Biography (Cyclopedia of World Authors, Fourth Revised Edition)
A talented and prolific writer, master of the novel, short story, and drama, Milan Kundera (koon-DEHR-uh) is considered one of the major innovators in twentieth century European literature. He was the son of Ludvík and Milada (Janosikova) Kundera; his father, a student of the Czech composer Leo Janáek, was a talented pianist. Intending to become a musician, Kundera studied piano with his father, but he put aside music in 1948 to study scriptwriting and directing at the Film Faculty of the Prague Academy of Music and Dramatic Arts, where he later taught. In reaction against Nazism he joined the Communist Party in 1947 but was purged twice for his outspoken views. In a speech before the Congress of Czechoslovak Writers in 1967 Kundera called for writers to lead the campaign for artistic and cultural freedom that became the Prague Spring of 1968. After the Soviet suppression of Alexander Dubek’s reforms, Kundera was not permitted to publish his works; in 1975 he and his wife were allowed to immigrate to Paris, and he became a French citizen in 1981. He spent much of 1990 in Martinique and Haiti.
Kundera began his literary career as a poet in the 1950’s, publishing three collections of poems before turning to drama and, finally, to fiction, finding greater exactness and precision of expression in prose. In his three collections of short stories, condensed as Laughable Loves, Kundera uses sexual comedy as a way of poking fun at a world of grim ideological constraints and artistic repression. In a totalitarian state, Kundera has observed, one’s private life represents the last bastion of freedom against government control. Sexual expression becomes either a metaphor for or a sublimation of political expression. If the state promotes a rigid morality, then promiscuity becomes a form of rebellion, though a self-destructive one for many of Kundera’s characters.
His first novel, The Joke, shows Kundera to be a master of ironic sexual comedy with deeper cultural and political implications. The Joke, whose plot is built around a practical joke that backfires, reveals the dangers of a world lacking a sense of humor. Ludvík Jahn, a young student, sends a humorous postcard to his grim Stalinist girlfriend, Marketa, with three parodies of Marxist slogans: “Optimism is the opiate of the people! A healthy...
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Biography (Critical Survey of Short Fiction, Second Revised Edition)
Milan Kundera’s life has followed as curious and circuitous a course as the plots of his polyphonic novels. He worked as a laborer and jazz musician. Influenced by his father, Ludvík, a noted pianist and musicologist, Kundera attended Charles University and the Academy of Music and Dramatic Arts in Prague, where he studied piano, composing, film directing, and screenwriting. He joined the Communist Party in 1948, was expelled in 1950, and was reinstated in 1956. He published three volumes of poetry during the 1950’s, joined the academy’s film faculty in 1958, and began writing plays and stories in the early 1960’s.
The year 1967 proved to be an especially momentous one in Kundera’s life. That year saw his marriage to Vera Hrabankova; the publication and immediate success of his first novel, The Joke; and his provocative speech at the fourth Writers Union meeting. Warning against the threat political repression posed to Czech literature, he spearheaded efforts to speed reform and extend freedom. The reformers carried the day. Antonín Novotny fell from power; Alexander Dubek rose, and with him the Prague Spring of 1968, which ended when the Soviet army, “legitimized” by the token participation of its Warsaw Pact allies, invaded Czechoslovakia on August 20. Kundera was soon branded a counterrevolutionary; he was dismissed from his faculty position, was expelled from the party for a second time, and found his plays banned and his...
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Biography (Critical Survey of Long Fiction, Fourth Edition)
Milan Kundera was born into a highly cultured and sophisticated family of a Brno pianist, Milada Janosikova, and a distinguished professor of Janáek’s Academy of Music, Ludvík Kundera. Thus, in addition to literature, among those early interests that he took seriously was music. In 1948, the year of a Communist coup in Czechoslovakia, Kundera began his study at the Charles University in Prague and simultaneously attended the famous film school of the Prague Academy of Music and Dramatic Arts, from which he graduated in 1958 after being forced to withdraw from 1950 to 1956 because of his expulsion from the Communist Party. During that hiatus, he composed poetry (a genre in which he had been publishing since 1949) and music, including “Composition for Four Instruments” and a setting of verses by Guillaume Apollinaire, an author who much influenced Kundera’s own poetry. The Prague film school also became his employer: There, he taught world literature. In 1963, he married Vera Hrabankova and joined the editorial board of the journal Literarni noviny.
Having associated himself strongly with the movement known variously as the Prague Spring and “socialism with a human face,” Kundera fell into disfavor following the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Soviet Union. His works were put on the censor’s index and withdrawn from the libraries, and he was left without any means of support when forced out of his professorship in 1970....
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Biography (Magill's Survey of World Literature, Revised Edition)
Milan Kundera (koon-DEHR-uh) was born on April 1, 1929, in Brno, Czechoslovakia (now the Czech Republic), to Ludvík and Milada Janosikova Kundera. He grew up in the provincial capital of Brno and then went to Prague to attend Charles University and the Film Faculty of the Prague Academy of Music and Dramatic Arts. In 1947, he joined the Communist Party. Like the majority of his compatriots, he initially celebrated the Communists’ rise to power after World War II as a victory of the future over the past; like them, he soon regretted this decision and found himself at odds with the party. In 1950, he was expelled for “ideological differences” and left Prague to work as a laborer and jazz pianist in the provinces. In 1956, he was reinstated in the party, and two years later he became an assistant professor at the Institute for Advanced Cinematographic Studies of the Academy of Music and Dramatic Arts.
In 1963, he became a member of the central committee of the Czechoslovak Writers’ Union. Between 1963 and 1968, Kundera’s poetry, plays, and fiction made him one of the most important literary figures in Prague. His collections of short stories, entitled Smne lásky (1963, 1970; partial translation as Laughable Loves, 1974), were immensely popular and were awarded the Czechoslovak Writers’ Publishing House Prize. His first novel ert (1967; The Joke, 1969, revised, 1982), which was finally published unchanged after a two-year battle with the censors, quickly went through three editions and received the Union of Czechoslovak Writers’ Prize. With other prominent writers, such as Ludvik Vaculik and Ivan Klima, Kundera used his stature in the Writers’ Union to press for “socialism with a human face” and thereby helped to usher in the Prague Spring of 1968.
When Soviet tanks rolled into...
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Biography (Magill's Survey of World Literature, Revised Edition)
Milan Kundera has often objected to political readings of his fiction, emphasizing that his novels are about the existential dilemmas of his characters and complaining that Western readers have too often been drawn to the work of writers from “the other Europe” for the wrong reasons. He has often written of his ideas about the novel, the fate of central Europe, and the role of central Europe in the culture of the West. His interviews, essays, and comments are required reading for anyone who is interested in any of these matters. Finally, however, Kundera will be remembered for the power and accomplishment of his novels themselves. Together with those of his contemporaries from central, Eastern, and Western Europe and North,...
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IntroductionOne of Europe’s greatest contemporary writers, Milan Kundera, a Czechoslovakian, had a love-hate relationship with communism. He joined the Communist Party in 1948 but was expelled in 1950 for anti-party activities. He wrote about the experience in his novel Zert (translated into English as The Joke). He was readmitted in 1956 and expelled again in 1970. He was in good company that time, joining other Czech writers such as Vaclav Havel. Despite his political involvement, Kundera wants to be thought of as a literary novelist, not a political novelist. Starting in 1979, he stopped writing political commentary in his works and focused more on philosophical ideas.
- Milan Kundera loves films...just not film adaptations of his books. His most famous work, 1984’s The Unbearable Lightness of Being, was adapted by American director Philip Kaufman. Kundera was very unhappy with the movie and has not allowed any of his other novels to be filmed.
- Kundera originally wrote in Czech, but in 1933, he began writing his novels in French. From 1985 to 1987, he translated all of his existing work into French.
- Kundera has won many awards—the Jerusalem Prize in 1985, the Herder Prize in 2000, and the Czech National Literature Prize in 2007. He is rumored to be a contender for the Novel Prize for Literature as well.
- In an interview with The Village Voice, Kundera said, “Intimate life [is] understood as one’s personal secret, as something valuable, inviolable, the basis of one’s identity.”
- Kundera’s characters are often described as figments of his own imagination. He writes very little about their appearance, choosing instead to let the reader complete his vision.