Krleža, Miroslav (Vol. 114)
Miroslav Krleza 1893–1981
Croatian dramatist, novelist, essayist, short story writer, poet, critic, and autobiographer.
The following entry presents criticism of Krleza's career through 1987. For further information on his life and works, see CLC, Volume 8.
Considered the most significant Croatian literary voice of the twentieth century, Krleza wrote more than five dozen books, but has been generally ignored by Western academics and readers. Only a small portion of his work has been published in English—two novels, a short story collection, and selected writings issued in periodicals. His commitment to radical humanism led the Yugoslav government to ban most of his work until 1940, but by the early 1950s Krleza had become a major proponent of the artistic integrity of indigenous Yugoslav cultures. A master stylist who is often compared to such Western literary luminaries as James Joyce and Marcel Proust, most of Krleza's writings concern the downfall of the Austro-Hungarian empire and its transformation into a modern socialist state, while giving expression to often ambiguous themes and politics. Ante Kadic has explained that Krleza's "materialist convictions—conveyed with strong emotional impetus, his Marxist and liberal philosophy, his socialism mingled with sincere defense of personal freedom, and his readiness to defend his point of view with his own life—made Krleza highly controversial."
Born in Zagreb, Yugoslavia, Krleza was sent to Hungary after graduating from high school to attend an officers' school in Pécs and then a military academy in Budapest. Although trained as an Austro-Hungarian officer, Krleza nonetheless sympathized with the Serbian nationalist cause and volunteered his services to the Serbian army in their war against the Turks in 1913. Suspicious Serbian officials, however, expelled Krleza, who consequently was arrested by Austrians, deprived of his rank, and sent to the front lines as a private when Austro-Hungary declared war on Serbia in 1914. This was the same year that Krleza made his literary debut with the publication of the anti-religious drama Legenda (1914). Krleza's experience on the fronts in Galicia and Austria during World War I brought him into contact with Croatian peasants and workers, with whom he shared the horrors and hardships of war, which became a principal theme in many of his writings. Inspired by the 1917 October revolution in Russia, Krleza and other leftist writers founded several short-lived, underground literary journals, including Plamen (1919), Knjizevna republika (1923–27), Danas (1934), and Pecat (1939–40). Despite official restrictions on his works in the period between the World Wars, Krleza proceeded to write not only plays but also novels, poetry, short stories, and essays. He continued to write during World War II, but he refrained from publishing his writings until later. Publicly disgraced after 1945 because he did not actively support the Partisan cause during the war, Krleza was rehabilitated by Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito during the early 1950s and went on to win numerous Yugoslavian literary prizes and several international awards, including the Heder Prize. In 1950 he was named director of the Yugoslav Lexicographic Institute—a position he held for the rest of his life—and from 1955 to 1971 he served as editor-in-chief of Enciklopedija Jugoslavije. In 1967 Krleza actively joined the cause of Croatians to publish in their own dialect, but when Tito issued an edict in 1971 against Croatian political leaders and intellectuals forbidding them to do so, Krleza retreated into silence. He died in Zagreb in 1981.
Krleza's early plays, often likened to the romantic, symbolist style of Oscar Wilde, depict historical personages as legendary individuals struggling with self-doubt about their visionary goals and about validation of their ideas by the masses. Legenda portrays the relationship between Jesus and Lazarus's sister, Mary, who suffers unrequited love for Jesus despite the presence of his "shadow," or alter ego, which insists that Jesus betrayed his own self and his true feelings for his high ideals. Mikelangelo Buonarti (1925) presents the artist as the sensitive soul who rejects all earthly delights in favor of solitary pursuit of creative endeavors, while Kristofor Kolombo (1918) represents the explorer as a dreamer aware that his discovery of a new world will certainly succumb to the evils of the old. Themes of the horrors of war, the nullification of the past by a brighter future, and the peace obtained amid native landscapes inform Krleza's poetry collections, most notably Lirika (1919), Knjiga lirike (1932), and Pjeseme u tmini (1937). Written in the dialect of northern Croatia and influenced by Croatian folk poetry, Balade Petrice Kremepuha (1936), regarded as Krleza's formal and stylistic poetic masterpiece, traces the history of Croatian peasants from the 1570s to the 1930s, protesting the consistently intolerable conditions of peasant life under the nobility, the clergy, and the modern bureaucracy. Krleza's short stories and novels contrast the hardships of Croatian peasants with the decadence of the aristocracy and the bourgeoisie. Intended to represent the rise and fall of capitalistic society, a series of eleven stories and three plays describe the history of the Glembay family, whose rise out of peasantry to middle class prosperity is accompanied by moral degeneration. The plays in the so-called "Glembay cycle'" feature the psychological method of dramatist Henrik Ibsen and include Gospoda Glembajevi (1928), Leda (1930), and U agoniji (1931). The novel Povratak Filipa Latinovicza (1932; The Return of Philip Latinovicz) tells the story of a once-renowned painter, who returns to his childhood home after a twenty-year absence and confronts unhappy memories. Similarly, the first-person narrative of Na rubu pameti (1938; On the Edge of Reason) recounts the story of a Zagreb lawyer's alienation from his society, which gradually resolves in his descent into madness. Krleza's other novels, Banket u Blitvi (1938–9) and Zastave (1967), focus on the relationship between the individual and his government, particularly in dictatorships reminiscent of those that came to power in the 1920s and 1930s. Krleza's numerous essays on subjects ranging from politics to literary criticism display his powers of persuasion and his vast, though sometimes inaccurate and biased, knowledge.
Critics have regarded Krleza as a highly controversial writer, whether on the basis of his literary style and themes or his politics and philosophy. According to Kadic, only a few Central and Southern European critics have emphasized that "Krleza is the real initiator of Yugoslav revisionism." Although most scholars of his native land have recognized Krleza as the most significant Croatian and Yugoslavian writer to emerge during the twentieth century, some have attempted to discredit or minimize his literary and cultural acheivements, particularly for his refusal to accept government interference in cultural and literary domains. Kadic has noted that "Krleza's skirmishes with the 'socialist' theoreticians were just as bitter and dangerous as were those with the bourgeois camp." In the English-speaking West, Krleza remains relatively unknown due to the paucity of his works published in translation. Some critics have maintained that this neglect stems in part from the narrow-mindedness of Western publishers and their public, while others have attributed his obscurity in the West to the ambiguous nature of Krleza's themes and politics. The link between his politics and writings has constituted the central debate among commentators, the majority of whom have remarked on the inherent duality of Krleza's vision, which simultaneously embraces socialist revolutionary ideals and the importance of moral and artistic integrity. Some have stressed the political activist perspective of Krleza's works, arguing that his Marxist leanings show the moral and political inefficacy of the middle class, but others have countered that the common thread throughout his literary corpus affirms an abiding belief in humanist ideals. Kadic has concluded that "Krleza was and shall remain a pivotal figure, and no one interested in twentieth-century Croatian and South Slavic literature can ignore him…. He fully deserves to be ranked among the luminaries of contemporary world literature."
Pan (poetry) 1917
Tri simfonije (poetry) 1917
Kraljevo (drama) 1918; published in Hrvatska rapsodija
Kristofor Kolombo (drama) 1918; published in Hrvatska rapsodija as Christoval Colon
Lirika (poetry) 1919
Hrvatski bog Mars (short stories) 1922
Izlet u Rusiju (travel essays) 1926
Gospoda Glembajevi (drama) 1928
Leda (drama) 1930
†U agoniji (drama) 1931; expanded edition, 1962
Glembajevi (drama) 1932
Knjiga lirike (poetry) 1932
Moj obracun s njima (essay) 1932
Povratak Filipa Latinovicza [The Return of Philip Latinovicz] (novel) 1932
‡Legende (dramas) 1933
Michelangelo Buonarroti (drama) 1925
Balade Petrice Kerempuha (poetry) 1936
Pjesme u tmini (poetry) 1937
§Banket u Blitvi (novel) 1938
Na rubu pameti [On the Edge of Reason] (novel) 1938
Dijalekticki antibarbarus (criticism) 1939
Djetinjstvo u Agramu 1902–1903 (autobiography) 1952
Aretej; ili, Legenda o Svetoj Ancili (drama) 1959; published in periodical Mogucnosti
Saloma (drama) 1963; published in periodical Forum
#Zastave (novel) 1967
The Cricket beneath the Waterfall, and Other Stories [Cvrcak pod vodopadon] (short stories) 1972
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SOURCE: "Miroslav Krleza," in Books Abroad, Vol. 37, No. 4, Autumn, 1963, pp. 396-400.
[In the following essay, Kadic provides a thematic and generic overview of Krleza's writings.]
Miroslav Krleza should not be treated as a man of letters only: his significance lies in various fields. One can safely state that his role in the establishment of the Communist dictatorship in Yugoslavia was extremely significant. There is no one who did more than Krleza to discredit bourgeois society and to orient a great number of intellectuals toward socialism.
To understand and appreciate Krleza one must locate him in his milieu, in Zagreb, during and after the First World War, when the Austrian empire was rapidly disintegrating and royalist Yugoslavia was in the process of formation. Krleza was one of the first who revolted against the megalomania and mythomania of the military clique in Belgrade, which considered the non-Serbian lands a conquered territory.
Krleza was born in Zagreb on July 7, 1893. After completing high school, he was sent first to the officers' school in Pécs and then to the military academy in Budapest. At that time the Croatian intelligentsia hoped that Serbia would play the role of Yugoslav Piedmont in national liberation and unification. Although an Austro-Hungarian officer, Krleza espoused this ideal, crossed the border and volunteered in the Serbian war...
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SOURCE: "Krleza's Tormented Visionaries," in The Slavonic and East European Review, Vol. XLV, No. 4, January, 1967, pp. 46-64.
[In the essay below, Kadic establishes a biographical context for an examination of Krleza's early works, tracing his preoccupation with "tormented" protagonists.]
Since Miroslav Krleza (born in 1893) is the leading Yugoslav Communist writer and as such believes in the progress of mankind and the ultimate victory of the proletariat, Yugoslav critics have been understandably reluctant to analyse his early output, especially the plays written at a time when he was a nihilist and sceptic. A thorough examination of the early work of Krleza, in which his doubts remain unsolved, is worth-while.
For an appreciation of Krleza's early plays in which, at the beginning of his literary career, he portrayed certain well-known historical figures as idealists who gradually became disillusioned both with their own visions and with their followers, some biographical details are relevant. This distinguished Croatian writer is generally considered to be at least as good as, if not superior to, Ivo Andric. Whereas Andric (born in 1892) excels in form, Krleza's strong individuality, his early revolutionary and subsequently revisionist ideas are real cornerstones of contemporary Yugoslav leftist literature.
Krleza's solid catholic...
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SOURCE: A review of The Return of Philip Latinovicz, in Saturday Review, Vol. 52, No. 46, November 15, 1969, p. 48.
[In the following review, Mihailovich discusses the themes in The Return of Philip Latinovicz, lamenting Krleza's lack of recognition by readers in the West.]
Paris had its Balzac and Zola, Dublin its Joyce, and Croatia has its Miroslav Krleza. Many of his works deal with the tribulations of the Croats under the ungainly Austro-Hungarian Empire. He is one of the two leading Yugoslav writers today (the other is Ivo Andric), a distinction he won almost half a century ago with the short-story collection Croatian God Mars [Hrvatski bog mars]. His other major works include the plays In Agony [U agoniji] and Aretheus [Aretej] and the novels On the Edge of Reason, Banquet in Blitvia [Banket u Blitvi] and The Banners [Zastave].
The Return of Philip Latinovicz, Krleza's first novel, was published in 1932, during the modernistic, almost expressionistic phase in his development. The novel's main dialectic—art vs. life—is also a variation on the Return of the Native theme.
After spending twenty-three years in West European capitals, where he was imbued with savoir-faire, dilettantism, and world-weariness, Philip, a young painter, returns to his home town in a Godforsaken Croatian plain. The...
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SOURCE: A review of The Return of Philip Latinovicz, in The New York Times Book Review, February 15, 1970, pp. 4, 26.
[In the following review, Pawel praises Krleza's "demythification" of evil and commitment to moral and artistic integrity in The Return of Philip Latinovicz.]
Miroslav Krleza (Kirlezha), the formidable Croat who has dominated Yugoslavia's literary landscape for nearly half a century, remains virtually unknown in the West. His is not the only such case and again reflects at least in part the parochialism of Western publishers and their public; but the ambiguities of Krleza's themes and politics have no doubt contributed to the neglect of a writer who, ironically, happens to be quintessentially Western—or more precisely Central European—in the scope and sources of his work.
Born in 1893 in the then Austrian city of Zagreb, raised in a Budapest military academy, Krleza came of age in the twilight gloom of the Hapsburg empire and shares unmistakable affinities with his German-language contemporaries of the Prague-Vienna literary renaissance, from Kafka to Kraus and from Schnitzler to Musil. What set him apart from the very beginning was an unfashionably undespairing commitment to radical humanism, that is, faith in radical politics tempered by a clear-eyed awareness of its limits in the affairs of men. Most of his lifelong troubles as a citizen and author stem...
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SOURCE: "A Critical Literary Approach to Miroslav Krleza's The Return of Filip Latinovicz," in Journal of Croatian Studies, Vol. XIV-XV, 1973–74, pp. 134-44.
[In the essay below, Ferguson assesses the meaning of The Return of Filip Latinovicz, distinguishing between Krleza's viewpoint and Filip's to suggest the novel's tragic intent.]
The most noticeable feature of criticism of Miroslav Krleza's novel The Return of Filip Latinovicz is the divergence of opinion as to "what the novel is about." Potential difference of opinion appears all the more remarkable when it is considered how little surrounds other Croatian novels regarding "what they are about." Should this novel be read as a treatment of man's search for identity in society or his attempt to flee from society and himself; as a political statement by Krleza about the shallowness of bourgeois society; as a dramatic presentation of a discussion upon the importance of beauty and art; as an assertion of man's fundamental need of love for life to be meaningful; as a revelation of the psychological problems created by an acute sensitivity towards life; or even as a sort of comic-fantasy? To suggest that the novel is a mélange of these interpretations may in fact be nearer the truth. This would imply, however, that The Return of Filip Latinovicz is characterised by thematic inconsistency and contradiction. Yet Filip...
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SOURCE: A review of The Cricket beneath the Waterfall and Other Stories, in The Antioch Review, Vol. 34, No. 1, Fall, 1975, pp. 234-35.
[In the following review of The Cricket beneath the Waterfall, the critic comments on Krleza's narrative style.]
The Croatian Miroslav Krleza is among the most neglected of the world's great writers. European critics have long paired him with Bosnian novelist Ivo Andríc, as deserving contenders for the Nobel Prize (Andríc won the Prize, in 1961).
Krleza's stories display the same panoramic density that enlivens Andríc's magisterial chronicles of sturdy Balkan subkingdoms emerging from centuries of oppression into the modern age. But Krleza is the more overtly "political" writer—and his pungent, unsparing studies of human isolation paradoxically resonate with a swooping sense of cultures struggling, strangely formed powers laboring to surface. A satirically observed complex of military-political careerists reveals "the immeasurable wretchedness of Croatian military glory." A village boy dreams, romantically, of Paris—and a harsh sardonic vision descends, to shake him from his "sick illusion." (A favorite focus of Krleza's wit is the intellectual fop who rejects his own nationality and culture.)
A desperate young man, whose stubbornly narrow imagination betrays him into drunken nihilism, writhes suspended in mutual...
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SOURCE: "Krleza's Culinary Flemishness," in Text and Context, edited by Peter Alverg Jensen, et al., Almqvist & Wiksell International, 1987, pp. 185-92.
[In the following essay, Flaker examines the role and various function of food in some of Krleza's works, particularly Balade Petrice Kerempuha and Zastave.]
In his comparison of Krleza's Balade Petrice Kerempuha (The Ballads of Petrica Kerempuh) to the poetry of Eduard Bagrickij, Russian poet from Odessa, Zdravko Malic calls one of the chapters of his study I Consume, Therefore I Am, and, consequently, dubs the "point of view from which the world starts to assume the shape of an object of culinary interest" "pantagruelism", after Rabelais, of course, but without reference to Bachtin's chapter Pirsestvennye obrazy u Rable (The Feasting Scenes of Rabelais). "Pantagruelism" is seen as a "caricature of every spiritual interpretation of the world, its materialization in the most drastic form, and thus highly characteristic of the Ulenspigelian tradition". Malic gives numerous examples of the "pantagruelism" of Balade on the level of style: comparisons and metaphors in which the first member is a man and his action while the second is an "object of culinary interest", but—we might add—from socially varied menus.
As for "objects of culinary interest" in the Ballads, the most...
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Fried, István. "Miroslav Krleza's Anti-Utopia." Acta Litteraria Academiae Scientiarum Hungariace 29, Nos. 1-2 (1987): 163-78.
Discusses the relationship between Krleza's distinctly Croatian-Hungarian anti-utopian vision in his works and the development of Western European anti-utopian literature.
Miletich, John S. "Toward a Stylistic Description of Expressionist Lyric: The German Phenomenon and Its Croatian Analogs." International Journal of Slavic Linguistics and Poetics XXV/XXVI (1982): 281-89.
Explores "stylistic tendencies" of German expressionism as used by Antun Branko Simic and Krleza in their lyrics, showing that "Krleza's lyrics are organized around the use of imagery involving violent movement and sound as well as the extended use of personification."
Suvin, Darko. "On Dramaturgic Agents and Krleza's Agential Structure: The Types as a Key Level." Modern Drama XXVII, No. 1 (March 1984): 80-97.
Dramaturgical analysis of Krleza's use and meaning of "stock characters" primarily in his plays of his expressionistic phase, particularly the Woman, the untranslatable Nervchik, and the subsidiary types of the Patriarchal Tyrant, the Parasite, and the Knower.
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