Miles Coverdale 1488?-1569?
English translator, religious writer, non-fiction writer, and hymn writer.
A major figure in the development of English vernacular literature, Miles Coverdale was the first to translate the complete text of the Bible into English, finishing his work in 1535. He also translated the Great Bible, printed between 1538 and 1539, which was the first Bible to be authorized by the king. In addition to translating the Bible, Coverdale also produced the first hymnbook in English, Goostly Psalmes and Spirituall Songes Drawen out of the Holy Scripture (1535) and translated many pro-reformation religious writings into English, including tracts by Martin Luther. A deeply religious Protestant reformer, Coverdale held a bishopric in England, but was exiled to Europe several times when political and religious policies turned against the Protestants. Nonetheless, Coverdale's work contributed to the spread of the ideas of reform throughout England and Europe, and the nature and style of his translations set the tone for future English versions of the Bible, including the Authorized Version (or King James Bible), which shows much evidence of Coverdale's influence.
Though biographical information regarding Coverdale is scarce, most scholars believe that he was born in approximately 1488 in the district of Coverdale in Yorkshire, England. He was educated at the Augustan monastery at Cambridge University, where he studied philosophy and theology. In 1514, Coverdale was ordained as a priest in Norwich. In the late 1520s he is thought to have come under the patronage of Thomas Cromwell, the secretary to Cardinal Thomas Wosley. Cromwell encouraged Coverdale's Protestant leanings and would later support some of his translation activities. Because of the pressure Coverdale faced while preaching the ideas of Erasmus and the Reformation to his parishioners, he went into exile on the continent in the late 1520s. By 1529 he was in Germany, helping another English reformer, William Tyndale, translate parts of the Bible. He received his B.A. in Canon Law in 1531, and later completed his D. D., though the date and location of this later education is uncertain.
Arguably his most important translation work was accomplished in 1534-35, when Coverdale translated the whole Bible into English, likely without assistance. He did not use original Hebrew and Greek sources, instead relying on partial English, German, and Latin versions. He dedicated the translation to English King Henry VIII, a decision which might have contributed to Coverdale's translation being allowed to circulate in England, though without official sanction. It is believed that at the same time, he translated the first collection of hymns into English, Goostly Psalmes and Spirituall Songes. Because of the Injunctions of 1538, Bibles in English and Latin were required to be placed in every church in England and made available for public viewing. Coverdale headed the project to create an authorized version of the Bible, using Matthew’s Bible as well as the works of Erasmus and the Vulgate as bases for his work. The Great Bible, as it would come to be called, owing to the large size of paper used, was being printed in Paris in late 1538. Paris was chosen due to the high quality of printing available in that city, as well as the ongoing religious strife in England which made Bible translation there a risky endeavor. Coverdale and his printer, Richard Grafton, had received license from French King Francis I to produce the Bible, but pressures from the Inquisition forced the seizure of all materials in December of 1538. After the intervention of several of Coverdale’s supporters, including that of Cromwell—who had financed a portion of the project—the entirety of the printing operation, including paper, presses and even the printers and translators themselves, were transported to England, where they completed the publication of the Great Bible in April, 1539.
Soon after his return, however, continued religious and political upheaval in England led Coverdale to again fear for his safety and return to Europe. During his second exile, Coverdale's religious beliefs evolved away from Lutheranism and towards Swiss reform doctrines. He married a woman of Scotch descent named Elizabeth Matcheson, and continued to serve as a minister and teacher, as well as continuing his lifelong work of translation. In 1547, Henry VIII died and Edward VI took the throne. After years of uncertain status in his native country, Coverdale returned to England by invitation of King Edward. He was appointed one of the royal chaplains to the king and almoner (Lord Protector) to Catherine Parr, the dowager queen. In 1550, religious tensions forced him to resign his position and he was imprisoned for a short time, during which he began to urge peace and conformity within the reform movement. In 1551 Coverdale was consecrated bishop of Exeter, a position he held until 1553, when King Edward died and Mary I, a Catholic, assumed the English throne in fall 1553. Upon Queen Mary's Ascension, Coverdale was placed under informal house arrest and feared for his life, but the King of Denmark, with whom he had familial connections through his wife, interceded on Coverdale's behalf and he was allowed to leave England for Switzerland. While in exile, he continued his translation work and served as an elder in the Anglican Church in Geneva. In 1559, after Elizabeth I had taken the throne, Coverdale returned to England where he worked for the Duchess of Suffolk as minister and tutor and did some additional preaching. Though it was offered, Coverdale refused to resume his position as Bishop of Exeter because his increasingly puritanical beliefs made him unwilling to wear vestments. By 1564, he was serving as the minister of St. Magnus Martyr by London Bridge and living in poverty. Again because of his Puritan religious convictions, he resigned the post in 1566, but performed services for several Puritan groups before his death, likely on January 20, 1569. Coverdale was buried in St. Bartholomew-by-Exchange, though his remains were later transferred to St. Magnus.
Nearly all of Coverdale's significant works are translations of religious texts into English, generally aimed at the common reader of the time. Most of Coverdale's fame is derived from his 1535 translation of the Bible into English. He based his translation on five partial English, German, and Latin versions, and completed most of the work on the first Bible to be published in English without assistance and, some scholars maintain, within a single year. Coverdale was also the editor and one of the main translators of the Great Bible of 1539, which was largely based on the second English-language Bible, the Matthew Bible of 1537. With Ghostly Psalmes and Spiritual Songs, the first hymnbook published in the English vernacular, Coverdale hoped to introduce singing into English church services. Coverdale also translated a significant number of texts by leaders such as Martin Luther, Ulrich Zwingli, Heinrich Bullinger, and Otto Werdmüller, attempting to promote the ideas of the reformation to the English common people. Coverdale also wrote several original works, most prominently, A Confutation of the Treatise of John Standish made agaynst the protestation of R. Barnes in the yeare 1540 (1541), a response to a treatise by John Standish against Coverdale's mentor and friend, Barnes. In the piece, Coverdale defended Barnes and his doctrines against the charges made by Standish. He also stressed the importance of good works. While the majority of Coverdale's works promote conciliation, the Confutation was a very controversial work at the time.
To many critics, Coverdale's stature as a translator is largely overshadowed by William Tyndale, his contemporary and friend who translated the first English-language New Testament. Coverdale's works of translation were created in an era of political and religious upheaval, and as such it is difficult to determine their reception among his contemporaries. Bible translation itself was a highly controversial issue in Coverdale's day, and it is difficult to assess Coverdale's reputation among contemporary critics in such an environment. More recently, scholars such as Francis Fry and Brooke Foss Westcott have heavily focused on the textual history of the 1535 Bible and the Great Bible, considering how they relate to the tumultuous political and religious situation in which they were produced, and attempting to discern the facts of their publication using clues from the texts. Celia Hughes and George Pearson trace Coverdale's involvement in the church reform movement, examining the texts and textual histories of his works in order to establish his role as a significant voice for the Reformation. The influence of Coverdale on the development of the King James Bible is the primary focus of critics such as Herbert Gordon May and Gerald Hammond, who consider the Coverdale's translation style in relation to later biblical translations. In addition, some scholars such as Robin A. Leaver, have considered the development of Coverdale's hymns, tracing their sources in the psalms and German hymnbooks of the era, and showing their significant influence on later works of English hymnody, most notably The Book of Common Prayer. While to some, the works of Tyndale hold more significance in allowing the English people access to the Bible, others find the fact that Coverdale completed translating the complete Bible without assistance remarkable. In connection with his impressive efforts to provide accessibility to the Bible for the English people, George Pearson maintains that “… the name of Coverdale is one which will be always mentioned with veneration and respect.”
BIBLIA, the Bible, That Is, the Holy Scripture … translated out of Douche and Latyn in to Englishe [translator; commonly referred to as the Bible of 1535 or the Coverdale Bible] (religious writing) 1535
The Concordance of the New Testament [compiler] (religious writing) 1535
A Faythfull and True Pronosticacion vpon the Yeare M.CCCC.xxxvi. Gathered out of the Prophecies and Scriptures of God … Translated out of Hye Almayne by Miles Couerdale [translator] (religious writing) 1535
Goostly Psalmes and Spirituall Songes Drawen out of the Holy Scripture [translator] (hymns) 1535
A Spirituall Almanacke [translator] (religious writing) 1535
The Bokes of Salomon, Namely: Prouerbia, Ecclesiastes, Sapientia, and Ecclesiasticus [translator] (religious writing) 1537
The Faith of the Indians [translator] (non-fiction) 1537
An exposicion vpon the songe of blessed virgine Mary, called Magnificat [as J. Hollybush; translator] (religious writing) 1538
The New Testamen Both Latin and English after the Vulgate Texte: Which is Red in the Churche, Translated and Corrected by Myles Couerdale [translator] (religious writing) 1538
The Newe Testament Both Latine and Englyshe Ech correspondent … after the Vulgate Texte, called S....
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SOURCE: Pearson, George. “Biographical Notice of Bishop Coverdale.” In Remains of Myles Coverdale, Bishop of Exeter, edited by George Pearson, pp. vii-xxiii. 1846. Reprint, New York: Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1968.
[In the following essay, originally published in 1846, Pearson offers an overview of Coverdale's life and works, focusing on his involvement with the Reformation.]
The early history of eminent persons is often involved in much obscurity: and this observation is remarkably verified in the instance of the illustrious subject of this memoir. Bishop Myles Coverdale is supposed to have been born in the year of our Lord 1488, in the district of Coverdale in the parish of Coverham, near Middleham, in the North Riding of Yorkshire; and it is the opinion of the learned historian of Richmondshire1, that it is an assumed, and not a family name. Whatever may be the truth in this respect, it is perhaps impossible in the present day accurately to determine it.
Of the history of his early life every thing is equally obscure. When he was of a proper age for an academical education, he was sent to the monastery of the Augustines at Cambridge, of which the celebrated Dr Robert Barnes was at that time Prior; from whom he imbibed those sound principles of learning and religion, which fitted him afterwards to take so conspicuous a lead in the events connected with the...
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SOURCE: Fry, Francis. The Bible by Coverdale: MDXXXV, pp. 1-38. London: Willis & Sotheran, 1867.
[In the following excerpt, Fry examines Coverdale's 1535 translation of the Bible, using textual details in an attempt to resolve questions regarding the publication and revision history of the edition.]
The bible first printed in the English language is known as the Version by Myles Coverdale, because the “Epistle unto the Kynges hyghnesse.” bears his name at the conclusion of it, thus,—“youre graces humble subiecte and daylye oratour, Myles Couerdale.” … The laborious work of translating and printing the Bible was completed in the reign of Henry the Eighth.
There are many circumstances relating to the production of this interesting book of which we should like to have been informed: but after much research the information that has reached us is exceedingly scanty.
We know when the Volume was printed. It concludes with the Imprint, which is on the reverse of the last leaf, thus,—“Prynted in the yeare of oure LORDE M.D.XXXV. and fynished the fourth daye of October.”
As to the Translator, perhaps no more is known than Coverdale himself has communicated to us. In the “Dedication” he says—“Considerynge now (most gracyous prynce) the inestimable treasure, frute & prosperite euerlastynge, that God...
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SOURCE: Westcott, Brooke Foss. “The Printed Bible: External History” and “The Internal History of the English Bible.” In A General View of the History of the English Bible, pp. 71-110, 212-220. London: Macmillan and Co., 1868.
[In the first excerpt which follows, Westcott considers the textual history of both the Coverdale Bible of 1535 and the Great Bible, analyzing the creation of the works and the garnering of official royal sanction. In the second excerpt, Westcott considers the bases and distinctive qualities of each of Coverdale's major Biblical translations.]
THE PRINTED BIBLE: EXTERNAL HISTORY
§ 2. COVERDALE.
Tyndale's character is heroic. He could see clearly the work to which he was called and pursue it with a single unswerving faith in God and in the powers which God had given him. It was otherwise with Miles Coverdale, who was allowed to finish what Tyndale left incomplete. The differences of the men are written no less on their features than on their lives. But our admiration for the solitary massive strength of the one must not make us insensible to the patient labours and tender sympathy of the other1. From the first Coverdale appears to have attached himself to the liberal members of the old party and to have looked to working out a reformation from within through them. As early as 1527 he was in...
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SOURCE: Guppy, Henry. Miles Coverdale and the English Bible, 1488-1598, pp. 2-30. Manchester: The Manchester University Press, 1935.
[In following essay, Guppy provides a detailed discussion of Coverdale's life and his translations of the 1535 Bible and the Great Bible, focusing on the textual history of different versions and notable changes in the illustrations of different editions.]
Our English Bible in its printed form was born in exile.
England, which more than any other country was to be distinguished in after years for its zeal in printing and circulating the Scriptures, was late in entering the field. She was nourishing her faith on manuscript copies of the Wiclifite versions long after the time when Bibles were printed in the vernacular of several European countries. Germany had a translation of the Bible in 1465, Italy in 1471, France in 1474, the Low Countries in 1477, Bohemia in 1488, and printed versions of the Bible or parts of it were in circulation in several other languages and dialects long before any attempt had been made to print an English Bible.
It may appear strange, but it is none the less true to say, that of many of the greatest men the world knows the least. The lives of the greatest saints of the church are little more than legends, and of many of the great master minds of the past a...
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SOURCE: May, Herbert Gordon. “The Genealogy of the King James Version.” In Our English Bible in the Making: The Word of Life in Living Language, pp. 31-43. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1952.
[In the excerpt that follows, May discusses Coverdale's influence on the origins and development of the King James Bible.]
TRANSLATION IN THE TRADITION
The later authorized versions of the Bible had their antecedents, as truly as does a person. No responsible translator of the Bible translates de novo, making a totally “original” translation, ignoring the suggestions and helps of earlier translations. This is even true of James Moffatt's translation of the Bible, despite the fact that it is an attempt to make a completely fresh translation rather than to revise older translations. It is particularly true of the translations of the Bible that are in any real sense authorized versions. The present Revised Standard Version is a revision of the American Standard Version of 1901 in the light of the best knowledge of today and “in the direction of the simple, classic English style of the King James Version.”
The translators of the King James Version indicate their dependence in the preface to their translation, saying, “Yet for all that, as nothing is begun and perfited at the same time, and the...
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SOURCE: Mozley, J. F. “The Making of the Coverdale Bible,” “The Coverdale Bible in England,” and “The Making of the Great Bible.” In Coverdale and His Bibles, pp. 65-76, 110-124, 201-220. London: Lutterworth Press, 1953.
[In the following essays, Mozley discusses the nature of Coverdale's Bibles, how they were translated, printed and published, how their content and textual history relate to the cultural climate of the time, and the differences found among his editions.]
THE MAKING OF THE COVERDALE BIBLE
(A) ITS FORM AND ACCESSORIES
The Coverdale bible is a small folio, printed in a German black letter, with two columns to the page, and the colophon informs us that it was “printed in the year of our Lord 1535, and finished the fourth day of October”. The biblical text is divided after Luther's manner into six parts, each with its own foliation and signatures: (1) The five books of Moses. (2) The historical books, Joshua to Esther. (3) The poetic books, Job to “Salamon's Balettes”, i.e. the Song of Songs. (4) The prophets. (5) The Apocrypha. (6) The New Testament. In the side margins are printed a few notes showing alternative readings and interpretations, and also a fairly full concordance or references to parallels. Before nearly every book (Psalms is the chief exception) stands a table of...
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SOURCE: Hughes, Celia. “Coverdale's Alter Ego.” Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester, 65, no. 1 (Autumn, 1982): 100-24.
[In the following essay, Hughes considers Coverdale's role as a religious reformer and in this context examines his lesser-known works of translation, as well as his original compositions.]
The name of Miles Coverdale is so closely associated with Bible translation that it is easy to overlook the other aspect of his life, that of the reformer. He played a not insignificant part in spreading the ideas of the Continental Reformers in England, and during his lifetime from 1488 to 1569 experienced eight decades of crucial importance in religious history. In his first forty years he became an Austin friar in Cambridge and witnessed the coming of Erasmian and Lutheran teaching from its early stages. Between 1528 and 1559 he spent long periods abroad in such cities as Antwerp, Strasbourg, and Geneva; and his old age was passed, in anxiety and with a troubled conscience, in the first decade of Elizabeth's reign. His theological development furnishes a paradigm of the progress of the English Reformation between 1530 and 1552. First he embraced Lutheran doctrines, then moved in the direction of the Swiss reformers. Finally he parted company with them via media, and adopted a position which might be termed proto-Puritan, similar to that of other Marian exiles...
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SOURCE: Hammond, Gerald. “The Two Bibles of Miles Coverdale.” In Making of the English Bible,, pp. 68-88. Manchester: Carcanet New Press, 1982.
[In following essay, Hammond discusses Coverdale's 1535 Bible and Great Bible, comparing them with each other and the Authorized Version of the Bible.]
But to saye the trueth before God, it was nether my laboure ner desyre, to haue this worke put in my hande: neuertheles it greued me that other nacyons shulde be more plenteously prouyded for with the scripture in theyr mother tongue, then we: therefore whan I was instantly requyred, though I coude not do so well as I wolde, I thought it yet my dewtye to do my best, and that with a good wyll.
from Coverdale's “Prologue” to his 1535 Bible
Because of Tyndale's incarceration and subsequent execution, the English Reformation Bible was completed by Miles Coverdale, a man we might fairly call the great survivor among the early translators. Born sometime around 1488, and from the first a participant in the radical theological groups which imported Lutheranism into the country, he completed one translation of the Bible in 1535, another in 1539, and probably helped in the production of the Geneva Bible during the late 1550s. He enjoyed, if that is the word for it, exile for his beliefs four times—in the late 1520s, the late 1530s,...
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SOURCE: Leaver, Robin A. “Early Beginnings of Hymnody in English.” In ‘Goostly psalmes and spirituall songes’: English and Dutch Metrical Poems from Coverdale to Utenhove, 1535-1566, pp. 62-86. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.
[In the following excerpt, Leaver examines Coverdale's collections of hymns, Goostly psalmes, the first book of hymns in English. Leaver considers how the hymns were received by his contemporaries and discusses Coverdale's intentions in composing them.]
Miles Coverdale (1488-1568) was one of the earliest Englishmen influenced by the writings of Martin Luther. With Robert Barnes, he was a leading member of the group of theologians that met at the White Horse Inn in Cambridge around 1520 to read and discuss Luther's writings.1 Since 1514 he had been an Augustinian friar (his prior was Robert Barnes), but in 1528, a year or so after Barnes's trial and enforced recantation, he renounced his order and appears to have adopted an itinerant ministry in Essex, preaching against confession and the worship of images. Soon after, he left England for mainland Europe. He is reported to have worked with William Tyndale in Hamburg,2 but, to judge from the contents of the Goostly psalmes, he may well have travelled in the general area of north Germany, Denmark, and the south of Sweden during the years 1530-4. It was presumably during this period that he...
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Bobrick, Benson. Wide as the Waters: The Story of the English Bible and the Revolution it Inspired. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001. 379 p.
Detailed study of the development of the Bible in English, including thorough discussion on both the Coverdale Bible and the Great Bible.
Bruce, F. F. “The Great Bible,” in The English Bible: A History of Translations from the earliest English Versions to the New English Bible, pp. 67-80. New York: Oxford University Press, 1970.
Examines Coverdale's Great Bible and Bible of 1535 in depth, comparing both to the 1537 Matthew Bible.
Clark, James Andrew. “Hidden Tyndale in OED's first instances from Miles Coverdale's 1537 Bible.” Notes and Queries. 45, No. 3, (September 1998): 289-93.
Compares the number of and nature of quotations from Coverdale's English translation of the Bible with that of William Tyndale in the Oxford English Dictionary, arguing that Tyndale was a primary source for Coverdale when writing his translation.
Records of the English Bible: The Documents Relating to the Translation and Publication of the Bible in English, 1525-1611, edited by Alfred W. Pollard. London: Oxford University Press, 1911, 379 p.
Reprints original source...
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