedy-Ballets, Biblio 17, 1995, pp. 21-43.
[In this excerpt, Fleck reviews comic theory from Aristotle to the twentieth century as a context for examining Molière's comic method in his comedy-ballets, focusing on notions of paradox and realism.]
I. MAJOR IDEAS ON THE COMIC: SOME CLASSIC VIEWS AND PROBLEMS
Comedy, the comic, and laughter constitute a famously problematic and ill-defined area of thought; one can scarcely discuss the three terms apart from each other, but each presents problems of definition. For Umberto Eco,...
(The entire section is 11010 words.)
David Whitton (essay date 1995)
SOURCE: “‘Don Juan,’ 1665-1925,” in Molière: Don Juan, Cambridge University Press, 1995, pp. 1-17.
[In this excerpt, Whitton reviews the performance history of Don Juan, one of Molière's more challenging comedies from an interpretive standpoint. For Whitton, the servant character of Sganarelle is a crucial factor in interpreting the play and its ambiguous main character for modern audiences.]
Tales about statues of the dead coming to life to exact retribution from the living were endemic in medieval folk legend, and in literature stretching back to antiquity. But the fusion of the Stone Guest motif with the story of an unrepentant womaniser first...
(The entire section is 5836 words.)
Helen L. Harrison (essay date 1996)
SOURCE: “Language for Money: the Patron and the Servant,” in Pistoles/Paroles: Money and Language in Seventeenth-Century French Comedy, Rookwood Press, 1996, pp. 151-70.
[In this excerpt, Harrison argues that Molière's depiction of the relationship between artistic creation and patronage demonstrates his own status as a royal servant. The critic finds that the connections Molière draws between art and power work to support the authority of the king.]
During his Parisian career, Molière was a servant of the king. He shared the obligation of all subjects to use his talents for the monarch, and as a comédien du roi, he provided the king with entertainment...
(The entire section is 9729 words.)
Roxanne Decker Lalande (essay date 1996)
SOURCE: “L'École des femmes: Marriage and the Laws of Chance,” in Intruders in the Play World: The Dynamics of Gender in Molière's Comedies, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1996, pp. 77-98.
[In this excerpt, Lalande examines The School for Wives as a struggle between the “masculine” principle of Law and the “feminine” principle of Chance. Ultimately, she argues, the principles are reconciled, but the reconciliation is based upon the subservience the feminine to the masculine.]
Mon Dieu, ne gagez pas: vous perdriez vraiment.
—L'Ecole des femmes II, 5
(The entire section is 8734 words.)
Parish, Richard. “Molière en Travesti: Transvestite Acting in Molière.” Nottingham French Studies 33, No. 1 (1994): 53-8.
Examines transvestism in Molière's plays as a form of disguise rather than as a means of generating sexual ambiguity.
Philips, Henry. “Authority and Order in Molière Comedy.” Nottingham French Studies 33, No. 1 (1994): 12-19.
Suggests that examples of authority in Molière's plays create a model for kingship, asserting the supremacy of the king but also giving direction to the king.
Shaw, David. “Molière and the Doctors.” Nottingham French...
(The entire section is 152 words.)