Middle Kingdom Period Begins in Egypt (Great Events from History: The Ancient World, Prehistory-476)
Article abstract: The reunification of Egypt under Montuhotep I of the Eleventh Dynasty ushered in a relatively stable period of increasingly centralized political power during which Egypt flourished in the arts and literature.
Summary of Event
The conquest of all of Egypt by Montuhotep I in the first half of his reign brought the First Intermediate Period to an end and ushered in the Middle Kingdom (c. 2055-c. 1650 b.c.e.). Montuhotep led armies that defeated independence-minded provincial governors in Upper Egypt and then marched north, uniting the country between 2030 and 2020 b.c.e. One of the most intriguing nonroyal burials at Thebes dates to the militaristic period of his reign, a mass grave of sixty soldiers killed in battle in Nubia and returned to Egypt for burial in an extremely honored location near the funerary temple of their king.
Through his reign and those of his Eleventh Dynasty (c. 2055-c. 1985 b.c.e.) successors, Thebes remained the capital of Egypt, but in the time of Amenemhet I, first king of the Twelfth Dynasty (c. 1985-c. 1782), the capital was moved to a new site south of Memphis. The city was called Amenemhet-itj-tawy (Amenemhet Seizes the Two Lands), usually shortened to Itj-tawy (now Lisht). The king was probably the same Amenemhet who was vizier of the last Montuhotep, and it is unclear whether the transition from one dynasty to the next was completely peaceful. There are no...
(The entire section is 1560 words.)
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