Biography (Critical Survey of Drama, Second Revised Edition)
Miguel Ángel Asturias was born in Guatemala City, Guatemala, on October 19, 1899. His father, a judge, refused to cooperate with dictator Estrada Cabrera, and in 1903 the family was exiled to the provincial town of Salamá, where Asturias first encountered the country’s traditional Mayan culture. Returning to Guatemala City in 1907, Asturias grew up under a series of repressive regimes and became a prominent political activist when he entered the National University in 1917.
Asturias received his law degree in 1923 and then studied anthroplogy at the Sorbonne in Paris for the next five years. There he further developed his lifelong interest in Mayan culture while also beginning to write poetry and fiction. Asturias lived in Paris until 1933, when he returned to Guatemala to work as a journalist. The overthrow of President Jorge Ubico’s dictatorship in 1944 brought in a government sympathetic to Asturias’s politics, and he was offered a series of cultural attaché and diplomatic posts that took him to Mexico (1945-1947), Argentina (1947-1953), and El Salvador (1953-1954).
Asturias was now able to publish work that he had held back for political reasons. The novel The President, completed in 1932 but not published until 1946, was greeted with great acclaim. Its successor, Men of Maize, was even more rapturously received and is generally considered Asturias’s masterpiece. These were soon followed by the three novels of his “banana trilogy,” Viento fuerte (1950; The Cyclone, 1967; better known as Strong Wind, 1968), El papa verde (1954; The Green Pope, 1971), and Los ojos de los enterrados (1960; The Eyes of the Interred, 1973), which cemented his position as one of the finest Latin American writers of his generation.
Asturias began another sojourn in the political wilderness in 1954, when a right-wing coup in Guatemala forced him to flee to Argentina. In Buenos Aires, he worked as a newspaper correspondent until 1962, when Argentina’s turn to the political right precipitated a move to Genoa, Italy. His residency in Europe, where he became an active participant in many writers’ organizations, was undoubtedly instrumental in his receiving the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1967. The return of democracy to Guatemala resulted in his being named ambassador to France in 1966, a position he held until 1970, when another military coup led to his replacement. Asturias spent his remaining years in Madrid, where he died on June 9, 1974, after a career in which literature and politics were inextricably intermingled.
Biography (Critical Survey of Short Fiction, Second Revised Edition)
Miguel Ángel Asturias was born in 1899 in Guatemala City, Guatemala, only one year after the country succumbed to the dictatorship of Manuel Estrada Cabrera. Asturias’s father, a supreme court magistrate, lost his position in 1903, when he refused to convict students who protested against Estrada Cabrera’s totalitarian regime. Consequently, Asturias’s family was forced to leave the city for a rural area in Guatemala, where the young Asturias’s interest in his country’s Indian and peasant customs began to develop.
After attending secondary school, Asturias entered the University of San Carlos to study law. There he was politically active, participating in demonstrations that helped to depose Estrada Cabrera. Asturias also helped to found both a student association of Guatemala’s Unionist party and the Universidad Popular de Guatemala, an institution providing free evening instruction for the country’s poor. In 1923, Asturias earned his law degree and shortly thereafter founded the weekly newspaper Tiempos Nuevos. Later that year Asturias fled the country; his political writings began to endanger his life. After living in London for the next five months, Asturias moved to Paris, where he worked as European correspondent for Mexican and Central American newspapers. He also studied ancient Central American Indian civilizations at the Sorbonne. There he completed a dissertation on Mayan religion and translated sacred Indian texts....
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Biography (Critical Survey of Long Fiction, Fourth Edition)
The son of a magistrate and a schoolteacher, Miguel Ángel Asturias belonged to Ladino (non-Indian) upper-middle-class society. When he was about six years old, the family moved to a farm of his paternal grandparents in Baja Verapaz. The move to the country was caused by his father’s political difficulties with the dictator of Guatemala, Manuel Estrada Cabrera, and the family’s three-year retreat away from the city was significant in Asturias’s development, introducing him to the effects of dictatorship as well as to the countryside and its people.
When the political crisis was over, Asturias’s family returned to Guatemala City, and Asturias began his studies at the Instituto Nacional de Varones (National Men’s Institute) in 1912. Although student unrest crystallized into isolated protests against Estrada Cabrera between 1910 and 1920, Asturias was generally apolitical during his early school years. He participated in one disorder, a window-breaking spree with political overtones, but otherwise he refrained from attacks on the dictatorship until the formation of the Unionist Party in 1919. He signed a student manifesto against the government in August of that year, his first public stand against Estrada Cabrera.
After the Unionist victory, Asturias became a leader in the reform movement. He and his friends founded a popular university dedicated to educating the poorer classes, with the ultimate goal of bringing the country into the twentieth century. Asturias’s concerns were expressed in the dissertation he wrote for his law degree, but he was not able...
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Biography (Cyclopedia of World Authors, Fourth Revised Edition)
Miguel Ángel Asturias (ahs-TEWR-yahs) is considered one of the three most important Latin American writers of his generation (Jorge Luis Borges and Alejo Carpentier are the other two) and one of the two major influences in the twentieth century on the development of the Latin American novel. He was born in Guatemala City, Guatemala, to Ernesto Asturias, a magistrate, and María Rosales, a schoolteacher, on October 19, 1899, a year after the accession to the presidency of the infamous dictator Manuel Estrada Cabrera. Unable to tolerate the politically vindictive and repressive measures of the Estrada Cabrera regime, Ernesto Asturias moved his family to a small village near the outskirts of Guatemala City. There, and later in Salamá, an even smaller village in the Guatemalan interior, young Miguel’s contact with the magical vision of the indigenous Indian cultures initiated his personal education and stimulated his artistic development.ngel[Asturias, Miguel Angel]}ngel[Asturias, Miguel Angel]}ngel[Asturias, Miguel Angel]}
Travels into the hinterland with his maternal grandfather to oversee the family estates were also a regular part of his early years and subsequently provided the intimate knowledge and experience of Indian languages, lifestyles, and traditions which would lead Asturias in later years to first the writing of a thesis (Sociología guatemalteca: El problema social del indio) on the social problems of the Indians in Guatemala and later, in the mid-1920’s, to the formal study (and translation into Spanish) of pre-Columbian literary and mythological texts.
The years from 1899 to 1920, lived under the sternly repressive government of Estrada Cabrera, were decisive in shaping the political and artistic temperament of the writer. As a student activist, Asturias spearheaded the founding of a popular university in 1922 following the overthrow of the Estrada Cabrera dictatorship (an event to which his activities had significantly contributed). As a community project, the popular university was intended to increase the social and political influence of the underprivileged sectors of Guatemalan society through the contributions and active involvement of the middle class in educational and other programs for the poor.
Although granted his law degree in 1923, because he was an editor of a weekly journal called Tiempos Nuevos (new times), Asturias was forced into exile when the paper fell into disfavor with the succeeding regime. It was during this first of several exiles in London, and later Paris, that Asturias returned to his diary in a notebook—begun in December of 1917, in response to the great earthquake...
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