Migration (Encyclopedia of Science)
In biology, the term migration refers to the regular, periodic movement of animals between two different places. Migration usually occurs in response to seasonal changes and is motivated by breeding and/or feeding drives. Migration has been studied most intensively among birds, but it is known to take place in many other animals as well, including insects, fish, whales, and other mammals. Migration is a complex behavior that involves timing, navigation, and other survival skills.
The term migration also applies to the movement of humans from one country to another for the purpose of taking up long-term or permanent residency in the new country.
Types of migration
Four major types of migration are known. In complete migration, all members of a population travel from their breeding habitat at the end of that season, often to a wintering site hundreds or even thousands of kilometers away. The arctic tern is an example of a complete migrant. Individuals of this species travel from the Arctic to the Antarctic and back again during the course of a year, a round-trip migration of more than 30,000 kilometers!
In other species, some individuals remain at the breeding ground year-round while other members of the same species migrate away. This phenomenon is known as partial migration. American robins are considered indicators of...
(The entire section is 814 words.)
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