Kingston, Maxine Hong (Literary Masters)
Maxine Hong Kingston
1940: Maxine Ting Ting Hong is born on 27 October in Stockton, California, to Chinese immigrants, Tom Hong and Ying Lan Chew Hong. She is the first of the couple’s six children born in the United States. (Two children born earlier died in China.)
1954-1958: Kingston attends Edison High School in Stockton. In 1955 her essay “I Am an American” is published in The American Girl, the magazine of the Girl Scouts, winning her a $5 prize.
1958-1962: Kingston wins a journalism scholarship to the University of California, Berkeley, where she majors at first in engineering but later changes her course of study to English. While attending the university she works on the student newspaper, The Daily Californian. She graduates with a B.A. in English in 1962 and on 23 November of that year marries the actor Earll Kingston. 1964: Kingston’s son, Joseph Lawrence Chung Mei Kingston, is born.
1964-1965: Kingston studies for a teaching certificate at the University of California, Berkeley, and works as a student teacher at Oakland Technical High School.
1965-1967: Kingston teaches English and mathematics at Sunset High School in Hayward, California. She is active in the protest movement against the Vietnam War.
1967: Kingston moves with her husband and son to Hawaii, where she teaches English at Kahuku High School in Kahuku.
1968: Kingston teaches at Kahaluu Drop-in School in Kahaluu, Hawaii.
1969: Kingston teaches English as a second language at Honolulu Business College and language arts at Kailua High School in Kailua.
1970-1977: Kingston teaches language arts at the Mid-Pacific Institute in Honolulu. In 1976 her first book, The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts, is published by Knopf and wins the National Book Critics Circle Award for nonfiction. Kingston’s short story “Duck Boy” is published in the 12 June 1977 issue of The New York Times Magazine.
1977-1981: Kingston is a visiting professor of English at the University of Hawaii in Honolulu.
1980: Kingston’s China Men is published by Knopf and is named to the American Library Association Notable Books List. She is named a “Living Treasure of Hawaii” by a Honolulu Buddhist sect.
1981: China Men wins the National Book Award for nonfiction, is nominated for a National Book Critics Circle Award, and is a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in nonfiction. The Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley, begins to compile the Maxine Hong Kingston Papers as one of its special collections.
1982: Kingston tours Japan, Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Hong Kong on a trip sponsored by the United States International Communication Agency and the Adelaide Arts Festival in Australia.
1984: Kingston visits China for the first time with a group of six other writers—Alien Ginsberg, Gary Snyder, Francine du Plessix Gray, Leslie Marmon Silko, Toni Morrison, and Harrison Salisbury—on a tour sponsored by the University of California, Los Angeles, and the Chinese Writers Association. Kingston moves with her husband from Hawaii to Los Angeles; their son, Joseph, remains in Hawaii, where he has established himself as a musician.
1986: Kingston is named Thelma McAndless Distinguished Professor in the Humanities at Eastern Michigan University.
1987: Kingston’s Hawai’i One Summer, 1978 is published by Meadow Press in a limited edition of two hundred copies. Through the Black Curtain, comprising excerpts from The Woman Warrior, China Men, and the manuscript of her novel-in-progress, “Tripmaster Monkey,” is published by the Friends of the Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley. She moves with her husband to Oakland, California.
1989: Kingston’s first novel, Tripmaster Monkey: His Fake Book, is published by Knopf and wins the PEN/USA West Award for fiction. In November she spends a week at the University of California, Santa Cruz, as a University of California Regents Lecturer.
1990: Kingston is appointed a Chancellor’s Distinguished Professor in the English department at the University of California, Berkeley. The television program Maxine Hong Kingston: Talking Story is produced by Joan Saffa and Stephen Talbot for the Public Broadcasting System station KQED in San Francisco and CrossCurrent Media.
1991: Kingston gives the Martha Heasley Cox Lecture at San Jose State University. In October the Kingstons’ home is destroyed in an Oakland Hills fire, along with all of Kingston’s manuscripts, including a novel-in-progress, provisionally titled “The Book of Peace” or “The Fourth Book of Peace.” She begins work on another manuscript, to be called “The Fifth Book of Peace.”
1992: Kingston receives a fellowship from the Lila Wallace Reader’s Digest Fund and uses the prize money to begin writing workshops for veterans of the Vietnam War. She is inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
1993: On a leave of absence from teaching at the University of California, Berkeley, Kingston holds a series of workshops, “A Time to Be: Reflective Writing, Mindfulness, and the War: A Time for Veterans and their Families,” through the Community for Mindful Living in Berkeley.
1994: Kingston acts as guest conductor for a benefit concert with the Berkeley Symphony Orchestra. A dramatized version of The Woman Warrior is produced and performed by the Berkeley Repertory Theatre and, later in the year, by the Huntington Theatre Company at Boston University.
1995: Kingston participates in a conference, “Vietnam Legacies: Twenty Years Later,” at the University of California, Davis. The stage adaptation of The Woman Warrior is produced by the Center Theatre Group of Los Angeles.
1997: Kingston returns to teaching at the University of California, Berkeley, and participates in a conference, “Peacemaking: The Power of Nonviolence,” held in San Francisco in June. In September she is presented with a National Humanities Medal by President Bill Clinton.
1998: Kingston wins the John Dos Passos Prize for Literature for Tripmaster Monkey.
About Maxine Hong Kingston
Born: 27 October 1940 in Stockton, California
Married: Earll Kingston, 23 November 1962
Education: Edison High School, Stockton, and the University of California, Berkeley
Maxine Hong Kingston’s first two books, The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts (1976) and China Men (1980), are routinely referred to as works of autobiography. She would seem to have lent her authority to this view by the subtitle she gave to The Woman Warrior. But she describes her initial sense of all her work as that of a novelist, and she ascribes the decision to call her first two books nonfiction to her editors, who told her that reviewers are reluctant to review first novels, while readers feel they can identify with the people and narrative of an autobiography or memoir. Yet, all of Kingston’s work to date reveals a close affinity with the events and people of her own life. In The Woman Warrior she relates incidents from her childhood and early life; in China Men she writes about the immigrant history that produced her; and in her first...
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Kingston At Work
As a young girl Kingston developed the habit of writing down her thoughts and ideas. From these notes she developed her first two books, The Woman Warrior and China Men. Much of The Woman Warrior was written in Hawaii, though Kingston admits that she had been working on the book ever since she started writing as a child: “In a sense you could say that 1 was working on these books for 20 or 30 years, but in another sense I wrote them just a few years ago.”1 In contrast to the cramped conditions in which the young Kingston had to struggle to find the space to write, Hawaii offered an ideal working atmosphere. The tranquility of the islands allowed her the opportunity to think, and the Hawaiian landscapes heightened what she calls the sensory perceptions that are essential for her to write well. Kingston has said that while she does not write what she sees—these sensory perceptions are not used in such a simplistic way in her creative process—she does need the sense of being fully alive in order to realize her creativity.
This creative process is important because Kingston does not rely upon research to generate the materials for...
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- MODERN CHINESE HISTORY
- THE CHINESE IMMIGRANT EXPERIENCE
- KINGSTON’S TIME IN HISTORY
Kingston’s writing has been heavily influenced by her cultural, social, and political milieu. The historical experience of Chinese immigrants in America provided much of the material for her first two books, The Woman Warrior and China Men. Kingston’s work has also been shaped by her feminist awareness. When The Woman Warrior was published in 1976, the women’s liberation movement was forcing substantial changes in the position of women in America. These changes were largely legislative, based upon the principles of equal opportunity and affirmative action, but the raising of women’s consciousness and making women more aware of the nature of their oppression produced material changes in the daily lives of many American women. Kingston attended the University of California, Berkeley, from 1958 to 1962, returning to study for a teaching certificate from 1964 to 1965; during these years the campus was a hotbed of student unrest and political protest. The Civil Rights movement, which had emerged as a force in American politics in the 1950s, together...
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The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts. New York: Knopf, 1976.
Kingston’s first book catapulted her from almost complete obscurity to sudden fame as the best-known Asian American writer of the late twentieth century. The book was variously praised as a feminist master-piece and as a groundbreaking work of ethnic or multicultural literature. The narrative is divided into five interconnected stories: “No Name Woman,” “White Tigers,” “Shaman,” “At the Western Palace,” and “A Song for a Barbarian Reed Pipe.” Each focuses upon a feminine figure—a female alter ego for the narrator. The stories are linked together by the authorial voice of Kingston as she recalls events from her childhood and the stories her mother, Brave Orchid, used to tell her. The stories are also connected by the dominant presence of Brave Orchid, whose stories, leg-ends, and histories confront Kingston with an array of alternative female role models.
“No Name Woman” opens with Brave Orchid’s admonition to keep secret the story she is about to tell. The adolescent Kingston then learns about her father’s sister, the aunt she never knew she had because of the shameful circumstances of her death. Brave Orchid tells how her husband left her in China to work in America, the “Gold Mountain,” with his father, brothers, and the husband of his sister. Some years later, Brave Orchid discovered that her...
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Kingston On Kingston
- KINGSTON ON FEMINISM
- KINGSTON ON WAR AND PEACE
- KINGSTON ON HER PERSONAL PHILOSOPHY
- KINGSTON ON RACIAL STEREOTYPES
- KINGSTON ON GLOBALISM
- KINGSTON ON CHINESE AMERICANS
- KINGSTON ON THE CHINESE AMERICAN WRITER
- KINGSTON ON WRITING
- KINGSTON ON WRITING AND MEMORY
- KINGSTON ON READING
As a child Kingston found the essay form difficult to learn because she was more interested in imaginative creation than in logical argument. But the publication of her essay “Literature in a Scientific Age: Lorenz’ King Solomon’s Ring” in English Journal in 1973 helped to convince her that she could think and present her ideas rationally in the disciplined form of the academic essay. Since then Kingston has written many essays and contributed to academic publications, such as the Modem Language Association’s 1991 volume Approaches to Teaching Kingston’s The Woman Warrior.
I think to be...
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Kingston As Studied
When they were first published, both The Woman Warrior and China Men attracted a great deal of attention from critics who study autobiography. Kingston’s work has altered the nature of this genre, which had before been defined by classic works of American literature such as Benjamin Franklin’s autobiography, the first complete edition of which was published in 1868. Classic autobiography tells the life story of some notable individual, someone whose life has been particularly significant in political or historical terms. The story develops chrono-logically, from earliest memories and childhood experiences through the mature achievements, in some cases ending with an account of the circumstances that led the subject to write his or her life story. Kingston’s autobiographical work is obviously quite different from this classical model. Her subject does not possess obvious historical or political significance—she writes about her experiences as a young Chinese American girl attempting to reconcile the conflicting demands made upon her by her Chinese ancestry and everyday American life. To repre-sent the pressures of this cross-cultural life, Kingston blends stories with myths and legends, blurring the boundary between the imaginative and the real. The narrative does not follow a clear chronological progression from childhood through to maturity; rather, it jumps...
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- Why is Kingston’s use of traditional Chinese myth considered controversial by some Asian American critics?
- In what ways is Kingston’s autobiographical form innovative?
- What is meant by the term “double consciousness”? How can this term be applied to Kingston’s writing?
- Explore the parallels between the historical treatment of Chinese immigrants in America and Kingston’s representation of the immigrant experience.
- Analyze Kingston’s use of narrative voice. Why does she invariably use a feminine narrator?
- Kingston describes The Woman Warrior and China Men as originally comprising one single long book. Discuss the formal and thematic relations between the two narratives.
- Consider the treatment of mother-daughter relationships in the work of Kingston and Amy Tan.
- Kingston has remarked that, given the kind of upbringing she experienced, there was never any question but that she would be a feminist. Analyze the consequences for her writing of her feminist commitment.
- Using examples from The Woman Warrior and China Men, illustrate what is meant by the terms patriarchy and misogyny.
- The figure of the woman warrior seeks to forge a reconciliation of East and West; Kingston represents her achievement as having “conquered both North America and...
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- BASIC REFERENCE WORKS
- ASIAN AMERICAN LITERATURE
- CRITICAL STUDIES
- WEB SITES
- SPECIAL COLLECTION
Lim, Shirley Geok-lin, ed. Approaches to Teaching Kingston’s The Woman Warrior. New York: Modern Language Association, 1991. A collection of essays with a pedagogical bias; includes a personal statement by Kingston and useful discussions of her formal experimentation, her use of traditional Chinese sources, and ways of approaching the text in the classroom.
Simmons, Diane. Maxine Hong Kingston. New York: Twayne, 1999. A comprehensive account of Kingston’s work. Simmons includes an extensive biographical essay and a brief interview with the author as well as close textual analyses of The Woman Warrior, China Men, and Tripmaster Monkey.
Wong, Sau-ling Cynthia, ed. Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior A Casebook. New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. A useful collection representing the characteristic approaches to the text and the historical development of criticism of the book.
Brownmiller, Susan. “Susan Brownmiller Talks with Maxine Hong Kingston.” Mademoiselle (March 1977): 148-149, 210-211, 214-216.
Carabi, Angeles. “Interview with Maxine Hong Kingston.” Belles Lettres (Winter 1989): 10-11.
Moyers, Bill. A Conversation with Maxine Hong Kingston (videocassette). Alexandria, Va.: Public Broadcasting Service/Public Affairs Television, 1990.
Skenazy, Paul, and Tera Martin, eds. Conversations with Maxine Hong Kingston. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1998. Brings together sixteen interviews, with an introduction by the editors and a chronology of Kingston’s life and career.
Thompson, Phyllis Hoge, “This Is the Story I Heard: A Conversation with Maxine Hong Kingston and Earll Kingston.” Biography, 6 (Winter 1983): 1-12.
Chen, Victoria. “Chinese American Women, Language, and Moving Subjectivity.” Women and Language, 18 (Spring 1995): 3-7.
Hattori, Tomo. “China Man Autoeroticism and the Remains of Asian America.” Novel, 31 (Spring 1998): 215-236.
Hune, Shirley, Hyung Chan Kim, Stephen S. Fugita, and Amy Ling, eds. Asian Americans: Comparative and Global Perspectives. Pullman: Washington State University Press, 1991.
Kingston. “The Coming Book.” In The Writer on Her Work, edited by Janet Sternberg. New York: Norton, 1980.
Kingston. “Cultural Mis-readings by American Reviewers.” In Asian and Western Writers in Dialogue: New Cultural Identities, edited by Guy Amirthanayagam. London: Macmillan, 1982.
Kingston. “Finding a Voice.” In Language: Readings in Language and Culture, edited by Virginia P. Clark, Paul A. Eschholz, and Alfred F. Rosa, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.
Kingston. “How Are You? I Am Fine, Thank You. And You?” In The State of the Language, edited by Christopher Ricks and Leonard Michaels. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.
Kingston. “The Novel’s Next Step: From the Novel of the Americas to the Global Novel.” In The Novel in the Americas, edited by Raymond Leslie Williams. Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1992.
Kingston. “Postscript as Process.” In The Bedford Reader, edited by X. J. Kennedy and Dorothy M. Kennedy. New York: Bedford Books, 1985.
Kingston. “Precepts for the Twentieth Century.” In Thich Nhat-Hanh, For a Future to be Possible: Commentaries on the Five Wonderful Precepts. Berkeley: Parallax Press, 1993.
Kingston. “Reservations About China.” Ms. (October 1978): 67-79.
Kingston. “San Francisco’s Chinatown: A View from the Other Side of Arnold Genthe’s Camera.” American Heritage, 30 (December 1978): 36-47.
Kingston and Thich Nhat-Hanh. “Forward.” In Chan Khong Cao Ngoc Phuong, Learning True Love: How I Learned and Practiced Social Change in Vietnam. Berkeley: Parallax Press, 1993.
Lim, Shirley Geok-lin, and Amy Ling, eds. Reading the Literatures of Asian America. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992.
Ling. Between Worlds: Women Writers of Chinese Ancestry. New York & Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1990.
Ling. “Chinamerican Women Writers: Four Forerunners of Maxine Hong Kingston.” In Gender/Body/Knowledge: Feminist Reconstructions of Being and Knowing, edited by Alison Jaggar and Susan Bordo. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1989.
Ling. “Chinese American Women Writers: The Tradition behind Maxine Hong Kingston.” In Redefining American Literary History, edited by A. LaVonne Brown Ruoff and Jerry W. Ward. New York: Modern Language Association, 1990.
Ling, Jinqi. “Identity Crisis and Gender Politics: Reappropriating Asian American Masculinity.” In An Inter- ethnic Companion to Asian American Literature, edited by King-Kok Cheung. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Blinde, Patricia Lin. “The Icicle in the Desert: Perspective and Form in the Works of Two Chinese-American Women Writers.” MELUS, 6, no. 3 (1979): 51-71. Discusses the autobiographical work of Kingston and Jade Snow Wong.
Buss, Helen M. “Memoir with an Attitude: One Reader Reads The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood among Ghosts.” A-B: Auto-Biography Studies, 12 (Fall 1997): 203-224.
Castillo, Debra A. “The Daily Shape of Horses: Denise Chavez and Maxine Hong Kingston.” Dispositio, 16, no. 4 (1991): 29-43.
Chang, Hsiao-Hung. “Gender Crossing in Maxine Hong Kingston’s Tripmaster.” MELUS, 22 (Spring 1997): 15-34.
Cheung, Kai-Chong. “Maxine Hong Kingston’s Non-Chinese Man.” Tamkang Review, 23 (Fall 1992 - Summer 1993): 421-430.
Cheung, King-Kok. Articulate Silences: Hisaye Yamamoto, Maxine Hong Kingston, Joy Kogawa. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993. Places Kingston within the context of significant Asian American women writers.
Cheung. “Self-Fulfilling Visions in The Woman Warrior and Thousand Pieces of Gold.” Biography, 13 (Spring 1990): 143-153.
Cheung. “Talk Story: Counter-Memory in Maxine Hong Kingston’s China Men.” Tamkang Review, 24 (Fall 1993): 21-37.
Chu, Patricia P. “Tripmaster Monkey, Frank Chin, and the Chinese Heroic Tradition.” Arizona Quarterly, 53 (Autumn 1997): 117-139. A discussion of the controversy between Kingston and Frank Chin over how the canon of Chinese American literature should be characterized.
Chun, Gloria. “The High Note of the Barbarian Reed Pipe: Maxine Hong Kingston.” Journal of Ethnic Studies, 19 (Fall 1991): 85-94.
Cliff, Michele. “The Making of Americans: Maxine Hong Kingston’s Crossover Dreams.” Village Voice Literary Supplement, 74 (May 1989): 11-13.
Cook, Rufus. “Maintaining the Past: Cultural Continuity in Maxine Hong Kingston’s Work.” Tamkang Review, 25 (Fall 1994): 35-58.
Dasenbrock, Reed Way. “Intelligibility and Meaningfulness in Multicultural Literature in English.” PMLA, 102 (January 1987): 10-19. Discusses Kingston’s The Woman Warrior, along with R. K. Narayan’s The Painter of Signs (1976), Rudolfo Anaya’s Bless Me, Ultima (1972), and Witi Ihimaera’s Tangi (1973), as texts that demonstrate both “implicit” as well as “explicit” multicultural features.
Deeney, John J. “Of Monkeys and Butterflies: Transformation in M. H. Kingston’s Tripmaster Monkey and D. H. Hwang’s M. Butterfly,” MEWS, 18 (Winter 1993-1994): 21-39.
Donaldson, Mara E. “Woman as Hero in Margaret Atwood’s Surfacing and Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior.” In Heroines of Popular Culture, edited by Pat Browne. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1987.
Eakin, Paul John. Fictions in Autobiography: Studies in the Art of Self-Invention. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985. A relatively early discussion of Kingston’s innovative use of the autobiographical form within a generic context.
Fong, Bobby. “Maxine Hong Kingston’s Autobiographical Strategy in The Woman Warrior.” Biography, 12 (Spring 1989): 116-126.
Friedman, Susan Stanford. “Women’s Autobiographical Selves: Theory and Practice.” In The Private Self: Theory and Practice of Women’s Autobiographical Writings, edited by Shari Benstock. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.
Frye, Joanne S. “The Woman Warrior: Claiming Narrative Power, Recreating Female Selfhood.” In Faith of a (Woman) Writer, edited by Alice Kessler Harris and William McBrien. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1988.
Furth, Isabella. “Beee-e-een! Nation, Transformation, and the Hyphen of Ethnicity in Kingston’s Tripmaster Monkey.” Modem Fiction Studies, 40 (Spring 1994): 33-49.
Hayes, Daniel. “Autobiography’s Secret.” A-B: Auto-Biography Studies, 1.2 (Fall 1997): 243-260.
Henke, Suzette A. “Women’s Life-Writing and the Minority Voice: Maya Angelou, Maxine Hong Kingston, and Alice Walker.” In Traditions, Voices, and Dreams: The American Novel since the 1960s, edited by Melvin J. Friedman and Ben Siegel. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1995.
Hunt, Linda. “’I could not figure out what was my village’: Gender vs. Ethnicity in Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior.” MELUS, 12 (Fall 1985): 5-12. A discussion of the interplay between racial and gender issues.
Juhasz, Suzanne. “Maxine Hong Kingston: Narrative Technique and Female Identity.” In Contemporary American Women Writers: Narrative Strategies, edited by Catherine Rainwater and William J. Scheick. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1985. Analysis of Kingston’s narrative technique in The Woman Warrior and China Men.
Lappas, Catherine. “The Way I Heard It Was . . .’: Myth, Memory, and Autobiography in Storyteller and The Woman Warrior.” CEA Critic, 57 (Fall 1994): 57-67. A comparative discussion of Kingston and the Native American writer Leslie Marmon Silko.
Lee, Rachel. “Claiming Land, Claiming Voice, Claiming Canon: Institutionalized Challenges in Kingston’s China Men and The Woman Warrior.” In Reviewing Asian America: Locating Diversity, edited by Wendy L. Ng, Soo Young Chin, James S. Moy, and Gary Y. Okihiro. Pullman: Washington State University Press, 1995.
Lee, Robert A. “Ethnic Renaissance: Rudolfo Anaya, Louise Erdrich, and Maxine Hong Kingston.” In The New American Writing: Essays on American Literature Since 1970, edited by Graham Clarke. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1990.
Li, David Leiwei. “China Men: Maxine Hong Kingston and the American Canon.” American Literary History, 2 (Fall 1990): 482-502.
Li. “The Naming of a Chinese American ’I’: Cross-Cultural Sign/ifications in The Woman Warrior.” Criticism, 30 (Fall 1988): 497-515.
Lidoff, Joan. “Autobiography in a Different Voice: Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior.” A-B: Auto-Biography Studies, 3 (Fall 1987): 29-35.
Ling, Amy. “Maxine Hong Kingston and the Dialogic Dilemma of Asian American Writers.” Bucknell Review, 39 (1995): 151-166.
Ling. “Thematic Threads in Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior.” Tamkang Review, 14 (Autumn 1983 -Summer 1984): 155-164.
Linton, Patricia. “’What Stories the Wind Would Tell’: Representation and Appropriation in Maxine Hong Kingston’s China Men.” MELUS, 19 (Winter 1994): 37-48.
Lowe, John. “Monkey Kings and Mojo: Postmodern Ethnic Humor in Kingston, Reed, and Vizenor.” MELUS, 21 (Winter 1996): 103-126.
Madsen, Deborah L. “(Dis)Figuration: The Body as Icon in the Writings of Maxine Hong Kingston.” Yearbook of English Studies, 24 (1994): 237-250.
Martinez, Sharon Suzuki. “Trickster Strategies: Challenging American Identity, Community, and Art in Kingston’s Tripmaster Monkey.” In Reviewing Asian America.
Melchior, Bonnie. “A Marginal ’I’: The Autobiographical Self Deconstructed in Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior.” Biography, 17 (Summer 1994): 281-295.
Miller, Margaret. “Threads of Identity in Maxine Hong Kingston’s Woman Warrior” Biography, 6 (Winter 1983): 13-33.
Mitchell, Carol. “Talking Story’ in The Woman Warrior: An Analysis of the Use of Folklore.” Kentucky Folklore Record, 27 (January-June 1981): 5-12.
Morante, Linda. “From Silence to Song: The Triumph of Maxine Hong Kingston.” Frontiers, 9, no. 2 (1987): 78-82.
Neubauer, Carol E. “Developing Ties to the Past: Photography and Other Sources of Information in Maxine Hong Kingston’s China Men.” MELUS, 10 (Winter 1983): 17-36.
Nishime, LeiLana. “Engendering Genre: Gender and Nationalism in China Men and The Woman Warrior.” MELUS, 20 (Spring 1995): 67-82.
Ordonez, Elizabeth J. “Narrative Texts by Ethnic Women: Rereading the Past, Reshaping the Future.” MELUS, 9 (Winter 1982): 19-28.
Outka, Paul. “Publish or Perish: Food, Hunger, and Self-Construction in Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior.” Contemporary Literature, 38 (Fall 1997): 447-482.
Rabine, Leslie W. “No Lost Paradise: Social Gender and Symbolic Gender in the Writings of Maxine Hong Kingston.” Signs, 12 (Spring 1987): 471-492. Uses French feminist theory to distinguish between gender as a system of social relations and gender as an effect of discourse and applies these ideas to Kingston’s representation of gender.
Rolf, Robert. “On Maxine Hong Kingston and The Woman Warrior.” Kyushu American Literature, 23 (May 1982): 1-10.
Rose, Shirley K. “Metaphors and Myths of Cross-Cultural Literacy: Autobiographical Narratives by Maxine Hong Kingston, Richard Rodriguez, and Malcolm X.” MELUS, 14 (Spring 1987): 3-15.
Sato, Gayle K. Fujita. “Ghosts as Chinese-American Constructs in Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior.” In Haunting the House of Fiction: Feminist Perspectives on Ghost Stories by American Women, edited by Lynette Carpenter and Wendy K. Kolmar. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1991.
Schueller, Malini. “Questioning Race and Gender Definitions: Dialogic Subversions in The Woman Warrior.” Criticism, 31 (Fall 1989): 421-437.
Schueller. “Theorizing Ethnicity and Subjectivity: Maxine Hong Kingston’s Tripmaster Monkey and Amy Tan’s The Joy Luck Club.” Genders, 15 (Winter 1992): 72-85.
Shan, Te Hsing. “Law as Literature, Literature as Law: Articulating ‘The Laws’ in Maxine Hong Kinston’s China Men.” Tamkang Review, 26 (Autumn-Winter 1995): 235-264.
Shih, Shu Mei. “Exile and Intertextuality in Maxine Hong Kingston’s China Men.” In The Literature of Emigration and Exile, edited by James Whitlark and Wendell Aycock. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 1992.
Shostak, Debra. “Maxine Hong Kingston’s Fake Books.” In Memory, Narrative, and Identity: New Essays in Ethnic American Literatures, edited by Amritjit Singh, Joseph T. Skerrett Jr., and Robert E. Hogan. Boston: North-eastern University Press, 1994.
Skenazy Paul. “Replaying Time.” Enclitic, 11, no. 3 (1989): 36-42. A discussion of Tripmaster Monkey in which Skenazy points out that Kingston’s skill as a writer is sometimes obscured by the attention paid to her racial and gender themes.
Sledge, Linda Ching. “Oral Tradition in Kingston’s China Men.” In Redefining American Literary History, edited by A. LaVonne Brown Ruoff and Jerry W. Ward. New York: Modern Language Association, 1990.
Smith, Jeanne R. “Rethinking American Culture: Maxine Hong Kingston’s Cross-Cultural Tripmaster Monkey.” Modern Language Studies, 26 (Fall 1996): 71-81.
Tanner, James T. F. “Walt Whitman’s Presence in Maxine Hong Kingston’s Tripmaster Monkey: His Fake Book,” MELUS, 20 (Winter 1995): 61-74.
Wang, Alfred S. “Maxine Hong Kingston’s Reclaiming of America: The Birthright of the Chinese American Male.” South Dakota Review, 26 (Spring 1988): 18-29.
Wang, Jennie. “Tripmaster Monkey: King-ston’s Postmodern Representation of a New ’China Man.’” MELUS, 20 (Spring 1995): 101-114.
Wang, Veronica. “Reality and Fantasy: The Chinese-American Woman’s Quest for Identity.” MELUS, 12 (Fall 1985): 23-31.
Williams, A. Noelle. “Parody and Pacifist Transformations in Maxine Hong Kingston’s Tripmaster Monkey: His Fake Book.” MELUS, 20 (Spring 1995): 83-100.
Wong, Sau-ling Cynthia. “Necessity and Extravagance in Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior: Art and the Ethnic Experience.” MELUS, 15 (Spring 1988): 4-26.
Woo, Deborah. “Maxine Hong Kingston: The Ethnic Writer and the Burden of Dual Authenticity.” Amerasia Journal, 16, no. 1 (1990): 173-200.
Wu, Qing Yun. “A Chinese Reader’s Response to Maxine Hong Kingston’s China Men.” MELUS, 17 (Fall 1991): 85-94.
Yu, Ning. “A Strategy against Marginalization: The ’High’ and ’Low’ Cultures in Kingston’s China Men.” College Literature, 23 (October 1996): 73-87.
“Maxine Hong Kingston.” http://www.hmco.com/college/english/heath/syllabuild/iguide... . This page, with text by Amy Ling, is found on the website of the publishing firm Houghton Mifflin. The page includes brief but useful entries on such topics as teaching strategies, themes in Kingston’s work, and questions for reading and discussion.
“Maxine Hong Kingston Teacher Resource Guide.” http://falcon.jmu.edu/schoollibrary/ kingston.htm. A teacher resource guide from James Madison University; includes a Kingston biography and a series of lesson plans.
“Maxine Hong Kingston: Warrior Woman.” http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/~natasha/usauto_html/kingston/. An organization called the Kingston Group has created this site, which explores gender and feminism issues, autobiography, and the interpretation and critical reception of the work of ethnic authors, especially Kingston.
“Voices from the Gaps.” This site is a useful resource for information about a large range of ethnic writers. The Kingston page includes a biography, a list of her publications, a selection of critical works, and links to other sites of relevance.
The Maxine Hong Kingston Papers, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.